Common Weakness Enumeration

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CWE-1293: Missing Source Correlation of Multiple Independent Data

Weakness ID: 1293
Abstraction: Base
Structure: Simple
Status: Draft
Presentation Filter:
+ Description
The software relies on one source of data, preventing the ability to detect if an adversary has compromised a data source.
+ Extended Description

Software has to implicitly trust the integrity of an information source. When information is implicitly signed, one can ensure that the data was not tampered in transit. This does not ensure that the information source was not compromised when responding to a request. By requesting information from multiple sources, one can check if all of the data is the same. If they are not, the system should report the information sources that respond with a different or minority value as potentially compromised. If there are not enough answers to provide a majority or plurality of responses, the system should report all of the sources as potentially compromised. As the seriousness of the impact of incorrect integrity increases, so should the number of independent information sources that would need to be queried.

+ Relationships

The table(s) below shows the weaknesses and high level categories that are related to this weakness. These relationships are defined as ChildOf, ParentOf, MemberOf and give insight to similar items that may exist at higher and lower levels of abstraction. In addition, relationships such as PeerOf and CanAlsoBe are defined to show similar weaknesses that the user may want to explore.

+ Relevant to the view "Research Concepts" (CWE-1000)
ChildOfClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.345Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity
PeerOfBaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.654Reliance on a Single Factor in a Security Decision
+ Modes Of Introduction

The different Modes of Introduction provide information about how and when this weakness may be introduced. The Phase identifies a point in the life cycle at which introduction may occur, while the Note provides a typical scenario related to introduction during the given phase.

Architecture and DesignThis flaw could be introduced during the design of the application or misconfiguration at run time by only specifying a single point of validation.
ImplementationSuch issues could be introduced during hardware implementation, then identified later during Testing or System Configuration phases.
OperationThis weakness could be introduced by intentionally failing all but one of the devices used to retrieve the data or by failing the devices that validate the data.
+ Applicable Platforms
The listings below show possible areas for which the given weakness could appear. These may be for specific named Languages, Operating Systems, Architectures, Paradigms, Technologies, or a class of such platforms. The platform is listed along with how frequently the given weakness appears for that instance.


Class: Language-Independent (Undetermined Prevalence)

Operating Systems

Class: OS-Independent (Undetermined Prevalence)


Class: Architecture-Independent (Undetermined Prevalence)


Class: Technology-Independent (Undetermined Prevalence)

+ Common Consequences

The table below specifies different individual consequences associated with the weakness. The Scope identifies the application security area that is violated, while the Impact describes the negative technical impact that arises if an adversary succeeds in exploiting this weakness. The Likelihood provides information about how likely the specific consequence is expected to be seen relative to the other consequences in the list. For example, there may be high likelihood that a weakness will be exploited to achieve a certain impact, but a low likelihood that it will be exploited to achieve a different impact.


Technical Impact: Read Application Data; Modify Application Data; Gain Privileges or Assume Identity

An attacker that may be able to execute a single Person-in-the-Middle attack can subvert a check of an external oracle (e.g. the ACME protocol check for a file on a website), and thus inject an arbitrary reply to the single perspective request to the external oracle.
+ Potential Mitigations

Phase: Requirements

Design system to use a Practical Byzantine fault method, to request information from multiple sources to verify the data and report on potentially compromised information sources.

Phase: Implementation

Failure to use a Practical Byzantine fault method when requesting data. Lack of place to report potentially compromised information sources. Relying on non-independent information sources for integrity checking. Failure to report information sources that respond in the minority to incident response procedures.
+ References
[REF-1125] moparisthebest. "Validation Vulnerabilities". 2015-06-05. <>.
[REF-1126] Josh Aas, Daniel McCarney and Roland Shoemaker. "Multi-Perspective Validation Improves Domain Validation Security". 2020-02-19. <>.
[REF-1127] Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov. "Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and Proactive Recovery". 2002-11-04. <>.
+ Content History
+ Submissions
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
2020-04-03Kurt SeifriedCloud Security Alliance
+ Modifications
Modification DateModifierOrganization
2020-12-10CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Description, Relationships
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Page Last Updated: December 10, 2020