CWE

Common Weakness Enumeration

A Community-Developed List of Software Weakness Types

CWE Top 25 Most Dangerous Software Errors
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ID

CWE VIEW: Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities

View ID: 1003
Type: Graph
Status: Incomplete
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+ Objective
CWE entries in this view (graph) may be used to categorize potential weaknesses within sources that handle public, third-party vulnerability information, such as the National Vulnerability Database (NVD). By design, this view is incomplete; it is limited to a small number of the most commonly-seen weaknesses, so that it is easier for humans to use. This view uses a shallow hierarchy of two levels in order to simplify the complex, category-oriented navigation of the entire CWE corpus.
+ Relationships
The following graph shows the tree-like relationships between weaknesses that exist at different levels of abstraction. At the highest level, categories and classes exist to group weaknesses. A category is a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic. Classes are weaknesses that are described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology and are more general than a base weakness. Within classes, base level weaknesses are used to present a more specific type of weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. A variant is a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. A chain is a set of weaknesses that must be reachable consecutively in order to produce an exploitable vulnerability. A composite is a set of weaknesses that must all be present simultaneously in order to produce an exploitable vulnerability.
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1003 - Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Input Validation - (20)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 20 (Improper Input Validation)
The product does not validate or incorrectly validates input that can affect the control flow or data flow of a program.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Validation of Array Index - (129)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 129 (Improper Validation of Array Index)
The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index references a valid position within the array.out-of-bounds array indexindex-out-of-rangearray index underflow
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection') - (74)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a command, data structure, or record using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify how it is parsed or interpreted when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection') - (78)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 78 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an OS command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended OS command when it is sent to a downstream component.Shell injectionShell metacharacters
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting') - (79)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting'))
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input before it is placed in output that is used as a web page that is served to other users.XSSHTML InjectionCSS
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Neutralization of Argument Delimiters in a Command ('Argument Injection') - (88)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 88 (Improper Neutralization of Argument Delimiters in a Command ('Argument Injection'))
The software constructs a string for a command to executed by a separate component in another control sphere, but it does not properly delimit the intended arguments, options, or switches within that command string.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection') - (89)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 89 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an SQL command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended SQL command when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection) - (91)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection))
The software does not properly neutralize special elements that are used in XML, allowing attackers to modify the syntax, content, or commands of the XML before it is processed by an end system.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection') - (94)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the syntax or behavior of the intended code segment.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output - (116)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output)
The software prepares a structured message for communication with another component, but encoding or escaping of the data is either missing or done incorrectly. As a result, the intended structure of the message is not preserved.Output SanitizationOutput ValidationOutput Encoding
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Inappropriate Encoding for Output Context - (838)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 838 (Inappropriate Encoding for Output Context)
The software uses or specifies an encoding when generating output to a downstream component, but the specified encoding is not the same as the encoding that is expected by the downstream component.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer - (119)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer)
The software performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.Memory Corruption
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow') - (120)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow'))
The program copies an input buffer to an output buffer without verifying that the size of the input buffer is less than the size of the output buffer, leading to a buffer overflow.buffer overrunUnbounded Transfer
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Out-of-bounds Read - (125)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read)
The software reads data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Out-of-bounds Write - (787)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write)
The software writes data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Access of Uninitialized Pointer - (824)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 824 (Access of Uninitialized Pointer)
The program accesses or uses a pointer that has not been initialized.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Information Exposure - (200)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 200 (Information Exposure)
An information exposure is the intentional or unintentional disclosure of information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have access to that information.Information LeakInformation Disclosure
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Information Exposure Through Discrepancy - (203)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy)
The product behaves differently or sends different responses in a way that exposes security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Information Exposure Through an Error Message - (209)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message)
The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness.Inclusion of Sensitive Information in Log Files - (532)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 532 (Inclusion of Sensitive Information in Log Files)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Privilege Management - (269)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management)
The software does not properly assign, modify, track, or check privileges for an actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Authentication - (287)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 287 (Improper Authentication)
When an actor claims to have a given identity, the software does not prove or insufficiently proves that the claim is correct.authentificationAuthC
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Authentication Bypass by Spoofing - (290)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing)
This attack-focused weakness is caused by improperly implemented authentication schemes that are subject to spoofing attacks.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay - (294)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 294 (Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay)
A capture-replay flaw exists when the design of the software makes it possible for a malicious user to sniff network traffic and bypass authentication by replaying it to the server in question to the same effect as the original message (or with minor changes).
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Certificate Validation - (295)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation)
The software does not validate, or incorrectly validates, a certificate.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Missing Authentication for Critical Function - (306)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 306 (Missing Authentication for Critical Function)
The software does not perform any authentication for functionality that requires a provable user identity or consumes a significant amount of resources.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts - (307)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 307 (Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts)
The software does not implement sufficient measures to prevent multiple failed authentication attempts within in a short time frame, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Weak Password Requirements - (521)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 521 (Weak Password Requirements)
The product does not require that users should have strong passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to compromise user accounts.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Insufficiently Protected Credentials - (522)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials)
This weakness occurs when the application transmits or stores authentication credentials and uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password - (640)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 640 (Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password)
The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Use of Hard-coded Credentials - (798)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials)
The software contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to external components, or encryption of internal data.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data - (311)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data)
The software does not encrypt sensitive or critical information before storage or transmission.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information - (312)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within a resource that might be accessible to another control sphere.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information - (319)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 319 (Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information)
The software transmits sensitive or security-critical data in cleartext in a communication channel that can be sniffed by unauthorized actors.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Inadequate Encryption Strength - (326)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 326 (Inadequate Encryption Strength)
The software stores or transmits sensitive data using an encryption scheme that is theoretically sound, but is not strong enough for the level of protection required.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm - (327)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm)
The use of a broken or risky cryptographic algorithm is an unnecessary risk that may result in the exposure of sensitive information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort - (916)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm) > 916 (Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort)
The software generates a hash for a password, but it uses a scheme that does not provide a sufficient level of computational effort that would make password cracking attacks infeasible or expensive.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Use of Insufficiently Random Values - (330)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values)
The software may use insufficiently random numbers or values in a security context that depends on unpredictable numbers.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Insufficient Entropy - (331)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 331 (Insufficient Entropy)
The software uses an algorithm or scheme that produces insufficient entropy, leaving patterns or clusters of values that are more likely to occur than others.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (335)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
The software uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) that does not correctly manage seeds.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (338)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 338 (Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
The product uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) in a security context, but the PRNG's algorithm is not cryptographically strong.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity - (345)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity)
The software does not sufficiently verify the origin or authenticity of data, in a way that causes it to accept invalid data.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Origin Validation Error - (346)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature - (347)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 347 (Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature)
The software does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.
*CompositeComposite - a Compound Element that consists of two or more distinct weaknesses, in which all weaknesses must be present at the same time in order for a potential vulnerability to arise. Removing any of the weaknesses eliminates or sharply reduces the risk. One weakness, X, can be "broken down" into component weaknesses Y and Z. There can be cases in which one weakness might not be essential to a composite, but changes the nature of the composite when it becomes a vulnerability.Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) - (352)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 352 (Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF))
The web application does not, or can not, sufficiently verify whether a well-formed, valid, consistent request was intentionally provided by the user who submitted the request.Session RidingCross Site Reference ForgeryXSRF
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value - (354)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 354 (Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value)
The software does not validate or incorrectly validates the integrity check values or "checksums" of a message. This may prevent it from detecting if the data has been modified or corrupted in transmission.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel - (924)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 924 (Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel)
The software establishes a communication channel with an endpoint and receives a message from that endpoint, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the message was not modified during transmission.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition') - (362)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition'))
The program contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a timing window exists in which the shared resource can be modified by another code sequence that is operating concurrently.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition - (367)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 367 (Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition)
The software checks the state of a resource before using that resource, but the resource's state can change between the check and the use in a way that invalidates the results of the check. This can cause the software to perform invalid actions when the resource is in an unexpected state.TOCTTOUTOCCTOU
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Uncontrolled Resource Consumption - (400)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption)
The software does not properly control the allocation and maintenance of a limited resource thereby enabling an actor to influence the amount of resources consumed, eventually leading to the exhaustion of available resources.Resource Exhaustion
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling - (770)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on the size or number of resources that can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Restriction of Power Consumption - (920)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption) > 920 (Improper Restriction of Power Consumption)
The software operates in an environment in which power is a limited resource that cannot be automatically replenished, but the software does not properly restrict the amount of power that its operation consumes.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Resource Shutdown or Release - (404)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release)
The program does not release or incorrectly releases a resource before it is made available for re-use.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Incomplete Cleanup - (459)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup)
The software does not properly "clean up" and remove temporary or supporting resources after they have been used.Insufficient Cleanup
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference - (763)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference)
The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but calls the wrong release function or calls the appropriate release function incorrectly.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime - (772)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime)
The software does not release a resource after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the resource is no longer needed.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Interpretation Conflict - (436)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 436 (Interpretation Conflict)
Product A handles inputs or steps differently than Product B, which causes A to perform incorrect actions based on its perception of B's state.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request Smuggling') - (444)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 436 (Interpretation Conflict) > 444 (Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request Smuggling'))
When malformed or abnormal HTTP requests are interpreted by one or more entities in the data flow between the user and the web server, such as a proxy or firewall, they can be interpreted inconsistently, allowing the attacker to "smuggle" a request to one device without the other device being aware of it.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere - (610)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere)
The product uses an externally controlled name or reference that resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames - (1021)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 1021 (Improper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames)
The web application does not restrict or incorrectly restricts frame objects or UI layers that belong to another application or domain, which can lead to user confusion about which interface the user is interacting with.ClickjackingUI Redress AttackTapjacking
*CompositeComposite - a Compound Element that consists of two or more distinct weaknesses, in which all weaknesses must be present at the same time in order for a potential vulnerability to arise. Removing any of the weaknesses eliminates or sharply reduces the risk. One weakness, X, can be "broken down" into component weaknesses Y and Z. There can be cases in which one weakness might not be essential to a composite, but changes the nature of the composite when it becomes a vulnerability.Session Fixation - (384)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 384 (Session Fixation)
Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal authenticated sessions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect') - (601)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 601 (URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect'))
A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks.Open RedirectCross-site RedirectCross-domain Redirect
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference - (611)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 611 (Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference)
The software processes an XML document that can contain XML entities with URIs that resolve to documents outside of the intended sphere of control, causing the product to embed incorrect documents into its output.XXE
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) - (918)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 918 (Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF))
The web server receives a URL or similar request from an upstream component and retrieves the contents of this URL, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the request is being sent to the expected destination.XSPA
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Synchronization - (662)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 662 (Improper Synchronization)
The software utilizes multiple threads or processes to allow temporary access to a shared resource that can only be exclusive to one process at a time, but it does not properly synchronize these actions, which might cause simultaneous accesses of this resource by multiple threads or processes.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Locking - (667)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking)
The software does not properly acquire or release a lock on a resource, leading to unexpected resource state changes and behaviors.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Initialization - (665)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 665 (Improper Initialization)
The software does not initialize or incorrectly initializes a resource, which might leave the resource in an unexpected state when it is accessed or used.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Use of Uninitialized Resource - (1187)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 1187 (Use of Uninitialized Resource)
The software uses or accesses a resource that has not been initialized.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Insecure Default Initialization of Resource - (1188)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 1188 (Insecure Default Initialization of Resource)
The software initializes or sets a resource with a default that is intended to be changed by the administrator, but the default is not secure.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Missing Initialization of Resource - (909)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 909 (Missing Initialization of Resource)
The software does not initialize a critical resource.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere - (668)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere)
The product exposes a resource to the wrong control sphere, providing unintended actors with inappropriate access to the resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Use of Externally-Controlled Format String - (134)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 134 (Use of Externally-Controlled Format String)
The software uses a function that accepts a format string as an argument, but the format string originates from an external source.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Untrusted Search Path - (426)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path)
The application searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the application's direct control.Untrusted Path
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Uncontrolled Search Path Element - (427)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 427 (Uncontrolled Search Path Element)
The product uses a fixed or controlled search path to find resources, but one or more locations in that path can be under the control of unintended actors.DLL preloadingBinary plantingInsecure library loading
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Unquoted Search Path or Element - (428)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 428 (Unquoted Search Path or Element)
The product uses a search path that contains an unquoted element, in which the element contains whitespace or other separators. This can cause the product to access resources in a parent path.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties - (552)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties)
Files or directories are accessible in the environment that should not be.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres - (669)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres)
The product does not properly transfer a resource/behavior to another sphere, or improperly imports a resource/behavior from another sphere, in a manner that provides unintended control over that resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data - (212)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 212 (Improper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data)
The software uses a resource that contains sensitive data, but it does not properly remove that data before it stores, transfers, or shares the resource with actors in another control sphere.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type - (434)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 434 (Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type)
The software allows the attacker to upload or transfer files of dangerous types that can be automatically processed within the product's environment.Unrestricted File Upload
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Download of Code Without Integrity Check - (494)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 494 (Download of Code Without Integrity Check)
The product downloads source code or an executable from a remote location and executes the code without sufficiently verifying the origin and integrity of the code.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking - (565)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking)
The application relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid for the associated user.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere - (829)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere)
The software imports, requires, or includes executable functionality (such as a library) from a source that is outside of the intended control sphere.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation - (670)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation)
The code contains a control flow path that does not reflect the algorithm that the path is intended to implement, leading to incorrect behavior any time this path is navigated.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Reachable Assertion - (617)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation) > 617 (Reachable Assertion)
The product contains an assert() or similar statement that can be triggered by an attacker, which leads to an application exit or other behavior that is more severe than necessary.assertion failure
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release - (672)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release)
The software uses, accesses, or otherwise operates on a resource after that resource has been expired, released, or revoked.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness.Double Free - (415)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 415 (Double Free)
The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.Double-free
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness.Use After Free - (416)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 416 (Use After Free)
Referencing memory after it has been freed can cause a program to crash, use unexpected values, or execute code.Dangling pointerUse-After-Free
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Insufficient Session Expiration - (613)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 613 (Insufficient Session Expiration)
According to WASC, "Insufficient Session Expiration is when a web site permits an attacker to reuse old session credentials or session IDs for authorization."
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Uncontrolled Recursion - (674)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 674 (Uncontrolled Recursion)
The product does not properly control the amount of recursion that takes place, which consumes excessive resources, such as allocated memory or the program stack.Stack Exhaustion
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion') - (776)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 674 (Uncontrolled Recursion) > 776 (Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion'))
The software uses XML documents and allows their structure to be defined with a Document Type Definition (DTD), but it does not properly control the number of recursive definitions of entities.XEEBillion Laughs AttackXML Bomb
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Incorrect Calculation - (682)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation)
The software performs a calculation that generates incorrect or unintended results that are later used in security-critical decisions or resource management.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size - (131)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 131 (Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size)
The software does not correctly calculate the size to be used when allocating a buffer, which could lead to a buffer overflow.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Integer Overflow or Wraparound - (190)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 190 (Integer Overflow or Wraparound)
The software performs a calculation that can produce an integer overflow or wraparound, when the logic assumes that the resulting value will always be larger than the original value. This can introduce other weaknesses when the calculation is used for resource management or execution control.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Integer Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound) - (191)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 191 (Integer Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound))
The product subtracts one value from another, such that the result is less than the minimum allowable integer value, which produces a value that is not equal to the correct result.Integer underflow
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Off-by-one Error - (193)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 193 (Off-by-one Error)
A product calculates or uses an incorrect maximum or minimum value that is 1 more, or 1 less, than the correct value.off-by-five
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Divide By Zero - (369)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 369 (Divide By Zero)
The product divides a value by zero.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Incorrect Comparison - (697)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 697 (Incorrect Comparison)
The software compares two entities in a security-relevant context, but the comparison is incorrect, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast - (704)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast)
The software does not correctly convert an object, resource, or structure from one type to a different type.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types - (681)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types)
When converting from one data type to another, such as long to integer, data can be omitted or translated in a way that produces unexpected values. If the resulting values are used in a sensitive context, then dangerous behaviors may occur.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Access of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion') - (843)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 843 (Access of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion'))
The program allocates or initializes a resource such as a pointer, object, or variable using one type, but it later accesses that resource using a type that is incompatible with the original type.Object Type Confusion
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference - (706)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference)
The software uses a name or reference to access a resource, but the name/reference resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Handling of Case Sensitivity - (178)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 178 (Improper Handling of Case Sensitivity)
The software does not properly account for differences in case sensitivity when accessing or determining the properties of a resource, leading to inconsistent results.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal') - (22)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal'))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that is intended to identify a file or directory that is located underneath a restricted parent directory, but the software does not properly neutralize special elements within the pathname that can cause the pathname to resolve to a location that is outside of the restricted directory.Directory traversalPath traversal
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following') - (59)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following'))
The software attempts to access a file based on the filename, but it does not properly prevent that filename from identifying a link or shortcut that resolves to an unintended resource.insecure temporary file
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The software specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Incorrect Default Permissions - (276)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 276 (Incorrect Default Permissions)
The software, upon installation, sets incorrect permissions for an object that exposes it to an unintended actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Preservation of Permissions - (281)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 281 (Improper Preservation of Permissions)
The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrictive permissions than intended.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions - (754)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions)
The software does not check or incorrectly checks for unusual or exceptional conditions that are not expected to occur frequently during day to day operation of the software.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Unchecked Return Value - (252)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions) > 252 (Unchecked Return Value)
The software does not check the return value from a method or function, which can prevent it from detecting unexpected states and conditions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improper Check for Dropped Privileges - (273)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions) > 273 (Improper Check for Dropped Privileges)
The software attempts to drop privileges but does not check or incorrectly checks to see if the drop succeeded.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.NULL Pointer Dereference - (476)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions) > 476 (NULL Pointer Dereference)
A NULL pointer dereference occurs when the application dereferences a pointer that it expects to be valid, but is NULL, typically causing a crash or exit.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions - (755)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles an exceptional condition.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Excessive Iteration - (834)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 834 (Excessive Iteration)
The software performs an iteration or loop without sufficiently limiting the number of times that the loop is executed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Loop with Unreachable Exit Condition ('Infinite Loop') - (835)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 834 (Excessive Iteration) > 835 (Loop with Unreachable Exit Condition ('Infinite Loop'))
The program contains an iteration or loop with an exit condition that cannot be reached, i.e., an infinite loop.
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Missing Authorization - (862)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 862 (Missing Authorization)
The software does not perform an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Direct Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Incorrect Authorization - (863)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization)
The software performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action, but it does not correctly perform the check. This allows attackers to bypass intended access restrictions.AuthZ
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key - (639)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key)
The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.Insecure Direct Object ReferenceHorizontal Authorization
+ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources - (913)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources)
The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-managed code resources such as variables, objects, classes, attributes, functions, or executable instructions or statements.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection') - (470)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 470 (Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection'))
The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper classes or code.Reflection Injection
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Deserialization of Untrusted Data - (502)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 502 (Deserialization of Untrusted Data)
The application deserializes untrusted data without sufficiently verifying that the resulting data will be valid.Marshaling, UnmarshalingPickling, Unpickling
*BaseBase - a weakness that is described in an abstract fashion, but with sufficient details to infer specific methods for detection and prevention. More general than a Variant weakness, but more specific than a Class weakness.Improperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes - (915)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 915 (Improperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes)
The software receives input from an upstream component that specifies multiple attributes, properties, or fields that are to be initialized or updated in an object, but it does not properly control which attributes can be modified.Mass AssignmentAutoBindingObject injection
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More general than a Base weakness.Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information - (922)
1003 (Weaknesses for Simplified Mapping of Published Vulnerabilities) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information)
The software stores sensitive information without properly limiting read or write access by unauthorized actors.
+ Notes

Maintenance

This view has been modified significantly since its last major revision in 2015. This view is likely to evolve based on the experience of NVD analysts, public feedback, and the CWE Team.
+ References
[REF-1] NIST. "CWE - Common Weakness Enumeration". <http://nvd.nist.gov/cwe.cfm>.
+ View Metrics
CWEs in this viewTotal CWEs
Weaknesses123out of 808
Categories0out of 295
Views0out of 38
Total123out of1141
+ Content History
Submissions
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
2015-12-07CWE Content TeamMITRE
Contributions
Contribution DateContributorOrganization
2015-12-07NIST
Provided many relationships.
Modifications
Modification DateModifierOrganization
2019-06-20CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships
2019-09-19CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Description, Maintenance_Notes, Relationships
2019-09-23CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships
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Page Last Updated: September 23, 2019