CWE

Common Weakness Enumeration

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ID

CWE-1393: Use of Default Password

Weakness ID: 1393
Abstraction: Base
Structure: Simple
View customized information:
+ Description
The product uses default passwords for potentially critical functionality.
+ Extended Description
It is common practice for products to be designed to use default passwords for authentication. The rationale is to simplify the manufacturing process or the system administrator's task of installation and deployment into an enterprise. However, if admins do not change the defaults, then it makes it easier for attackers to quickly bypass authentication across multiple organizations. There are many lists of default passwords and default-password scanning tools that are easily available from the World Wide Web.
+ Relationships
Section HelpThis table shows the weaknesses and high level categories that are related to this weakness. These relationships are defined as ChildOf, ParentOf, MemberOf and give insight to similar items that may exist at higher and lower levels of abstraction. In addition, relationships such as PeerOf and CanAlsoBe are defined to show similar weaknesses that the user may want to explore.
+ Relevant to the view "Research Concepts" (CWE-1000)
NatureTypeIDName
ChildOfBaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.1392Use of Default Credentials
+ Modes Of Introduction
Section HelpThe different Modes of Introduction provide information about how and when this weakness may be introduced. The Phase identifies a point in the life cycle at which introduction may occur, while the Note provides a typical scenario related to introduction during the given phase.
PhaseNote
Architecture and Design
+ Applicable Platforms
Section HelpThis listing shows possible areas for which the given weakness could appear. These may be for specific named Languages, Operating Systems, Architectures, Paradigms, Technologies, or a class of such platforms. The platform is listed along with how frequently the given weakness appears for that instance.

Languages

Class: Not Language-Specific (Undetermined Prevalence)

Operating Systems

Class: Not OS-Specific (Undetermined Prevalence)

Architectures

Class: Not Architecture-Specific (Undetermined Prevalence)

Technologies

Class: ICS/OT (Undetermined Prevalence)

Class: Not Technology-Specific (Undetermined Prevalence)

+ Common Consequences
Section HelpThis table specifies different individual consequences associated with the weakness. The Scope identifies the application security area that is violated, while the Impact describes the negative technical impact that arises if an adversary succeeds in exploiting this weakness. The Likelihood provides information about how likely the specific consequence is expected to be seen relative to the other consequences in the list. For example, there may be high likelihood that a weakness will be exploited to achieve a certain impact, but a low likelihood that it will be exploited to achieve a different impact.
ScopeImpactLikelihood
Authentication

Technical Impact: Gain Privileges or Assume Identity

+ Observed Examples
ReferenceDescription
OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) industrial automation product has a default password
microcontroller board has default password
children's smart watch has default passwords allowing attackers to send SMS commands and listen to the device's surroundings
surveillance camera has default password for the admin account
medical dental records product installs a MySQL database with a blank default password
healthcare system for archiving patient images has default passwords for key management and storage databases
database product installs admin account with default null password, allowing privileges, as exploited by various worms
+ Potential Mitigations

Phase: Requirements

Prohibit use of default, hard-coded, or other values that do not vary for each installation of the product - especially for separate organizations.

Effectiveness: High

Phase: Documentation

Ensure that product documentation clearly emphasizes the presence of default passwords and provides steps for the administrator to change them.

Effectiveness: Limited

Phase: Architecture and Design

Force the administrator to change the credential upon installation.

Effectiveness: High

Phases: Installation; Operation

The product administrator could change the defaults upon installation or during operation.

Effectiveness: Moderate

+ References
[REF-1303] Kelly Jackson Higgins. "Researchers Out Default Passwords Packaged With ICS/SCADA Wares". 2022-10-11. 2016-01-04. <https://www.darkreading.com/endpoint/researchers-out-default-passwords-packaged-with-ics-scada-wares>.
+ Content History
+ Submissions
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
2022-10-07CWE Content TeamMITRE
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Page Last Updated: October 13, 2022