CWE

Common Weakness Enumeration

A Community-Developed List of Software Weakness Types

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ID

CWE-323: Reusing a Nonce, Key Pair in Encryption

Weakness ID: 323
Abstraction: Base
Structure: Simple
Status: Incomplete
Presentation Filter:
+ Description
Nonces should be used for the present occasion and only once.
+ Relationships

The table(s) below shows the weaknesses and high level categories that are related to this weakness. These relationships are defined as ChildOf, ParentOf, MemberOf and give insight to similar items that may exist at higher and lower levels of abstraction. In addition, relationships such as PeerOf and CanAlsoBe are defined to show similar weaknesses that the user may want to explore.

+ Relevant to the view "Research Concepts" (CWE-1000)
+ Relevant to the view "Architectural Concepts" (CWE-1008)
NatureTypeIDName
MemberOfCategoryCategory1013Encrypt Data
+ Relevant to the view "Development Concepts" (CWE-699)
NatureTypeIDName
MemberOfCategoryCategory320Key Management Errors
+ Background Details
Nonces are often bundled with a key in a communication exchange to produce a new session key for each exchange.
+ Modes Of Introduction

The different Modes of Introduction provide information about how and when this weakness may be introduced. The Phase identifies a point in the software life cycle at which introduction may occur, while the Note provides a typical scenario related to introduction during the given phase.

PhaseNote
Architecture and DesignREALIZATION: This weakness is caused during implementation of an architectural security tactic.
+ Applicable Platforms
The listings below show possible areas for which the given weakness could appear. These may be for specific named Languages, Operating Systems, Architectures, Paradigms, Technologies, or a class of such platforms. The platform is listed along with how frequently the given weakness appears for that instance.

Languages

Class: Language-Independent (Undetermined Prevalence)

+ Common Consequences

The table below specifies different individual consequences associated with the weakness. The Scope identifies the application security area that is violated, while the Impact describes the negative technical impact that arises if an adversary succeeds in exploiting this weakness. The Likelihood provides information about how likely the specific consequence is expected to be seen relative to the other consequences in the list. For example, there may be high likelihood that a weakness will be exploited to achieve a certain impact, but a low likelihood that it will be exploited to achieve a different impact.

ScopeImpactLikelihood
Access Control

Technical Impact: Bypass Protection Mechanism; Gain Privileges or Assume Identity

Potentially a replay attack, in which an attacker could send the same data twice, could be crafted if nonces are allowed to be reused. This could allow a user to send a message which masquerades as a valid message from a valid user.
+ Likelihood Of Exploit
High
+ Demonstrative Examples

Example 1

This code takes a password, concatenates it with a nonce, then encrypts it before sending over a network:

(bad code)
Example Language:
void encryptAndSendPassword(char *password){
char *nonce = "bad";
...
char *data = (unsigned char*)malloc(20);
int para_size = strlen(nonce) + strlen(password);
char *paragraph = (char*)malloc(para_size);
SHA1((const unsigned char*)paragraph,parsize,(unsigned char*)data);
sendEncryptedData(data)

}

Because the nonce used is always the same, an attacker can impersonate a trusted party by intercepting and resending the encrypted password. This attack avoids the need to learn the unencrypted password.

Example 2

This code sends a command to a remote server, using an encrypted password and nonce to prove the command is from a trusted party:

(bad code)
Example Language: C++ 
String command = new String("some command to execute");
MessageDigest nonce = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA");
nonce.update(String.valueOf("bad nonce"));
byte[] nonce = nonce.digest();
MessageDigest password = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA");
password.update(nonce + "secretPassword");
byte[] digest = password.digest();
sendCommand(digest, command)

Once again the nonce used is always the same. An attacker may be able to replay previous legitimate commands or execute new arbitrary commands.

+ Potential Mitigations

Phase: Implementation

Refuse to reuse nonce values.

Phase: Implementation

Use techniques such as requiring incrementing, time based and/or challenge response to assure uniqueness of nonces.
+ Memberships
This MemberOf Relationships table shows additional CWE Categories and Views that reference this weakness as a member. This information is often useful in understanding where a weakness fits within the context of external information sources.
NatureTypeIDName
MemberOfViewView884CWE Cross-section
MemberOfCategoryCategory959SFP Secondary Cluster: Weak Cryptography
+ Taxonomy Mappings
Mapped Taxonomy NameNode IDFitMapped Node Name
CLASPReusing a nonce, key pair in encryption
+ Content History
Submissions
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
CLASP
Modifications
Modification DateModifierOrganization
2008-07-01Eric DalciCigital
updated Time_of_Introduction
2008-09-08CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Background_Details, Common_Consequences, Relationships, Taxonomy_Mappings
2011-06-01CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Common_Consequences
2012-05-11CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships
2012-10-30CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Demonstrative_Examples, Potential_Mitigations
2014-07-30CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships
2017-11-08CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Applicable_Platforms, Modes_of_Introduction, Relationships

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Page Last Updated: January 18, 2018