CWE

Common Weakness Enumeration

A Community-Developed List of Software Weakness Types

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ID

CWE-294: Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay

Weakness ID: 294
Abstraction: Base
Status: Incomplete
Presentation Filter:
+ Description

Description Summary

A capture-replay flaw exists when the design of the software makes it possible for a malicious user to sniff network traffic and bypass authentication by replaying it to the server in question to the same effect as the original message (or with minor changes).

Extended Description

Capture-replay attacks are common and can be difficult to defeat without cryptography. They are a subset of network injection attacks that rely on observing previously-sent valid commands, then changing them slightly if necessary and resending the same commands to the server.

+ Time of Introduction
  • Architecture and Design
+ Applicable Platforms

Languages

All

+ Common Consequences
ScopeEffect
Access Control

Technical Impact: Gain privileges / assume identity

Messages sent with a capture-relay attack allow access to resources which are not otherwise accessible without proper authentication.

+ Likelihood of Exploit

High

+ Observed Examples
ReferenceDescription
product authentication succeeds if user-provided MD5 hash matches the hash in its database; this can be subjected to replay attacks.
Chain: cleartext transmission of the MD5 hash of password (CWE-319) enables attacks against a server that is susceptible to replay (CWE-294).
+ Potential Mitigations

Phase: Architecture and Design

Utilize some sequence or time stamping functionality along with a checksum which takes this into account in order to ensure that messages can be parsed only once.

Phase: Architecture and Design

Since any attacker who can listen to traffic can see sequence numbers, it is necessary to sign messages with some kind of cryptography to ensure that sequence numbers are not simply doctored along with content.

+ Relationships
NatureTypeIDNameView(s) this relationship pertains toView(s)
ChildOfWeakness ClassWeakness Class592Authentication Bypass Issues
Development Concepts (primary)699
Research Concepts (primary)1000
ChildOfCategoryCategory956SFP Secondary Cluster: Channel Attack
Software Fault Pattern (SFP) Clusters (primary)888
MemberOfViewView884CWE Cross-section
CWE Cross-section (primary)884
+ Taxonomy Mappings
Mapped Taxonomy NameNode IDFitMapped Node Name
PLOVERAuthentication bypass by replay
CLASPCapture-replay
+ Content History
Submissions
Submission DateSubmitterOrganizationSource
PLOVERExternally Mined
Modifications
Modification DateModifierOrganizationSource
2008-09-08CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Common_Consequences, Relationships, Other_Notes, Taxonomy_Mappings
2009-05-27CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Related_Attack_Patterns
2009-07-27CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Description, Other_Notes, Potential_Mitigations
2009-10-29CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Observed_Examples
2011-06-01CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Common_Consequences, Demonstrative_Examples
2012-05-11CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Observed_Examples, Relationships
2014-07-30CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Relationships

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Page Last Updated: January 18, 2017