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ID

CWE VIEW: Hardware Design

View ID: 1194
Type: Graph
Status: Incomplete
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+ Objective
This view organizes weaknesses around concepts that are frequently used or encountered in hardware design. Accordingly, this view can align closely with the perspectives of designers, manufacturers, educators, and assessment vendors. It provides a variety of categories that are intended to simplify navigation, browsing, and mapping.
+ Audience
StakeholderDescription
Hardware DesignersHardware Designers use this view to better understand potential mistakes that can be made in specific areas of their IP design. The use of concepts with which hardware designers are familiar makes it easier to navigate.
EducatorsEducators use this view to teach future professionals about the types of mistakes that are commonly made in hardware design.
+ Relationships
The following graph shows the tree-like relationships between weaknesses that exist at different levels of abstraction. At the highest level, categories and pillars exist to group weaknesses. Categories (which are not technically weaknesses) are special CWE entries used to group weaknesses that share a common characteristic. Pillars are weaknesses that are described in the most abstract fashion. Below these top-level entries are weaknesses are varying levels of abstraction. Classes are still very abstract, typically independent of any specific language or technology. Base level weaknesses are used to present a more specific type of weakness. A variant is a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. A chain is a set of weaknesses that must be reachable consecutively in order to produce an exploitable vulnerability. While a composite is a set of weaknesses that must all be present simultaneously in order to produce an exploitable vulnerability.
Show Details:
1194 - Hardware Design
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Manufacturing and Life Cycle Management Concerns - (1195)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1195 (Manufacturing and Life Cycle Management Concerns)
Weaknesses in this category are root-caused to defects that arise in the semiconductor-manufacturing process or during the life cycle and supply chain.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Semiconductor Defects in Hardware Logic with Security-Sensitive Implications - (1248)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1195 (Manufacturing and Life Cycle Management Concerns) > 1248 (Semiconductor Defects in Hardware Logic with Security-Sensitive Implications)
The security-sensitive hardware module contains semiconductor defects.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Security Flow Issues - (1196)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1196 (Security Flow Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper design of full-system security flows, including but not limited to secure boot, secure update, and hardware-device attestation.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.DMA Device Enabled Too Early in Boot Phase - (1190)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1196 (Security Flow Issues) > 1190 (DMA Device Enabled Too Early in Boot Phase)
The product enables a Direct Memory Access (DMA) capable device before the security configuration settings are established, which allows an attacker to extract data from or gain privileges on the product.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Power-On of Untrusted Execution Core Before Enabling Fabric Access Control - (1193)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1196 (Security Flow Issues) > 1193 (Power-On of Untrusted Execution Core Before Enabling Fabric Access Control)
The product enables components that contain untrusted firmware before memory and fabric access controls have been enabled.
*CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Integration Issues - (1197)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1197 (Integration Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are those that arise due to integration of multiple hardware Intellectual Property (IP) cores from third parties, or from the prior generation of products into a common System-on-Chip (SoC) or hardware platform.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Privilege Separation and Access Control Issues - (1198)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1198 (Privilege Separation and Access Control Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to features and mechanisms providing hardware-based isolation and access control (e.g., identity, policy, locking control) of sensitive shared hardware resources such as registers and fuses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Default Permissions - (276)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1198 (Privilege Separation and Access Control Issues) > 276 (Incorrect Default Permissions)
The product, upon installation, sets incorrect permissions for an object that exposes it to an unintended actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Isolation of Shared Resources on System-on-Chip (SoC) - (1189)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1198 (Privilege Separation and Access Control Issues) > 1189 (Improper Isolation of Shared Resources on System-on-Chip (SoC))
The product does not properly isolate shared resources between trusted and untrusted agents.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.System-on-Chip (SoC) Using Components without Unique, Immutable Identifiers - (1192)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1198 (Privilege Separation and Access Control Issues) > 1192 (System-on-Chip (SoC) Using Components without Unique, Immutable Identifiers)
The System-on-Chip (SoC) does not have unique, immutable identifiers for each of its components.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Granularity of Access Control - (1220)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1198 (Privilege Separation and Access Control Issues) > 1220 (Insufficient Granularity of Access Control)
The product implements access controls via a policy or other feature with the intention to disable or restrict accesses (reads and/or writes) to assets in a system from untrusted agents. However, implemented access controls lack required granularity, which renders the control policy too broad because it allows accesses from unauthorized agents to the security-sensitive assets.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inclusion of Undocumented Features or Chicken Bits - (1242)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1198 (Privilege Separation and Access Control Issues) > 1242 (Inclusion of Undocumented Features or Chicken Bits)
The chip includes chicken bits or undocumented features that can create entry points for unauthorized actors.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns - (1199)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1199 (General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns)
Weaknesses in this category are related to hardware-circuit design and logic (e.g., CMOS transistors, finite state machines, and registers) as well as issues related to hardware description languages such as System Verilog and VHDL.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Failure to Disable Reserved Bits - (1209)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1199 (General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns) > 1209 (Failure to Disable Reserved Bits)
The reserved bits in a hardware design are not disabled prior to production. Typically, reserved bits are used for future capabilities and should not support any functional logic in the design. However, designers might covertly use these bits to debug or further develop new capabilities in production hardware. Adversaries with access to these bits will write to them in hopes of compromising hardware state.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Register Defaults or Module Parameters - (1221)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1199 (General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns) > 1221 (Incorrect Register Defaults or Module Parameters)
Hardware description language code incorrectly defines register defaults or hardware IP parameters to insecure values.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Race Condition for Write-Once Attributes - (1223)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1199 (General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns) > 1223 (Race Condition for Write-Once Attributes)
A write-once register in hardware design is programmable by an untrusted software component earlier than the trusted software component, resulting in a race condition issue.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Write-Once Bit Fields - (1224)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1199 (General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns) > 1224 (Improper Restriction of Write-Once Bit Fields)
The hardware design control register "sticky bits" or write-once bit fields are improperly implemented, such that they can be reprogrammed by software.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Implementation of Lock Protection Registers - (1231)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1199 (General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns) > 1231 (Improper Implementation of Lock Protection Registers)
The product incorrectly implements register lock bit protection features such that protected controls can be programmed even after the lock has been set.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Lock Behavior After Power State Transition - (1232)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1199 (General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns) > 1232 (Improper Lock Behavior After Power State Transition)
The product implements register lock bit protection features with the intent to disable changes to system configuration after the lock is set. Some of the protected registers or lock bits become programmable after power state transitions (e.g., Entry and wake from low power sleep modes).
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Hardware Lock Protection for Security Sensitive Controls - (1233)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1199 (General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns) > 1233 (Improper Hardware Lock Protection for Security Sensitive Controls)
The product implements a register lock bit protection feature that permits security sensitive controls to modify the protected configuration.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Hardware Internal or Debug Modes Allow Override of Locks - (1234)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1199 (General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns) > 1234 (Hardware Internal or Debug Modes Allow Override of Locks)
The product implements register lock bit protection features that may permit security sensitive controls to modify system configuration after the lock is set through internal modes or debug features.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Finite State Machines (FSMs) in Hardware Logic - (1245)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1199 (General Circuit and Logic Design Concerns) > 1245 (Improper Finite State Machines (FSMs) in Hardware Logic)
Faulty finite state machines (FSMs) in the hardware logic allow an attacker to put the system in an undefined state, to cause a denial of service (DoS) or gain privileges on the victim's system.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Core and Compute Issues - (1201)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1201 (Core and Compute Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are typically associated with CPUs, Graphics, Vision, AI, FPGA, and microcontrollers.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.CPU Hardware Not Configured to Support Exclusivity of Write and Execute Operations - (1252)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1201 (Core and Compute Issues) > 1252 (CPU Hardware Not Configured to Support Exclusivity of Write and Execute Operations)
The CPU is not configured to provide hardware support for exclusivity of write and execute operations on memory. This allows an attacker to execute data from all of memory.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Memory and Storage Issues - (1202)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1202 (Memory and Storage Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are typically associated with memory (e.g., DRAM, SRAM) and storage technologies (e.g., NAND Flash, OTP, EEPROM, and eMMC).
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Sensitive Information Uncleared in Resource Before Release for Reuse - (226)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1202 (Memory and Storage Issues) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared in Resource Before Release for Reuse)
The product prepares to release a resource such as memory or a file so that the resource can be reused by other entities, but the product does not fully clear previously-used sensitive information from that resource before the resource is released.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Write Handling in Limited-write Non-Volatile Memories - (1246)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1202 (Memory and Storage Issues) > 1246 (Improper Write Handling in Limited-write Non-Volatile Memories)
The product does not implement or incorrectly handles the implementation of write operations in limited-write non-volatile memories.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Mirrored Regions with Different Values - (1251)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1202 (Memory and Storage Issues) > 1251 (Mirrored Regions with Different Values)
The product's architecture mirrors regions without ensuring that their contents always stay in sync.
*CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Peripherals, On-chip Fabric, and Interface/IO Problems - (1203)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1203 (Peripherals, On-chip Fabric, and Interface/IO Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to hardware security problems that apply to peripheral devices, IO interfaces, on-chip interconnects, network-on-chip (NoC), and buses. For example, this category includes issues related to design of hardware interconnect and/or protocols such as PCIe, USB, SMBUS, general-purpose IO pins, and user-input peripherals such as mouse and keyboard.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Security Primitives and Cryptography Issues - (1205)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1205 (Security Primitives and Cryptography Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to hardware implementations of cryptographic protocols and other hardware-security primitives such as physical unclonable functions (PUFs) and random number generators (RNGs).
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Observable Discrepancy - (203)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1205 (Security Primitives and Cryptography Issues) > 203 (Observable Discrepancy)
The product behaves differently or sends different responses under different circumstances in a way that is observable to an unauthorized actor, which exposes security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.Side Channel Attack
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Required Cryptographic Step - (325)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1205 (Security Primitives and Cryptography Issues) > 325 (Missing Required Cryptographic Step)
The product does not implement a required step in a cryptographic algorithm, resulting in weaker encryption than advertised by that algorithm.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a Risky Cryptographic Primitive - (1240)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1205 (Security Primitives and Cryptography Issues) > 1240 (Use of a Risky Cryptographic Primitive)
The product implements a cryptographic algorithm using a non-standard or unproven cryptographic primitive.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Predictable Algorithm in Random Number Generator - (1241)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1205 (Security Primitives and Cryptography Issues) > 1241 (Use of Predictable Algorithm in Random Number Generator)
The product requires a true random number but uses an algorithm that is predictable and generates a pseudo-random number.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Power, Clock, and Reset Concerns - (1206)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1206 (Power, Clock, and Reset Concerns)
Weaknesses in this category are related to system power, voltage, current, temperature, clocks, system state saving/restoring, and resets at the platform and SoC level.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Lock Behavior After Power State Transition - (1232)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1206 (Power, Clock, and Reset Concerns) > 1232 (Improper Lock Behavior After Power State Transition)
The product implements register lock bit protection features with the intent to disable changes to system configuration after the lock is set. Some of the protected registers or lock bits become programmable after power state transitions (e.g., Entry and wake from low power sleep modes).
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Protection Against Voltage and Clock Glitches - (1247)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1206 (Power, Clock, and Reset Concerns) > 1247 (Missing Protection Against Voltage and Clock Glitches)
The product does not contain the necessary additional circuitry or sensors to detect and mitigate voltage and clock glitches.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Debug and Test Problems - (1207)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1207 (Debug and Test Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to hardware debug and test interfaces such as JTAG and scan chain.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposed Chip Debug Interface With Insufficient Access Control - (1191)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1207 (Debug and Test Problems) > 1191 (Exposed Chip Debug Interface With Insufficient Access Control)
The chip does not implement or does not correctly enforce access control on the debug interface, thus allowing an attacker to exercise the debug interface to access a portion of the chip internal registers that typically would not be exposed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Hardware Internal or Debug Modes Allow Override of Locks - (1234)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1207 (Debug and Test Problems) > 1234 (Hardware Internal or Debug Modes Allow Override of Locks)
The product implements register lock bit protection features that may permit security sensitive controls to modify system configuration after the lock is set through internal modes or debug features.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Security-Sensitive Fuse Values During Debug - (1243)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1207 (Debug and Test Problems) > 1243 (Exposure of Security-Sensitive Fuse Values During Debug)
The product exposes security-sensitive values stored in fuses during debug.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Authorization on Physical Debug and Test Interfaces - (1244)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1207 (Debug and Test Problems) > 1244 (Improper Authorization on Physical Debug and Test Interfaces)
The product's physical debug and test interface protection does not block untrusted agents, resulting in unauthorized access to and potentially control of sensitive assets.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Cross-Cutting Problems - (1208)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1208 (Cross-Cutting Problems)
Weaknesses in this category can arise in multiple areas of hardware design or can apply to a wide cross-section of components.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Expected Behavior Violation - (440)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1208 (Cross-Cutting Problems) > 440 (Expected Behavior Violation)
A feature, API, or function being used by a product behaves differently than the product expects.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Documentation for Design - (1053)
1194 (Hardware Design) > 1208 (Cross-Cutting Problems) > 1053 (Missing Documentation for Design)
The product does not have documentation that represents how it is designed.
+ Notes

Other

The top level categories in this view represent commonly understood areas/terms within hardware design, and are meant to aid the user in identifying potential related weaknesses. It is possible for the same weakness to exist within multiple different categories.

Other

This view attempts to present weaknesses in a simple and intuitive way. As such it targets a single level of abstraction. It is important to realize that not every CWE will be represented in this view. High-level class weaknesses and low-level variant weaknesses are mostly ignored. However, by exploring the weaknesses that are included, and following the defined relationships, one can find these higher and lower level weaknesses.
+ View Metrics
CWEs in this viewTotal CWEs
Weaknesses31out of 839
Categories12out of 312
Views0out of 39
Total43out of1190
+ Content History
Submissions
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
2019-12-27CWE Content TeamMITRE
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Page Last Updated: February 19, 2020