CWE

Common Weakness Enumeration

A Community-Developed List of Software Weakness Types

CWE/SANS Top 25 Most Dangerous Software Errors
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ID

CWE-667: Improper Locking

Weakness ID: 667
Abstraction: Base
Structure: Simple
Status: Draft
Presentation Filter:
+ Description
The software does not properly acquire a lock on a resource, or it does not properly release a lock on a resource, leading to unexpected resource state changes and behaviors.
+ Relationships

The table(s) below shows the weaknesses and high level categories that are related to this weakness. These relationships are defined as ChildOf, ParentOf, MemberOf and give insight to similar items that may exist at higher and lower levels of abstraction. In addition, relationships such as PeerOf and CanAlsoBe are defined to show similar weaknesses that the user may want to explore.

+ Relevant to the view "Research Concepts" (CWE-1000)
NatureTypeIDName
ChildOfBaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.662Improper Synchronization
ParentOfBaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.412Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock
ParentOfBaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.413Improper Resource Locking
ParentOfBaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.414Missing Lock Check
ParentOfBaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.609Double-Checked Locking
ParentOfVariantVariant - a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness.764Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource
ParentOfVariantVariant - a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness.765Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource
ParentOfBaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.832Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked
ParentOfBaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.833Deadlock
+ Relevant to the view "Development Concepts" (CWE-699)
NatureTypeIDName
ChildOfBaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.662Improper Synchronization
ParentOfVariantVariant - a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness.764Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource
ParentOfVariantVariant - a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness.765Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource
ParentOfBaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.832Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked
ParentOfBaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.833Deadlock
+ Modes Of Introduction

The different Modes of Introduction provide information about how and when this weakness may be introduced. The Phase identifies a point in the software life cycle at which introduction may occur, while the Note provides a typical scenario related to introduction during the given phase.

PhaseNote
Architecture and Design
Implementation
+ Common Consequences

The table below specifies different individual consequences associated with the weakness. The Scope identifies the application security area that is violated, while the Impact describes the negative technical impact that arises if an adversary succeeds in exploiting this weakness. The Likelihood provides information about how likely the specific consequence is expected to be seen relative to the other consequences in the list. For example, there may be high likelihood that a weakness will be exploited to achieve a certain impact, but a low likelihood that it will be exploited to achieve a different impact.

ScopeImpactLikelihood
Availability

Technical Impact: DoS: Resource Consumption (CPU)

Inconsistent locking discipline can lead to deadlock.
+ Demonstrative Examples

Example 1

In the following Java snippet, methods are defined to get and set a long field in an instance of a class that is shared across multiple threads. Because operations on double and long are nonatomic in Java, concurrent access may cause unexpected behavior. Thus, all operations on long and double fields should be synchronized.

(bad code)
Example Language: Java 
private long someLongValue;
public long getLongValue() {
return someLongValue;
}

public void setLongValue(long l) {
someLongValue = l;
}

Example 2

This code tries to obtain a lock for a file, then writes to it.

(bad code)
Example Language: PHP 
function writeToLog($message){
$logfile = fopen("logFile.log", "a");
//attempt to get logfile lock
if (flock($logfile, LOCK_EX)) {
fwrite($logfile,$message);
// unlock logfile
flock($logfile, LOCK_UN);
}
else {
print "Could not obtain lock on logFile.log, message not recorded\n";
}
}
fclose($logFile);

PHP by default will wait indefinitely until a file lock is released. If an attacker is able to obtain the file lock, this code will pause execution, possibly leading to denial of service for other users. Note that in this case, if an attacker can perform an flock() on the file, they may already have privileges to destroy the log file. However, this still impacts the execution of other programs that depend on flock().

Example 3

The following function attempts to acquire a lock in order to perform operations on a shared resource.

(bad code)
Example Language:
void f(pthread_mutex_t *mutex) {
pthread_mutex_lock(mutex);

/* access shared resource */


pthread_mutex_unlock(mutex);
}

However, the code does not check the value returned by pthread_mutex_lock() for errors. If pthread_mutex_lock() cannot acquire the mutex for any reason the function may introduce a race condition into the program and result in undefined behavior.

In order to avoid data races correctly written programs must check the result of thread synchronization functions and appropriately handle all errors, either by attempting to recover from them or reporting it to higher levels.

(good code)
 
int f(pthread_mutex_t *mutex) {
int result;

result = pthread_mutex_lock(mutex);
if (0 != result)
return result;


/* access shared resource */


return pthread_mutex_unlock(mutex);
}

Example 4

It may seem that the following bit of code achieves thread safety while avoiding unnecessary synchronization...

(bad code)
Example Language: Java 
if (helper == null) {
synchronized (this) {
if (helper == null) {
helper = new Helper();
}
}
}
return helper;

The programmer wants to guarantee that only one Helper() object is ever allocated, but does not want to pay the cost of synchronization every time this code is called.

Suppose that helper is not initialized. Then, thread A sees that helper==null and enters the synchronized block and begins to execute:

(bad code)
 
helper = new Helper();

If a second thread, thread B, takes over in the middle of this call and helper has not finished running the constructor, then thread B may make calls on helper while its fields hold incorrect values.

+ Observed Examples
ReferenceDescription
Attacker provides invalid address to a memory-reading function, causing a mutex to be unlocked twice
function in OS kernel unlocks a mutex that was not previously locked, causing a panic or overwrite of arbitrary memory.
Chain: OS kernel does not properly handle a failure of a function call (CWE-755), leading to an unlock of a resource that was not locked (CWE-832), with resultant crash.
OS kernel performs an unlock in some incorrect circumstances, leading to panic.
OS deadlock
OS deadlock involving 3 separate functions
deadlock in library
deadlock triggered by packets that force collisions in a routing table
read/write deadlock between web server and script
web server deadlock involving multiple listening connections
multiple simultaneous calls to the same function trigger deadlock.
chain: other weakness leads to NULL pointer dereference (CWE-476) or deadlock (CWE-833).
deadlock when an operation is performed on a resource while it is being removed.
Deadlock in device driver triggered by using file handle of a related device.
Deadlock when large number of small messages cannot be processed quickly enough.
OS kernel has deadlock triggered by a signal during a core dump.
Race condition leads to deadlock.
Chain: array index error (CWE-129) leads to deadlock (CWE-833)
Program can not execute when attacker obtains a mutex.
Program can not execute when attacker obtains a lock on a critical output file.
Program can not execute when attacker obtains a lock on a critical output file.
Critical file can be opened with exclusive read access by user, preventing application of security policy. Possibly related to improper permissions, large-window race condition.
Chain: predictable file names used for locking, allowing attacker to create the lock beforehand. Resultant from permissions and randomness.
Chain: Lock files with predictable names. Resultant from randomness.
Product does not check if it can write to a log file, allowing attackers to avoid logging by accessing the file using an exclusive lock. Overlaps unchecked error condition. This is not quite CWE-412, but close.
+ Potential Mitigations

Phase: Implementation

Strategy: Libraries or Frameworks

Use industry standard APIs to implement locking mechanism.
+ Memberships
This MemberOf Relationships table shows additional CWE Categories and Views that reference this weakness as a member. This information is often useful in understanding where a weakness fits within the context of external information sources.
NatureTypeIDName
MemberOfCategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.748CERT C Secure Coding (2008 Version) Section 50 - POSIX (POS)
MemberOfCategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.852CERT Java Secure Coding Section 07 - Visibility and Atomicity (VNA)
MemberOfCategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.853CERT Java Secure Coding Section 08 - Locking (LCK)
MemberOfViewView - a subset of CWE entries that provides a way of examining CWE content. The two main view structures are Slices (flat lists) and Graphs (containing relationships between entries).884CWE Cross-section
MemberOfCategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.986SFP Secondary Cluster: Missing Lock
+ Taxonomy Mappings
Mapped Taxonomy NameNode IDFitMapped Node Name
CERT C Secure CodingCON31-CCWE More AbstractDo not destroy a mutex while it is locked
CERT C Secure CodingPOS48-CCWE More AbstractDo not unlock or destroy another POSIX thread's mutex
CERT Java Secure CodingVNA00-JEnsure visibility when accessing shared primitive variables
CERT Java Secure CodingVNA02-JEnsure that compound operations on shared variables are atomic
CERT Java Secure CodingVNA05-JEnsure atomicity when reading and writing 64-bit values
CERT Java Secure CodingLCK06-JDo not use an instance lock to protect shared static data
Software Fault PatternsSFP19Missing Lock
+ Content History
Modifications
Modification DateModifierOrganization
2008-07-01Sean EidemillerCigital
added/updated demonstrative examples
2008-07-01Eric DalciCigital
updated Potential_Mitigations, Time_of_Introduction
2008-09-08CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships
2008-11-24CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships, Taxonomy_Mappings
2009-03-10CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Related_Attack_Patterns
2009-05-27CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships
2009-07-27CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Common_Consequences
2010-09-27CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships
2010-12-13CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Description, Name, Relationships
2011-06-01CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Common_Consequences, Relationships, Taxonomy_Mappings
2012-05-11CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Demonstrative_Examples, Observed_Examples, Relationships
2012-10-30CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Potential_Mitigations
2014-07-30CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships, Taxonomy_Mappings
2017-05-03CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Related_Attack_Patterns
2017-11-08CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Taxonomy_Mappings
Previous Entry Names
Change DatePrevious Entry Name
2010-12-13Insufficient Locking

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Page Last Updated: March 29, 2018