CWE

Common Weakness Enumeration

A Community-Developed List of Software Weakness Types

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ID

CWE-256: Plaintext Storage of a Password

Weakness ID: 256
Abstraction: Variant
Status: Incomplete
Presentation Filter:
+ Description

Description Summary

Storing a password in plaintext may result in a system compromise.

Extended Description

Password management issues occur when a password is stored in plaintext in an application's properties or configuration file. Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource.

+ Time of Introduction
  • Architecture and Design
+ Applicable Platforms

Languages

All

+ Modes of Introduction

Developers sometimes believe that they cannot defend the application from someone who has access to the configuration, but this attitude makes an attacker's job easier.

+ Common Consequences
ScopeEffect
Access Control

Technical Impact: Gain privileges / assume identity

+ Likelihood of Exploit

Very High

+ Demonstrative Examples

Example 1

The following code reads a password from a properties file and uses the password to connect to a database.

(Bad Code)
Example Language: Java 
...
Properties prop = new Properties();
prop.load(new FileInputStream("config.properties"));
String password = prop.getProperty("password");
DriverManager.getConnection(url, usr, password);
...

This code will run successfully, but anyone who has access to config.properties can read the value of password. If a devious employee has access to this information, they can use it to break into the system.

Example 2

The following code reads a password from the registry and uses the password to create a new network credential.

(Bad Code)
Example Language: Java 
...
String password = regKey.GetValue(passKey).toString();
NetworkCredential netCred = new NetworkCredential(username,password,domain);
...

This code will run successfully, but anyone who has access to the registry key used to store the password can read the value of password. If a devious employee has access to this information, they can use it to break into the system

Example 3

The following examples show a portion of properties and configuration files for Java and ASP.NET applications. The files include username and password information but they are stored in plaintext.

This Java example shows a properties file with a plaintext username / password pair.

(Bad Code)
Example Language: Java 
# Java Web App ResourceBundle properties file
...
webapp.ldap.username=secretUsername
webapp.ldap.password=secretPassword
...

The following example shows a portion of a configuration file for an ASP.Net application. This configuration file includes username and password information for a connection to a database but the pair is stored in plaintext.

(Bad Code)
Example Language: ASP.NET 
...
<connectionStrings>
<add name="ud_DEV" connectionString="connectDB=uDB; uid=db2admin; pwd=password; dbalias=uDB;" providerName="System.Data.Odbc" />
</connectionStrings>
...

Username and password information should not be included in a configuration file or a properties file in plaintext as this will allow anyone who can read the file access to the resource. If possible, encrypt this information and avoid CWE-260 and CWE-13.

+ Potential Mitigations

Phase: Architecture and Design

Avoid storing passwords in easily accessible locations.

Phase: Architecture and Design

Consider storing cryptographic hashes of passwords as an alternative to storing in plaintext.

A programmer might attempt to remedy the password management problem by obscuring the password with an encoding function, such as base 64 encoding, but this effort does not adequately protect the password because the encoding can be detected and decoded easily.

Effectiveness: None

+ Weakness Ordinalities
OrdinalityDescription
Primary
(where the weakness exists independent of other weaknesses)
+ Relationships
NatureTypeIDNameView(s) this relationship pertains toView(s)
ChildOfCategoryCategory254Security Features
Seven Pernicious Kingdoms (primary)700
ChildOfWeakness BaseWeakness Base522Insufficiently Protected Credentials
Development Concepts (primary)699
Research Concepts (primary)1000
ChildOfCategoryCategory930OWASP Top Ten 2013 Category A2 - Broken Authentication and Session Management
Weaknesses in OWASP Top Ten (2013) (primary)928
ChildOfCategoryCategory963SFP Secondary Cluster: Exposed Data
Software Fault Pattern (SFP) Clusters (primary)888
+ Causal Nature

Explicit

+ Taxonomy Mappings
Mapped Taxonomy NameNode IDFitMapped Node Name
7 Pernicious KingdomsPassword Management
Software Fault PatternsSFP23Exposed Data
+ References
[REF-9] John Viega and Gary McGraw. "Building Secure Software: How to Avoid Security Problems the Right Way". 1st Edition. Addison-Wesley. 2002.
+ Content History
Submissions
Submission DateSubmitterOrganizationSource
7 Pernicious KingdomsExternally Mined
Modifications
Modification DateModifierOrganizationSource
2008-09-08CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Relationships, Other_Notes, Taxonomy_Mappings, Weakness_Ordinalities
2009-07-27CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Demonstrative_Examples
2011-06-01CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Common_Consequences, Relationships, Taxonomy_Mappings
2012-05-11CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Demonstrative_Examples, References, Relationships, Taxonomy_Mappings
2012-10-30CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Demonstrative_Examples, Potential_Mitigations
2014-06-23CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Description, Modes_of_Introduction, Other_Notes, Potential_Mitigations, Relationships
2014-07-30CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Relationships, Taxonomy_Mappings
Previous Entry Names
Change DatePrevious Entry Name
2008-01-30Plaintext Storage

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Page Last Updated: January 18, 2017