CWE

Common Weakness Enumeration

A Community-Developed List of Software & Hardware Weakness Types

CWE Top 25 Most Dangerous Weaknesses
Home > CWE List > CWE- Individual Dictionary Definition (4.2)  
ID

CWE VIEW: Software Development

View ID: 699
Type: Graph
Status: Draft
Downloads: Booklet | CSV | XML
+ Objective
This view organizes weaknesses around concepts that are frequently used or encountered in software development. This includes all aspects of the software development lifecycle including both architecture and implementation. Accordingly, this view can align closely with the perspectives of architects, developers, educators, and assessment vendors. It provides a variety of categories that are intended to simplify navigation, browsing, and mapping.
+ Audience
StakeholderDescription
Software DevelopersSoftware developers (including architects, designers, coders, and testers) use this view to better understand potential mistakes that can be made in specific areas of their software application. The use of concepts that developers are familiar with makes it easier to navigate this view, and filtering by Modes of Introduction can enable focus on a specific phase of the development lifecycle.
EducatorsEducators use this view to teach future developers about the types of mistakes that are commonly made within specific parts of a codebase.
+ Relationships
The following graph shows the tree-like relationships between weaknesses that exist at different levels of abstraction. At the highest level, categories and pillars exist to group weaknesses. Categories (which are not technically weaknesses) are special CWE entries used to group weaknesses that share a common characteristic. Pillars are weaknesses that are described in the most abstract fashion. Below these top-level entries are weaknesses are varying levels of abstraction. Classes are still very abstract, typically independent of any specific language or technology. Base level weaknesses are used to present a more specific type of weakness. A variant is a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. A chain is a set of weaknesses that must be reachable consecutively in order to produce an exploitable vulnerability. While a composite is a set of weaknesses that must all be present simultaneously in order to produce an exploitable vulnerability.
Show Details:
699 - Software Development
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.API / Function Errors - (1228)
699 (Software Development) > 1228 (API / Function Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the use of built-in functions or external APIs.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Inherently Dangerous Function - (242)
699 (Software Development) > 1228 (API / Function Errors) > 242 (Use of Inherently Dangerous Function)
The program calls a function that can never be guaranteed to work safely.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Function with Inconsistent Implementations - (474)
699 (Software Development) > 1228 (API / Function Errors) > 474 (Use of Function with Inconsistent Implementations)
The code uses a function that has inconsistent implementations across operating systems and versions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Undefined Behavior for Input to API - (475)
699 (Software Development) > 1228 (API / Function Errors) > 475 (Undefined Behavior for Input to API)
The behavior of this function is undefined unless its control parameter is set to a specific value.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Obsolete Function - (477)
699 (Software Development) > 1228 (API / Function Errors) > 477 (Use of Obsolete Function)
The code uses deprecated or obsolete functions, which suggests that the code has not been actively reviewed or maintained.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Potentially Dangerous Function - (676)
699 (Software Development) > 1228 (API / Function Errors) > 676 (Use of Potentially Dangerous Function)
The program invokes a potentially dangerous function that could introduce a vulnerability if it is used incorrectly, but the function can also be used safely.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Low-Level Functionality - (695)
699 (Software Development) > 1228 (API / Function Errors) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality)
The software uses low-level functionality that is explicitly prohibited by the framework or specification under which the software is supposed to operate.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposed Dangerous Method or Function - (749)
699 (Software Development) > 1228 (API / Function Errors) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function)
The software provides an Applications Programming Interface (API) or similar interface for interaction with external actors, but the interface includes a dangerous method or function that is not properly restricted.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Audit / Logging Errors - (1210)
699 (Software Development) > 1210 (Audit / Logging Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to audit-based components of a software system. Frequently these deal with logging user activities in order to identify undesired access and modifications to the system. The weaknesses in this category could lead to a degradation of the quality of the audit capability if they are not addressed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Output Neutralization for Logs - (117)
699 (Software Development) > 1210 (Audit / Logging Errors) > 117 (Improper Output Neutralization for Logs)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes output that is written to logs.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Truncation of Security-relevant Information - (222)
699 (Software Development) > 1210 (Audit / Logging Errors) > 222 (Truncation of Security-relevant Information)
The application truncates the display, recording, or processing of security-relevant information in a way that can obscure the source or nature of an attack.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Omission of Security-relevant Information - (223)
699 (Software Development) > 1210 (Audit / Logging Errors) > 223 (Omission of Security-relevant Information)
The application does not record or display information that would be important for identifying the source or nature of an attack, or determining if an action is safe.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Obscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name - (224)
699 (Software Development) > 1210 (Audit / Logging Errors) > 224 (Obscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name)
The software records security-relevant information according to an alternate name of the affected entity, instead of the canonical name.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insertion of Sensitive Information into Log File - (532)
699 (Software Development) > 1210 (Audit / Logging Errors) > 532 (Insertion of Sensitive Information into Log File)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Logging - (778)
699 (Software Development) > 1210 (Audit / Logging Errors) > 778 (Insufficient Logging)
When a security-critical event occurs, the software either does not record the event or omits important details about the event when logging it.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Logging of Excessive Data - (779)
699 (Software Development) > 1210 (Audit / Logging Errors) > 779 (Logging of Excessive Data)
The software logs too much information, making log files hard to process and possibly hindering recovery efforts or forensic analysis after an attack.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Authentication Errors - (1211)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to authentication components of a system. Frequently these deal with the ability to verify that an entity is indeed who it claims to be. If not addressed when designing or implementing a software system, these weaknesses could lead to a degradation of the quality of the authentication capability.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel - (288)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel)
A product requires authentication, but the product has an alternate path or channel that does not require authentication.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass by Spoofing - (290)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing)
This attack-focused weakness is caused by improperly implemented authentication schemes that are subject to spoofing attacks.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay - (294)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 294 (Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay)
A capture-replay flaw exists when the design of the software makes it possible for a malicious user to sniff network traffic and bypass authentication by replaying it to the server in question to the same effect as the original message (or with minor changes).
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Certificate Validation - (295)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation)
The software does not validate, or incorrectly validates, a certificate.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust - (296)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 296 (Improper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust)
The software does not follow, or incorrectly follows, the chain of trust for a certificate back to a trusted root certificate, resulting in incorrect trust of any resource that is associated with that certificate.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Check for Certificate Revocation - (299)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 299 (Improper Check for Certificate Revocation)
The software does not check or incorrectly checks the revocation status of a certificate, which may cause it to use a certificate that has been compromised.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm - (303)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 303 (Incorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm)
The requirements for the software dictate the use of an established authentication algorithm, but the implementation of the algorithm is incorrect.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Critical Step in Authentication - (304)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 304 (Missing Critical Step in Authentication)
The software implements an authentication technique, but it skips a step that weakens the technique.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness - (305)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 305 (Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness)
The authentication algorithm is sound, but the implemented mechanism can be bypassed as the result of a separate weakness that is primary to the authentication error.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Authentication for Critical Function - (306)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 306 (Missing Authentication for Critical Function)
The software does not perform any authentication for functionality that requires a provable user identity or consumes a significant amount of resources.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts - (307)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 307 (Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts)
The software does not implement sufficient measures to prevent multiple failed authentication attempts within in a short time frame, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Single-factor Authentication - (308)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 308 (Use of Single-factor Authentication)
The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Password System for Primary Authentication - (309)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 309 (Use of Password System for Primary Authentication)
The use of password systems as the primary means of authentication may be subject to several flaws or shortcomings, each reducing the effectiveness of the mechanism.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Key Exchange without Entity Authentication - (322)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 322 (Key Exchange without Entity Authentication)
The software performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Client-Side Authentication - (603)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 603 (Use of Client-Side Authentication)
A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client that omits the authentication check.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism - (645)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 645 (Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism)
The software contains an account lockout protection mechanism, but the mechanism is too restrictive and can be triggered too easily, which allows attackers to deny service to legitimate users by causing their accounts to be locked out.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Guessable CAPTCHA - (804)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication - (836)
699 (Software Development) > 1211 (Authentication Errors) > 836 (Use of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication)
The software records password hashes in a data store, receives a hash of a password from a client, and compares the supplied hash to the hash obtained from the data store.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Authorization Errors - (1212)
699 (Software Development) > 1212 (Authorization Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to authorization components of a system. Frequently these deal with the ability to enforce that agents have the required permissions before performing certain operations, such as modifying data. If not addressed when designing or implementing a software system, these weaknesses could lead to a degradation of the quality of the authorization capability.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Direct Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
699 (Software Development) > 1212 (Authorization Errors) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization - (551)
699 (Software Development) > 1212 (Authorization Errors) > 551 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization)
If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Authorization of Index Containing Sensitive Information - (612)
699 (Software Development) > 1212 (Authorization Errors) > 612 (Improper Authorization of Index Containing Sensitive Information)
The product creates a search index of private or sensitive documents, but it does not properly limit index access to actors who are authorized to see the original information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key - (639)
699 (Software Development) > 1212 (Authorization Errors) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key)
The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.Insecure Direct Object Reference / IDORHorizontal Authorization
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme - (939)
699 (Software Development) > 1212 (Authorization Errors) > 939 (Improper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme)
The software uses a handler for a custom URL scheme, but it does not properly restrict which actors can invoke the handler using the scheme.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Placement of User into Incorrect Group - (842)
699 (Software Development) > 1212 (Authorization Errors) > 842 (Placement of User into Incorrect Group)
The software or the administrator places a user into an incorrect group.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Granularity of Access Control - (1220)
699 (Software Development) > 1212 (Authorization Errors) > 1220 (Insufficient Granularity of Access Control)
The product implements access controls via a policy or other feature with the intention to disable or restrict accesses (reads and/or writes) to assets in a system from untrusted agents. However, implemented access controls lack required granularity, which renders the control policy too broad because it allows accesses from unauthorized agents to the security-sensitive assets.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Bad Coding Practices - (1006)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices)
Weaknesses in this category are related to coding practices that are deemed unsafe and increase the chances that an exploitable vulnerability will be present in the application. These weaknesses do not directly introduce a vulnerability, but indicate that the product has not been carefully developed or maintained. If a program is complex, difficult to maintain, not portable, or shows evidence of neglect, then there is a higher likelihood that weaknesses are buried in the code.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Default Case in Switch Statement - (478)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 478 (Missing Default Case in Switch Statement)
The code does not have a default case in a switch statement, which might lead to complex logical errors and resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Package-level Scope - (487)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 487 (Reliance on Package-level Scope)
Java packages are not inherently closed; therefore, relying on them for code security is not a good practice.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Active Debug Code - (489)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 489 (Active Debug Code)
The application is deployed to unauthorized actors with debugging code still enabled or active, which can create unintended entry points or expose sensitive information.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Suspicious Comment - (546)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 546 (Suspicious Comment)
The code contains comments that suggest the presence of bugs, incomplete functionality, or weaknesses.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Hard-coded, Security-relevant Constants - (547)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 547 (Use of Hard-coded, Security-relevant Constants)
The program uses hard-coded constants instead of symbolic names for security-critical values, which increases the likelihood of mistakes during code maintenance or security policy change.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Dead Code - (561)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 561 (Dead Code)
The software contains dead code, which can never be executed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Return of Stack Variable Address - (562)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 562 (Return of Stack Variable Address)
A function returns the address of a stack variable, which will cause unintended program behavior, typically in the form of a crash.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Assignment to Variable without Use - (563)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 563 (Assignment to Variable without Use)
The variable's value is assigned but never used, making it a dead store.Unused Variable
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Object Model Violation: Just One of Equals and Hashcode Defined - (581)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 581 (Object Model Violation: Just One of Equals and Hashcode Defined)
The software does not maintain equal hashcodes for equal objects.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Explicit Call to Finalize() - (586)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 586 (Explicit Call to Finalize())
The software makes an explicit call to the finalize() method from outside the finalizer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Multiple Binds to the Same Port - (605)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 605 (Multiple Binds to the Same Port)
When multiple sockets are allowed to bind to the same port, other services on that port may be stolen or spoofed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Variable Extraction Error - (621)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 621 (Variable Extraction Error)
The product uses external input to determine the names of variables into which information is extracted, without verifying that the names of the specified variables are valid. This could cause the program to overwrite unintended variables.Variable overwrite
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Dynamic Variable Evaluation - (627)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 627 (Dynamic Variable Evaluation)
In a language where the user can influence the name of a variable at runtime, if the variable names are not controlled, an attacker can read or write to arbitrary variables, or access arbitrary functions.Dynamic evaluation
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments - (628)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments)
The product calls a function, procedure, or routine with arguments that are not correctly specified, leading to always-incorrect behavior and resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier - (694)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 694 (Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier)
The software uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Redundant Code - (1041)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1041 (Use of Redundant Code)
The software has multiple functions, methods, procedures, macros, etc. that contain the same code.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Data Element Aggregating an Excessively Large Number of Non-Primitive Elements - (1043)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1043 (Data Element Aggregating an Excessively Large Number of Non-Primitive Elements)
The software uses a data element that has an excessively large number of sub-elements with non-primitive data types such as structures or aggregated objects.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Architecture with Number of Horizontal Layers Outside of Expected Range - (1044)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1044 (Architecture with Number of Horizontal Layers Outside of Expected Range)
The software's architecture contains too many - or too few - horizontal layers.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Parent Class with a Virtual Destructor and a Child Class without a Virtual Destructor - (1045)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1045 (Parent Class with a Virtual Destructor and a Child Class without a Virtual Destructor)
A parent class has a virtual destructor method, but the parent has a child class that does not have a virtual destructor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Creation of Immutable Text Using String Concatenation - (1046)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1046 (Creation of Immutable Text Using String Concatenation)
The software creates an immutable text string using string concatenation operations.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element with Large Number of Outward Calls - (1048)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1048 (Invokable Control Element with Large Number of Outward Calls)
The code contains callable control elements that contain an excessively large number of references to other application objects external to the context of the callable, i.e. a Fan-Out value that is excessively large.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Data Query Operations in a Large Data Table - (1049)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1049 (Excessive Data Query Operations in a Large Data Table)
The software performs a data query with a large number of joins and sub-queries on a large data table.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Platform Resource Consumption within a Loop - (1050)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1050 (Excessive Platform Resource Consumption within a Loop)
The software has a loop body or loop condition that contains a control element that directly or indirectly consumes platform resources, e.g. messaging, sessions, locks, or file descriptors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Creation of Class Instance within a Static Code Block - (1063)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1063 (Creation of Class Instance within a Static Code Block)
A static code block creates an instance of a class.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Runtime Resource Management Control Element in a Component Built to Run on Application Servers - (1065)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1065 (Runtime Resource Management Control Element in a Component Built to Run on Application Servers)
The application uses deployed components from application servers, but it also uses low-level functions/methods for management of resources, instead of the API provided by the application server.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Serialization Control Element - (1066)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1066 (Missing Serialization Control Element)
The software contains a serializable data element that does not have an associated serialization method.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Execution of Sequential Searches of Data Resource - (1067)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1067 (Excessive Execution of Sequential Searches of Data Resource)
The software contains a data query against an SQL table or view that is configured in a way that does not utilize an index and may cause sequential searches to be performed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Serializable Data Element Containing non-Serializable Item Elements - (1070)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1070 (Serializable Data Element Containing non-Serializable Item Elements)
The software contains a serializable, storable data element such as a field or member, but the data element contains member elements that are not serializable.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Empty Code Block - (1071)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1071 (Empty Code Block)
The source code contains a block that does not contain any code, i.e., the block is empty.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Data Resource Access without Use of Connection Pooling - (1072)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1072 (Data Resource Access without Use of Connection Pooling)
The software accesses a data resource through a database without using a connection pooling capability.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Non-SQL Invokable Control Element with Excessive Number of Data Resource Accesses - (1073)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1073 (Non-SQL Invokable Control Element with Excessive Number of Data Resource Accesses)
The software contains a client with a function or method that contains a large number of data accesses/queries that are sent through a data manager, i.e., does not use efficient database capabilities.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Parent Class without Virtual Destructor Method - (1079)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1079 (Parent Class without Virtual Destructor Method)
A parent class contains one or more child classes, but the parent class does not have a virtual destructor method.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Class Instance Self Destruction Control Element - (1082)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1082 (Class Instance Self Destruction Control Element)
The code contains a class instance that calls the method or function to delete or destroy itself.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element with Excessive File or Data Access Operations - (1084)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1084 (Invokable Control Element with Excessive File or Data Access Operations)
A function or method contains too many operations that utilize a data manager or file resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element with Excessive Volume of Commented-out Code - (1085)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1085 (Invokable Control Element with Excessive Volume of Commented-out Code)
A function, method, procedure, etc. contains an excessive amount of code that has been commented out within its body.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Class with Virtual Method without a Virtual Destructor - (1087)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1087 (Class with Virtual Method without a Virtual Destructor)
A class contains a virtual method, but the method does not have an associated virtual destructor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Large Data Table with Excessive Number of Indices - (1089)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1089 (Large Data Table with Excessive Number of Indices)
The software uses a large data table that contains an excessively large number of indices.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Object without Invoking Destructor Method - (1091)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1091 (Use of Object without Invoking Destructor Method)
The software contains a method that accesses an object but does not later invoke the element's associated finalize/destructor method.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Same Invokable Control Element in Multiple Architectural Layers - (1092)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1092 (Use of Same Invokable Control Element in Multiple Architectural Layers)
The software uses the same control element across multiple architectural layers.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Index Range Scan for a Data Resource - (1094)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1094 (Excessive Index Range Scan for a Data Resource)
The software contains an index range scan for a large data table, but the scan can cover a large number of rows.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Persistent Storable Data Element without Associated Comparison Control Element - (1097)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1097 (Persistent Storable Data Element without Associated Comparison Control Element)
The software uses a storable data element that does not have all of the associated functions or methods that are necessary to support comparison.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Data Element containing Pointer Item without Proper Copy Control Element - (1098)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1098 (Data Element containing Pointer Item without Proper Copy Control Element)
The code contains a data element with a pointer that does not have an associated copy or constructor method.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inconsistent Naming Conventions for Identifiers - (1099)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1099 (Inconsistent Naming Conventions for Identifiers)
The product's code, documentation, or other artifacts do not consistently use the same naming conventions for variables, callables, groups of related callables, I/O capabilities, data types, file names, or similar types of elements.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Runtime Component in Generated Code - (1101)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1101 (Reliance on Runtime Component in Generated Code)
The product uses automatically-generated code that cannot be executed without a specific runtime support component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Machine-Dependent Data Representation - (1102)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1102 (Reliance on Machine-Dependent Data Representation)
The code uses a data representation that relies on low-level data representation or constructs that may vary across different processors, physical machines, OSes, or other physical components.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Platform-Dependent Third Party Components - (1103)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1103 (Use of Platform-Dependent Third Party Components)
The product relies on third-party software components that do not provide equivalent functionality across all desirable platforms.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Unmaintained Third Party Components - (1104)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1104 (Use of Unmaintained Third Party Components)
The product relies on third-party components that are not actively supported or maintained by the original developer or a trusted proxy for the original developer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Use of Symbolic Constants - (1106)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1106 (Insufficient Use of Symbolic Constants)
The source code uses literal constants that may need to change or evolve over time, instead of using symbolic constants.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Isolation of Symbolic Constant Definitions - (1107)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1107 (Insufficient Isolation of Symbolic Constant Definitions)
The source code uses symbolic constants, but it does not sufficiently place the definitions of these constants into a more centralized or isolated location.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Reliance on Global Variables - (1108)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1108 (Excessive Reliance on Global Variables)
The code is structured in a way that relies too much on using or setting global variables throughout various points in the code, instead of preserving the associated information in a narrower, more local context.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Same Variable for Multiple Purposes - (1109)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1109 (Use of Same Variable for Multiple Purposes)
The code contains a callable, block, or other code element in which the same variable is used to control more than one unique task or store more than one instance of data.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inappropriate Comment Style - (1113)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1113 (Inappropriate Comment Style)
The source code uses comment styles or formats that are inconsistent or do not follow expected standards for the product.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inappropriate Whitespace Style - (1114)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1114 (Inappropriate Whitespace Style)
The source code contains whitespace that is inconsistent across the code or does not follow expected standards for the product.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Source Code Element without Standard Prologue - (1115)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1115 (Source Code Element without Standard Prologue)
The source code contains elements such as source files that do not consistently provide a prologue or header that has been standardized for the project.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inaccurate Comments - (1116)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1116 (Inaccurate Comments)
The source code contains comments that do not accurately describe or explain aspects of the portion of the code with which the comment is associated.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Callable with Insufficient Behavioral Summary - (1117)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1117 (Callable with Insufficient Behavioral Summary)
The code contains a function or method whose signature and/or associated inline documentation does not sufficiently describe the callable's inputs, outputs, side effects, assumptions, or return codes.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Declaration of Variable with Unnecessarily Wide Scope - (1126)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1126 (Declaration of Variable with Unnecessarily Wide Scope)
The source code declares a variable in one scope, but the variable is only used within a narrower scope.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Compilation with Insufficient Warnings or Errors - (1127)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1127 (Compilation with Insufficient Warnings or Errors)
The code is compiled without sufficient warnings enabled, which may prevent the detection of subtle bugs or quality issues.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Use of Autoboxing and Unboxing for Performance Critical Operations - (1235)
699 (Software Development) > 1006 (Bad Coding Practices) > 1235 (Incorrect Use of Autoboxing and Unboxing for Performance Critical Operations)
The code uses boxed primitives, which may introduce inefficiencies into performance-critical operations.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Behavioral Problems - (438)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to unexpected behaviors from code that an application uses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Misinterpretation of Input - (115)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 115 (Misinterpretation of Input)
The software misinterprets an input, whether from an attacker or another product, in a security-relevant fashion.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation - (179)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation)
The software validates input before applying protection mechanisms that modify the input, which could allow an attacker to bypass the validation via dangerous inputs that only arise after the modification.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification - (408)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 408 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification)
The software allows an entity to perform a legitimate but expensive operation before authentication or authorization has taken place.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Model of Endpoint Features - (437)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 437 (Incomplete Model of Endpoint Features)
A product acts as an intermediary or monitor between two or more endpoints, but it does not have a complete model of an endpoint's features, behaviors, or state, potentially causing the product to perform incorrect actions based on this incomplete model.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Behavioral Change in New Version or Environment - (439)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 439 (Behavioral Change in New Version or Environment)
A's behavior or functionality changes with a new version of A, or a new environment, which is not known (or manageable) by B.Functional change
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Expected Behavior Violation - (440)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 440 (Expected Behavior Violation)
A feature, API, or function does not perform according to its specification.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request Smuggling') - (444)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 444 (Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request Smuggling'))
When malformed or abnormal HTTP requests are interpreted by one or more entities in the data flow between the user and the web server, such as a proxy or firewall, they can be interpreted inconsistently, allowing the attacker to "smuggle" a request to one device without the other device being aware of it.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Incorrect Operator - (480)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator)
The programmer accidentally uses the wrong operator, which changes the application logic in security-relevant ways.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Block Delimitation - (483)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 483 (Incorrect Block Delimitation)
The code does not explicitly delimit a block that is intended to contain 2 or more statements, creating a logic error.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Omitted Break Statement in Switch - (484)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 484 (Omitted Break Statement in Switch)
The program omits a break statement within a switch or similar construct, causing code associated with multiple conditions to execute. This can cause problems when the programmer only intended to execute code associated with one condition.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization - (551)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 551 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization)
If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Execution After Redirect (EAR) - (698)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 698 (Execution After Redirect (EAR))
The web application sends a redirect to another location, but instead of exiting, it executes additional code.Redirect Without Exit
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Compiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code - (733)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 733 (Compiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code)
The developer builds a security-critical protection mechanism into the software, but the compiler optimizes the program such that the mechanism is removed or modified.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Operator Precedence Logic Error - (783)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 783 (Operator Precedence Logic Error)
The program uses an expression in which operator precedence causes incorrect logic to be used.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Loop with Unreachable Exit Condition ('Infinite Loop') - (835)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 835 (Loop with Unreachable Exit Condition ('Infinite Loop'))
The program contains an iteration or loop with an exit condition that cannot be reached, i.e., an infinite loop.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action - (837)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 837 (Improper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action)
The software requires that an actor should only be able to perform an action once, or to have only one unique action, but the software does not enforce or improperly enforces this restriction.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow - (841)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 841 (Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow)
The software supports a session in which more than one behavior must be performed by an actor, but it does not properly ensure that the actor performs the behaviors in the required sequence.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Comparison Using Wrong Factors - (1025)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 1025 (Comparison Using Wrong Factors)
The code performs a comparison between two entities, but the comparison examines the wrong factors or characteristics of the entities, which can lead to incorrect results and resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Processor Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code - (1037)
699 (Software Development) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 1037 (Processor Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code)
The developer builds a security-critical protection mechanism into the software, but the processor optimizes the execution of the program such that the mechanism is removed or modified.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Business Logic Errors - (840)
699 (Software Development) > 840 (Business Logic Errors)
Weaknesses in this category identify some of the underlying problems that commonly allow attackers to manipulate the business logic of an application. Errors in business logic can be devastating to an entire application. They can be difficult to find automatically, since they typically involve legitimate use of the application's functionality. However, many business logic errors can exhibit patterns that are similar to well-understood implementation and design weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unverified Ownership - (283)
699 (Software Development) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 283 (Unverified Ownership)
The software does not properly verify that a critical resource is owned by the proper entity.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel - (288)
699 (Software Development) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel)
A product requires authentication, but the product has an alternate path or channel that does not require authentication.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key - (639)
699 (Software Development) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key)
The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.Insecure Direct Object Reference / IDORHorizontal Authorization
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password - (640)
699 (Software Development) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 640 (Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password)
The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Ownership Assignment - (708)
699 (Software Development) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 708 (Incorrect Ownership Assignment)
The software assigns an owner to a resource, but the owner is outside of the intended control sphere.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling - (770)
699 (Software Development) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on the size or number of resources that can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Premature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime - (826)
699 (Software Development) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 826 (Premature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime)
The program releases a resource that is still intended to be used by the program itself or another actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action - (837)
699 (Software Development) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 837 (Improper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action)
The software requires that an actor should only be able to perform an action once, or to have only one unique action, but the software does not enforce or improperly enforces this restriction.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow - (841)
699 (Software Development) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 841 (Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow)
The software supports a session in which more than one behavior must be performed by an actor, but it does not properly ensure that the actor performs the behaviors in the required sequence.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Communication Channel Errors - (417)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of communication channels and access paths. These weaknesses include problems in creating, managing, or removing alternate channels and alternate paths. Some of these can overlap virtual file problems and are commonly used in "bypass" attacks, such as those that exploit authentication errors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Key Exchange without Entity Authentication - (322)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors) > 322 (Key Exchange without Entity Authentication)
The software performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Origin Validation Error - (346)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Covert Timing Channel - (385)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors) > 385 (Covert Timing Channel)
Covert timing channels convey information by modulating some aspect of system behavior over time, so that the program receiving the information can observe system behavior and infer protected information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unprotected Primary Channel - (419)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors) > 419 (Unprotected Primary Channel)
The software uses a primary channel for administration or restricted functionality, but it does not properly protect the channel.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unprotected Alternate Channel - (420)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel)
The software protects a primary channel, but it does not use the same level of protection for an alternate channel.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Direct Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Covert Storage Channel - (515)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors) > 515 (Covert Storage Channel)
A covert storage channel transfers information through the setting of bits by one program and the reading of those bits by another. What distinguishes this case from that of ordinary operation is that the bits are used to convey encoded information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel - (924)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors) > 924 (Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel)
The software establishes a communication channel with an endpoint and receives a message from that endpoint, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the message was not modified during transmission.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel - (940)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors) > 940 (Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel)
The software establishes a communication channel to handle an incoming request that has been initiated by an actor, but it does not properly verify that the request is coming from the expected origin.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel - (941)
699 (Software Development) > 417 (Communication Channel Errors) > 941 (Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel)
The software creates a communication channel to initiate an outgoing request to an actor, but it does not correctly specify the intended destination for that actor.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Complexity Issues - (1226)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are associated with things being overly complex.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Data Element Aggregating an Excessively Large Number of Non-Primitive Elements - (1043)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1043 (Data Element Aggregating an Excessively Large Number of Non-Primitive Elements)
The software uses a data element that has an excessively large number of sub-elements with non-primitive data types such as structures or aggregated objects.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Modules with Circular Dependencies - (1047)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1047 (Modules with Circular Dependencies)
The software contains modules in which one module has references that cycle back to itself, i.e., there are circular dependencies.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Multiple Inheritance from Concrete Classes - (1055)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1055 (Multiple Inheritance from Concrete Classes)
The software contains a class with inheritance from more than one concrete class.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element with Variadic Parameters - (1056)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1056 (Invokable Control Element with Variadic Parameters)
A named-callable or method control element has a signature that supports a variable (variadic) number of parameters or arguments.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Number of Inefficient Server-Side Data Accesses - (1060)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1060 (Excessive Number of Inefficient Server-Side Data Accesses)
The software performs too many data queries without using efficient data processing functionality such as stored procedures.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element with Signature Containing an Excessive Number of Parameters - (1064)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1064 (Invokable Control Element with Signature Containing an Excessive Number of Parameters)
The software contains a function, subroutine, or method whose signature has an unnecessarily large number of parameters/arguments.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Class with Excessively Deep Inheritance - (1074)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1074 (Class with Excessively Deep Inheritance)
A class has an inheritance level that is too high, i.e., it has a large number of parent classes.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unconditional Control Flow Transfer outside of Switch Block - (1075)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1075 (Unconditional Control Flow Transfer outside of Switch Block)
The software performs unconditional control transfer (such as a "goto") in code outside of a branching structure such as a switch block.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Source Code File with Excessive Number of Lines of Code - (1080)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1080 (Source Code File with Excessive Number of Lines of Code)
A source code file has too many lines of code.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Class with Excessive Number of Child Classes - (1086)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1086 (Class with Excessive Number of Child Classes)
A class contains an unnecessarily large number of children.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Loop Condition Value Update within the Loop - (1095)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1095 (Loop Condition Value Update within the Loop)
The software uses a loop with a control flow condition based on a value that is updated within the body of the loop.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Use of Unconditional Branching - (1119)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1119 (Excessive Use of Unconditional Branching)
The code uses too many unconditional branches (such as "goto").
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive McCabe Cyclomatic Complexity - (1121)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1121 (Excessive McCabe Cyclomatic Complexity)
The code contains McCabe cyclomatic complexity that exceeds a desirable maximum.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Halstead Complexity - (1122)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1122 (Excessive Halstead Complexity)
The code is structured in a way that a Halstead complexity measure exceeds a desirable maximum.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Use of Self-Modifying Code - (1123)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1123 (Excessive Use of Self-Modifying Code)
The product uses too much self-modifying code.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessively Deep Nesting - (1124)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1124 (Excessively Deep Nesting)
The code contains a callable or other code grouping in which the nesting / branching is too deep.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Attack Surface - (1125)
699 (Software Development) > 1226 (Complexity Issues) > 1125 (Excessive Attack Surface)
The product has an attack surface whose quantitative measurement exceeds a desirable maximum.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Concurrency Issues - (557)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to concurrent use of shared resources.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Race Condition Enabling Link Following - (363)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 363 (Race Condition Enabling Link Following)
The software checks the status of a file or directory before accessing it, which produces a race condition in which the file can be replaced with a link before the access is performed, causing the software to access the wrong file.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Signal Handler Race Condition - (364)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition)
The software uses a signal handler that introduces a race condition.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Race Condition in Switch - (365)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 365 (Race Condition in Switch)
The code contains a switch statement in which the switched variable can be modified while the switch is still executing, resulting in unexpected behavior.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Race Condition within a Thread - (366)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 366 (Race Condition within a Thread)
If two threads of execution use a resource simultaneously, there exists the possibility that resources may be used while invalid, in turn making the state of execution undefined.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition - (367)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 367 (Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition)
The software checks the state of a resource before using that resource, but the resource's state can change between the check and the use in a way that invalidates the results of the check. This can cause the software to perform invalid actions when the resource is in an unexpected state.TOCTTOUTOCCTOU
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Context Switching Race Condition - (368)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 368 (Context Switching Race Condition)
A product performs a series of non-atomic actions to switch between contexts that cross privilege or other security boundaries, but a race condition allows an attacker to modify or misrepresent the product's behavior during the switch.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Symbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object - (386)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 386 (Symbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object)
A constant symbolic reference to an object is used, even though the reference can resolve to a different object over time.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel - (421)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 421 (Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel)
The product opens an alternate channel to communicate with an authorized user, but the channel is accessible to other actors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context - (567)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 567 (Unsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context)
The product does not properly synchronize shared data, such as static variables across threads, which can lead to undefined behavior and unpredictable data changes.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Empty Synchronized Block - (585)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 585 (Empty Synchronized Block)
The software contains an empty synchronized block.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context - (663)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context)
The software calls a non-reentrant function in a concurrent context in which a competing code sequence (e.g. thread or signal handler) may have an opportunity to call the same function or otherwise influence its state.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Synchronization - (820)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 820 (Missing Synchronization)
The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but does not attempt to synchronize access to the resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Synchronization - (821)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization)
The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner, but it does not correctly synchronize access to the resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element in Multi-Thread Context with non-Final Static Storable or Member Element - (1058)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 1058 (Invokable Control Element in Multi-Thread Context with non-Final Static Storable or Member Element)
The code contains a function or method that operates in a multi-threaded environment but owns an unsafe non-final static storable or member data element.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Synchronous Access of Remote Resource without Timeout - (1088)
699 (Software Development) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 1088 (Synchronous Access of Remote Resource without Timeout)
The code has a synchronous call to a remote resource, but there is no timeout for the call, or the timeout is set to infinite.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Credentials Management Errors - (255)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the management of credentials.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unprotected Storage of Credentials - (256)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 256 (Unprotected Storage of Credentials)
Storing a password in plaintext may result in a system compromise.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format - (257)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 257 (Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format)
The storage of passwords in a recoverable format makes them subject to password reuse attacks by malicious users. In fact, it should be noted that recoverable encrypted passwords provide no significant benefit over plaintext passwords since they are subject not only to reuse by malicious attackers but also by malicious insiders. If a system administrator can recover a password directly, or use a brute force search on the available information, the administrator can use the password on other accounts.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Password in Configuration File - (260)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 260 (Password in Configuration File)
The software stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Weak Encoding for Password - (261)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 261 (Weak Encoding for Password)
Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Not Using Password Aging - (262)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 262 (Not Using Password Aging)
If no mechanism is in place for managing password aging, users will have no incentive to update passwords in a timely manner.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Password Aging with Long Expiration - (263)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 263 (Password Aging with Long Expiration)
Allowing password aging to occur unchecked can result in the possibility of diminished password integrity.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date - (324)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 324 (Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date)
The product uses a cryptographic key or password past its expiration date, which diminishes its safety significantly by increasing the timing window for cracking attacks against that key.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Weak Password Requirements - (521)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 521 (Weak Password Requirements)
The product does not require that users should have strong passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to compromise user accounts.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unprotected Transport of Credentials - (523)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 523 (Unprotected Transport of Credentials)
Login pages do not use adequate measures to protect the user name and password while they are in transit from the client to the server.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Password Field Masking - (549)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 549 (Missing Password Field Masking)
The software does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unverified Password Change - (620)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 620 (Unverified Password Change)
When setting a new password for a user, the product does not require knowledge of the original password, or using another form of authentication.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password - (640)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 640 (Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password)
The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Hard-coded Credentials - (798)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials)
The software contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to external components, or encryption of internal data.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort - (916)
699 (Software Development) > 255 (Credentials Management Errors) > 916 (Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort)
The software generates a hash for a password, but it uses a scheme that does not provide a sufficient level of computational effort that would make password cracking attacks infeasible or expensive.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Cryptographic Issues - (310)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the design and implementation of data confidentiality and integrity. Frequently these deal with the use of encoding techniques, encryption libraries, and hashing algorithms. The weaknesses in this category could lead to a degradation of the quality data if they are not addressed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Weak Encoding for Password - (261)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 261 (Weak Encoding for Password)
Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date - (324)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 324 (Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date)
The product uses a cryptographic key or password past its expiration date, which diminishes its safety significantly by increasing the timing window for cracking attacks against that key.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Cryptographic Step - (325)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 325 (Missing Cryptographic Step)
The product does not implement a required step in a cryptographic algorithm, resulting in weaker encryption than advertised by the algorithm.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reversible One-Way Hash - (328)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 328 (Reversible One-Way Hash)
The product uses a hashing algorithm that produces a hash value that can be used to determine the original input, or to find an input that can produce the same hash, more efficiently than brute force techniques.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Entropy - (331)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 331 (Insufficient Entropy)
The software uses an algorithm or scheme that produces insufficient entropy, leaving patterns or clusters of values that are more likely to occur than others.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Small Space of Random Values - (334)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 334 (Small Space of Random Values)
The number of possible random values is smaller than needed by the product, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (335)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
The software uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) that does not correctly manage seeds.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (338)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 338 (Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
The product uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) in a security context, but the PRNG's algorithm is not cryptographically strong.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature - (347)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 347 (Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature)
The software does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort - (916)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 916 (Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort)
The software generates a hash for a password, but it uses a scheme that does not provide a sufficient level of computational effort that would make password cracking attacks infeasible or expensive.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a Risky Cryptographic Primitive - (1240)
699 (Software Development) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 1240 (Use of a Risky Cryptographic Primitive)
This device implements a cryptographic algorithm using a non-standard or unproven cryptographic primitive.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Key Management Errors - (320)
699 (Software Development) > 320 (Key Management Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to errors in the management of cryptographic keys.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key - (321)
699 (Software Development) > 320 (Key Management Errors) > 321 (Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key)
The use of a hard-coded cryptographic key significantly increases the possibility that encrypted data may be recovered.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Key Exchange without Entity Authentication - (322)
699 (Software Development) > 320 (Key Management Errors) > 322 (Key Exchange without Entity Authentication)
The software performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reusing a Nonce, Key Pair in Encryption - (323)
699 (Software Development) > 320 (Key Management Errors) > 323 (Reusing a Nonce, Key Pair in Encryption)
Nonces should be used for the present occasion and only once.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date - (324)
699 (Software Development) > 320 (Key Management Errors) > 324 (Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date)
The product uses a cryptographic key or password past its expiration date, which diminishes its safety significantly by increasing the timing window for cracking attacks against that key.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Data Integrity Issues - (1214)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to a software system's data integrity components. Frequently these deal with the ability to ensure the integrity of data, such as messages, resource files, deployment files, and configuration files. The weaknesses in this category could lead to a degradation of data integrity quality if they are not addressed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Key Exchange without Entity Authentication - (322)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 322 (Key Exchange without Entity Authentication)
The software performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Origin Validation Error - (346)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature - (347)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 347 (Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature)
The software does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Less Trusted Source - (348)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 348 (Use of Less Trusted Source)
The software has two different sources of the same data or information, but it uses the source that has less support for verification, is less trusted, or is less resistant to attack.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Acceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data - (349)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 349 (Acceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data)
The software, when processing trusted data, accepts any untrusted data that is also included with the trusted data, treating the untrusted data as if it were trusted.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Type Distinction - (351)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 351 (Insufficient Type Distinction)
The software does not properly distinguish between different types of elements in a way that leads to insecure behavior.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Support for Integrity Check - (353)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 353 (Missing Support for Integrity Check)
The software uses a transmission protocol that does not include a mechanism for verifying the integrity of the data during transmission, such as a checksum.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value - (354)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 354 (Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value)
The software does not validate or incorrectly validates the integrity check values or "checksums" of a message. This may prevent it from detecting if the data has been modified or corrupted in transmission.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Download of Code Without Integrity Check - (494)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 494 (Download of Code Without Integrity Check)
The product downloads source code or an executable from a remote location and executes the code without sufficiently verifying the origin and integrity of the code.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking - (565)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking)
The application relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid for the associated user.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking - (649)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 649 (Reliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking)
The software uses obfuscation or encryption of inputs that should not be mutable by an external actor, but the software does not use integrity checks to detect if those inputs have been modified.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere - (829)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere)
The software imports, requires, or includes executable functionality (such as a library) from a source that is outside of the intended control sphere.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel - (924)
699 (Software Development) > 1214 (Data Integrity Issues) > 924 (Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel)
The software establishes a communication channel with an endpoint and receives a message from that endpoint, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the message was not modified during transmission.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Data Processing Errors - (19)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are typically found in functionality that processes data. Data processing is the manipulation of input to retrieve or save information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency - (130)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 130 (Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency)
The software parses a formatted message or structure, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a length field that is inconsistent with the actual length of the associated data.length manipulationlength tampering
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Missing Special Element - (166)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 166 (Improper Handling of Missing Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Additional Special Element - (167)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 167 (Improper Handling of Additional Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is provided.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements - (168)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 168 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements)
The software does not properly handle input in which an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Case Sensitivity - (178)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 178 (Improper Handling of Case Sensitivity)
The software does not properly account for differences in case sensitivity when accessing or determining the properties of a resource, leading to inconsistent results.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Collapse of Data into Unsafe Value - (182)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 182 (Collapse of Data into Unsafe Value)
The software filters data in a way that causes it to be reduced or "collapsed" into an unsafe value that violates an expected security property.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Overly Restrictive Regular Expression - (186)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 186 (Overly Restrictive Regular Expression)
A regular expression is overly restrictive, which prevents dangerous values from being detected.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Values - (229)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of values for parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those values are undefined.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Parameters - (233)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those parameters are undefined.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Structural Elements - (237)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles inputs that are related to complex structures.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type - (241)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 241 (Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular element is not the expected type, e.g. it expects a digit (0-9) but is provided with a letter (A-Z).
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification) - (409)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 409 (Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification))
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles a compressed input with a very high compression ratio that produces a large output.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID) - (471)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID))
The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter - (472)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 472 (External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter)
The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.Assumed-Immutable Parameter Tampering
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect') - (601)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 601 (URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect'))
A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks.Open RedirectCross-site RedirectCross-domain Redirect
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference - (611)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 611 (Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference)
The software processes an XML document that can contain XML entities with URIs that resolve to documents outside of the intended sphere of control, causing the product to embed incorrect documents into its output.XXE
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Executable Regular Expression Error - (624)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 624 (Executable Regular Expression Error)
The product uses a regular expression that either (1) contains an executable component with user-controlled inputs, or (2) allows a user to enable execution by inserting pattern modifiers.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Permissive Regular Expression - (625)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 625 (Permissive Regular Expression)
The product uses a regular expression that does not sufficiently restrict the set of allowed values.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion') - (776)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 776 (Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion'))
The software uses XML documents and allows their structure to be defined with a Document Type Definition (DTD), but it does not properly control the number of recursive definitions of entities.XEEBillion Laughs AttackXML Bomb
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Comparison of Incompatible Types - (1024)
699 (Software Development) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 1024 (Comparison of Incompatible Types)
The software performs a comparison between two entities, but the entities are of different, incompatible types that cannot be guaranteed to provide correct results when they are directly compared.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Data Neutralization Issues - (137)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the creation or neutralization of data using an incorrect format.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements - (76)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 76 (Improper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements)
The software properly neutralizes certain special elements, but it improperly neutralizes equivalent special elements.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection') - (78)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 78 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an OS command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended OS command when it is sent to a downstream component.Shell injectionShell metacharacters
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting') - (79)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting'))
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input before it is placed in output that is used as a web page that is served to other users.XSSHTML InjectionCSS
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Argument Delimiters in a Command ('Argument Injection') - (88)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 88 (Improper Neutralization of Argument Delimiters in a Command ('Argument Injection'))
The software constructs a string for a command to executed by a separate component in another control sphere, but it does not properly delimit the intended arguments, options, or switches within that command string.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection') - (89)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 89 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an SQL command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended SQL command when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection') - (90)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 90 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an LDAP query using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended LDAP query when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection) - (91)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection))
The software does not properly neutralize special elements that are used in XML, allowing attackers to modify the syntax, content, or commands of the XML before it is processed by an end system.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection') - (93)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 93 (Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection'))
The software uses CRLF (carriage return line feeds) as a special element, e.g. to separate lines or records, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes CRLF sequences from inputs.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection') - (94)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the syntax or behavior of the intended code segment.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection') - (96)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable resource, such as a library, configuration file, or template.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Output Neutralization for Logs - (117)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 117 (Improper Output Neutralization for Logs)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes output that is written to logs.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Delimiters - (140)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes delimiters.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Null Termination - (170)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 170 (Improper Null Termination)
The software does not terminate or incorrectly terminates a string or array with a null character or equivalent terminator.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Data/Memory Layout - (188)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 188 (Reliance on Data/Memory Layout)
The software makes invalid assumptions about how protocol data or memory is organized at a lower level, resulting in unintended program behavior.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Duplicate Key in Associative List (Alist) - (462)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 462 (Duplicate Key in Associative List (Alist))
Duplicate keys in associative lists can lead to non-unique keys being mistaken for an error.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Deletion of Data Structure Sentinel - (463)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 463 (Deletion of Data Structure Sentinel)
The accidental deletion of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Addition of Data Structure Sentinel - (464)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 464 (Addition of Data Structure Sentinel)
The accidental addition of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources - (641)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 641 (Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources)
The application constructs the name of a file or other resource using input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the resulting name.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection') - (643)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 643 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XPath expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection') - (652)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 652 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XQuery expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements - (791)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location - (795)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at a specified location, thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inappropriate Encoding for Output Context - (838)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 838 (Inappropriate Encoding for Output Context)
The software uses or specifies an encoding when generating output to a downstream component, but the specified encoding is not the same as the encoding that is expected by the downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection') - (917)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 917 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an expression language (EL) statement in a Java Server Page (JSP) using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended EL statement before it is executed.EL Injection
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Formula Elements in a CSV File - (1236)
699 (Software Development) > 137 (Data Neutralization Issues) > 1236 (Improper Neutralization of Formula Elements in a CSV File)
The software saves user-provided information into a Comma-Separated Value (CSV) file, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as a command when the file is opened by spreadsheet software.CSV InjectionFormula InjectionExcel Macro Injection
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Documentation Issues - (1225)
699 (Software Development) > 1225 (Documentation Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the documentation provide to support a product.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Documentation for Design - (1053)
699 (Software Development) > 1225 (Documentation Issues) > 1053 (Missing Documentation for Design)
The product does not have documentation that represents how it is designed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inconsistency Between Implementation and Documented Design - (1068)
699 (Software Development) > 1225 (Documentation Issues) > 1068 (Inconsistency Between Implementation and Documented Design)
The implementation of the product is not consistent with the design as described within the relevant documentation.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Design Documentation - (1110)
699 (Software Development) > 1225 (Documentation Issues) > 1110 (Incomplete Design Documentation)
The product's design documentation does not adequately describe control flow, data flow, system initialization, relationships between tasks, components, rationales, or other important aspects of the design.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete I/O Documentation - (1111)
699 (Software Development) > 1225 (Documentation Issues) > 1111 (Incomplete I/O Documentation)
The product's documentation does not adequately define inputs, outputs, or system/software interfaces.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Documentation of Program Execution - (1112)
699 (Software Development) > 1225 (Documentation Issues) > 1112 (Incomplete Documentation of Program Execution)
The document does not fully define all mechanisms that are used to control or influence how product-specific programs are executed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Documentation of Error Handling Techniques - (1118)
699 (Software Development) > 1225 (Documentation Issues) > 1118 (Insufficient Documentation of Error Handling Techniques)
The documentation does not sufficiently describe the techniques that are used for error handling, exception processing, or similar mechanisms.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.File Handling Issues - (1219)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the handling of files within a software system. Files, directories, and folders are so central to information technology that many different weaknesses and variants have been discovered.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Relative Path Traversal - (23)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize sequences such as ".." that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Absolute Path Traversal - (36)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize absolute path sequences such as "/abs/path" that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence - (41)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence)
The system or application is vulnerable to file system contents disclosure through path equivalence. Path equivalence involves the use of special characters in file and directory names. The associated manipulations are intended to generate multiple names for the same object.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following') - (59)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following'))
The software attempts to access a file based on the filename, but it does not properly prevent that filename from identifying a link or shortcut that resolves to an unintended resource.insecure temporary file
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources - (66)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles a file name that identifies a "virtual" resource that is not directly specified within the directory that is associated with the file name, causing the product to perform file-based operations on a resource that is not a file.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Creation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions - (378)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues) > 378 (Creation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions)
Opening temporary files without appropriate measures or controls can leave the file, its contents and any function that it impacts vulnerable to attack.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Creation of Temporary File in Directory with Insecure Permissions - (379)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues) > 379 (Creation of Temporary File in Directory with Insecure Permissions)
The software creates a temporary file in a directory whose permissions allow unintended actors to determine the file's existence or otherwise access that file.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Untrusted Search Path - (426)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path)
The application searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the application's direct control.Untrusted Path
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Uncontrolled Search Path Element - (427)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues) > 427 (Uncontrolled Search Path Element)
The product uses a fixed or controlled search path to find resources, but one or more locations in that path can be under the control of unintended actors.DLL preloadingBinary plantingInsecure library loading
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unquoted Search Path or Element - (428)
699 (Software Development) > 1219 (File Handling Issues) > 428 (Unquoted Search Path or Element)
The product uses a search path that contains an unquoted element, in which the element contains whitespace or other separators. This can cause the product to access resources in a parent path.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Encapsulation Issues - (1227)
699 (Software Development) > 1227 (Encapsulation Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to issues surrounding the bundling of data with the methods intended to operate on that data.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invocation of a Control Element at an Unnecessarily Deep Horizontal Layer - (1054)
699 (Software Development) > 1227 (Encapsulation Issues) > 1054 (Invocation of a Control Element at an Unnecessarily Deep Horizontal Layer)
The code at one architectural layer invokes code that resides at a deeper layer than the adjacent layer, i.e., the invocation skips at least one layer, and the invoked code is not part of a vertical utility layer that can be referenced from any horizontal layer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Data Access Operations Outside of Expected Data Manager Component - (1057)
699 (Software Development) > 1227 (Encapsulation Issues) > 1057 (Data Access Operations Outside of Expected Data Manager Component)
The software uses a dedicated, central data manager component as required by design, but it contains code that performs data-access operations that do not use this data manager.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Parent Class with References to Child Class - (1062)
699 (Software Development) > 1227 (Encapsulation Issues) > 1062 (Parent Class with References to Child Class)
The code has a parent class that contains references to a child class, its methods, or its members.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Data Access from Outside Expected Data Manager Component - (1083)
699 (Software Development) > 1227 (Encapsulation Issues) > 1083 (Data Access from Outside Expected Data Manager Component)
The software is intended to manage data access through a particular data manager component such as a relational or non-SQL database, but it contains code that performs data access operations without using that component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Method Containing Access of a Member Element from Another Class - (1090)
699 (Software Development) > 1227 (Encapsulation Issues) > 1090 (Method Containing Access of a Member Element from Another Class)
A method for a class performs an operation that directly accesses a member element from another class.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Isolation of System-Dependent Functions - (1100)
699 (Software Development) > 1227 (Encapsulation Issues) > 1100 (Insufficient Isolation of System-Dependent Functions)
The product or code does not isolate system-dependent functionality into separate standalone modules.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Encapsulation of Machine-Dependent Functionality - (1105)
699 (Software Development) > 1227 (Encapsulation Issues) > 1105 (Insufficient Encapsulation of Machine-Dependent Functionality)
The product or code uses machine-dependent functionality, but it does not sufficiently encapsulate or isolate this functionality from the rest of the code.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes - (389)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes)
This category includes weaknesses that occur if a function does not generate the correct return/status code, or if the application does not handle all possible return/status codes that could be generated by a function. This type of problem is most often found in conditions that are rarely encountered during the normal operation of the product. Presumably, most bugs related to common conditions are found and eliminated during development and testing. In some cases, the attacker can directly control or influence the environment to trigger the rare conditions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Generation of Error Message Containing Sensitive Information - (209)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 209 (Generation of Error Message Containing Sensitive Information)
The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Uncaught Exception - (248)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 248 (Uncaught Exception)
An exception is thrown from a function, but it is not caught.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unchecked Return Value - (252)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 252 (Unchecked Return Value)
The software does not check the return value from a method or function, which can prevent it from detecting unexpected states and conditions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Check of Function Return Value - (253)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 253 (Incorrect Check of Function Return Value)
The software incorrectly checks a return value from a function, which prevents the software from detecting errors or exceptional conditions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Detection of Error Condition Without Action - (390)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 390 (Detection of Error Condition Without Action)
The software detects a specific error, but takes no actions to handle the error.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unchecked Error Condition - (391)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 391 (Unchecked Error Condition)
[PLANNED FOR DEPRECATION. SEE MAINTENANCE NOTES.] Ignoring exceptions and other error conditions may allow an attacker to induce unexpected behavior unnoticed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Report of Error Condition - (392)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 392 (Missing Report of Error Condition)
The software encounters an error but does not provide a status code or return value to indicate that an error has occurred.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Return of Wrong Status Code - (393)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 393 (Return of Wrong Status Code)
A function or operation returns an incorrect return value or status code that does not indicate an error, but causes the product to modify its behavior based on the incorrect result.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unexpected Status Code or Return Value - (394)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 394 (Unexpected Status Code or Return Value)
The software does not properly check when a function or operation returns a value that is legitimate for the function, but is not expected by the software.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference - (395)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 395 (Use of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference)
Catching NullPointerException should not be used as an alternative to programmatic checks to prevent dereferencing a null pointer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception - (396)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 396 (Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception)
Catching overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception - (397)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 397 (Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception)
Throwing overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism - (544)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 544 (Missing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism)
The software does not use a standardized method for handling errors throughout the code, which might introduce inconsistent error handling and resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Return Inside Finally Block - (584)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 584 (Return Inside Finally Block)
The code has a return statement inside a finally block, which will cause any thrown exception in the try block to be discarded.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Uncaught Exception in Servlet - (600)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 600 (Uncaught Exception in Servlet )
The Servlet does not catch all exceptions, which may reveal sensitive debugging information.Missing Catch Block
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reachable Assertion - (617)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 617 (Reachable Assertion)
The product contains an assert() or similar statement that can be triggered by an attacker, which leads to an application exit or other behavior that is more severe than necessary.assertion failure
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Custom Error Page - (756)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 756 (Missing Custom Error Page)
The software does not return custom error pages to the user, possibly exposing sensitive information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Empty Exception Block - (1069)
699 (Software Development) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 1069 (Empty Exception Block)
An invokable code block contains an exception handling block that does not contain any code, i.e. is empty.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Expression Issues - (569)
699 (Software Development) > 569 (Expression Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to incorrectly written expressions within code.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Incorrect Operator - (480)
699 (Software Development) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator)
The programmer accidentally uses the wrong operator, which changes the application logic in security-relevant ways.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Expression is Always False - (570)
699 (Software Development) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 570 (Expression is Always False)
The software contains an expression that will always evaluate to false.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Expression is Always True - (571)
699 (Software Development) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 571 (Expression is Always True)
The software contains an expression that will always evaluate to true.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer - (588)
699 (Software Development) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 588 (Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer)
Casting a non-structure type to a structure type and accessing a field can lead to memory access errors or data corruption.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents - (595)
699 (Software Development) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 595 (Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents)
The program compares object references instead of the contents of the objects themselves, preventing it from detecting equivalent objects.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Operator Precedence Logic Error - (783)
699 (Software Development) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 783 (Operator Precedence Logic Error)
The program uses an expression in which operator precedence causes incorrect logic to be used.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Handler Errors - (429)
699 (Software Development) > 429 (Handler Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper management of handlers.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Deployment of Wrong Handler - (430)
699 (Software Development) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 430 (Deployment of Wrong Handler)
The wrong "handler" is assigned to process an object.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Handler - (431)
699 (Software Development) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 431 (Missing Handler)
A handler is not available or implemented.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations - (432)
699 (Software Development) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 432 (Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations)
The application uses a signal handler that shares state with other signal handlers, but it does not properly mask or prevent those signal handlers from being invoked while the original signal handler is still running.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery - (433)
699 (Software Development) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 433 (Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery)
The software stores raw content or supporting code under the web document root with an extension that is not specifically handled by the server.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type - (434)
699 (Software Development) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 434 (Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type)
The software allows the attacker to upload or transfer files of dangerous types that can be automatically processed within the product's environment.Unrestricted File Upload
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function - (479)
699 (Software Development) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 479 (Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function)
The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Information Management Errors - (199)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of sensitive information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insertion of Sensitive Information Into Sent Data - (201)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 201 (Insertion of Sensitive Information Into Sent Data)
The code transmits data to another actor, but a portion of the data includes sensitive information that should not be accessible to that actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Observable Response Discrepancy - (204)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 204 (Observable Response Discrepancy)
The product provides different responses to incoming requests in a way that reveals internal state information to an unauthorized actor outside of the intended control sphere.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Observable Behavioral Discrepancy - (205)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 205 (Observable Behavioral Discrepancy)
The product's behaviors indicate important differences that may be observed by unauthorized actors in a way that reveals (1) its internal state or decision process, or (2) differences from other products with equivalent functionality.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Observable Timing Discrepancy - (208)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 208 (Observable Timing Discrepancy)
Two separate operations in a product require different amounts of time to complete, in a way that is observable to an actor and reveals security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Generation of Error Message Containing Sensitive Information - (209)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 209 (Generation of Error Message Containing Sensitive Information)
The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Removal of Sensitive Information Before Storage or Transfer - (212)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 212 (Improper Removal of Sensitive Information Before Storage or Transfer)
The product stores, transfers, or shares a resource that contains sensitive information, but it does not properly remove that information before the product makes the resource available to unauthorized actors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Sensitive Information Due to Incompatible Policies - (213)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 213 (Exposure of Sensitive Information Due to Incompatible Policies)
The product's intended functionality exposes information to certain actors in accordance with the developer's security policy, but this information is regarded as sensitive according to the intended security policies of other stakeholders such as the product's administrator, users, or others whose information is being processed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invocation of Process Using Visible Sensitive Information - (214)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 214 (Invocation of Process Using Visible Sensitive Information)
A process is invoked with sensitive command-line arguments, environment variables, or other elements that can be seen by other processes on the operating system.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insertion of Sensitive Information Into Debugging Code - (215)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 215 (Insertion of Sensitive Information Into Debugging Code)
The application inserts sensitive information into debugging code, which could expose this information if the debugging code is not disabled in production.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information - (312)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within a resource that might be accessible to another control sphere.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information - (319)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 319 (Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information)
The software transmits sensitive or security-critical data in cleartext in a communication channel that can be sniffed by unauthorized actors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Private Personal Information to an Unauthorized Actor - (359)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 359 (Exposure of Private Personal Information to an Unauthorized Actor)
The product does not properly prevent a person's private, personal information from being accessed by actors who either (1) are not explicitly authorized to access the information or (2) do not have the implicit consent of the person about whom the information is collected.Privacy violationPrivacy leakPrivacy leakage
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Sensitive System Information to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (497)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 497 (Exposure of Sensitive System Information to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The application does not properly prevent sensitive system-level information from being accessed by unauthorized actors who do not have the same level of access to the underlying system as the application does.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Cache Containing Sensitive Information - (524)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 524 (Use of Cache Containing Sensitive Information)
The code uses a cache that contains sensitive information, but the cache can be read by an actor outside of the intended control sphere.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insertion of Sensitive Information into Log File - (532)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 532 (Insertion of Sensitive Information into Log File)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inclusion of Sensitive Information in Source Code - (540)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 540 (Inclusion of Sensitive Information in Source Code)
Source code on a web server or repository often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Storage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control - (921)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 921 (Storage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control)
The software stores sensitive information in a file system or device that does not have built-in access control.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Metadata - (1230)
699 (Software Development) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 1230 (Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Metadata)
The product prevents direct access to a resource containing sensitive information, but it does not sufficiently limit access to metadata that is derived from the original, sensitive information.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Initialization and Cleanup Errors - (452)
699 (Software Development) > 452 (Initialization and Cleanup Errors)
Weaknesses in this category occur in behaviors that are used for initialization and breakdown.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Sensitive Information in Resource Not Removed Before Reuse - (226)
699 (Software Development) > 452 (Initialization and Cleanup Errors) > 226 (Sensitive Information in Resource Not Removed Before Reuse)
When a device releases a resource such as memory or a file for reuse by other entities, information contained in the resource is not fully cleared prior to reuse of the resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.External Initialization of Trusted Variables or Data Stores - (454)
699 (Software Development) > 452 (Initialization and Cleanup Errors) > 454 (External Initialization of Trusted Variables or Data Stores)
The software initializes critical internal variables or data stores using inputs that can be modified by untrusted actors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Non-exit on Failed Initialization - (455)
699 (Software Development) > 452 (Initialization and Cleanup Errors) > 455 (Non-exit on Failed Initialization)
The software does not exit or otherwise modify its operation when security-relevant errors occur during initialization, such as when a configuration file has a format error, which can cause the software to execute in a less secure fashion than intended by the administrator.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Cleanup - (459)
699 (Software Development) > 452 (Initialization and Cleanup Errors) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup)
The software does not properly "clean up" and remove temporary or supporting resources after they have been used.Insufficient Cleanup
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Cleanup on Thrown Exception - (460)
699 (Software Development) > 452 (Initialization and Cleanup Errors) > 460 (Improper Cleanup on Thrown Exception)
The product does not clean up its state or incorrectly cleans up its state when an exception is thrown, leading to unexpected state or control flow.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Initialization with Hard-Coded Network Resource Configuration Data - (1051)
699 (Software Development) > 452 (Initialization and Cleanup Errors) > 1051 (Initialization with Hard-Coded Network Resource Configuration Data)
The software initializes data using hard-coded values that act as network resource identifiers.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Use of Hard-Coded Literals in Initialization - (1052)
699 (Software Development) > 452 (Initialization and Cleanup Errors) > 1052 (Excessive Use of Hard-Coded Literals in Initialization)
The software initializes a data element using a hard-coded literal that is not a simple integer or static constant element.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insecure Default Initialization of Resource - (1188)
699 (Software Development) > 452 (Initialization and Cleanup Errors) > 1188 (Insecure Default Initialization of Resource)
The software initializes or sets a resource with a default that is intended to be changed by the administrator, but the default is not secure.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Data Validation Issues - (1215)
699 (Software Development) > 1215 (Data Validation Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to a software system's components for input validation, output validation, or other kinds of validation. Validation is a frequently-used technique for ensuring that data conforms to expectations before it is further processed as input or output. There are many varieties of validation (see CWE-20, which is just for input validation). Validation is distinct from other techniques that attempt to modify data before processing it, although developers may consider all attempts to product "safe" inputs or outputs as some kind of validation. Regardless, validation is a powerful tool that is often used to minimize malformed data from entering the system, or indirectly avoid code injection or other potentially-malicious patterns when generating output. The weaknesses in this category could lead to a degradation of the quality of data flow in a system if they are not addressed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing XML Validation - (112)
699 (Software Development) > 1215 (Data Validation Issues) > 112 (Missing XML Validation)
The software accepts XML from an untrusted source but does not validate the XML against the proper schema.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Array Index - (129)
699 (Software Development) > 1215 (Data Validation Issues) > 129 (Improper Validation of Array Index)
The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index references a valid position within the array.out-of-bounds array indexindex-out-of-rangearray index underflow
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation - (179)
699 (Software Development) > 1215 (Data Validation Issues) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation)
The software validates input before applying protection mechanisms that modify the input, which could allow an attacker to bypass the validation via dangerous inputs that only arise after the modification.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Permissive List of Allowed Inputs - (183)
699 (Software Development) > 1215 (Data Validation Issues) > 183 (Permissive List of Allowed Inputs)
The product implements a protection mechanism that relies on a list of inputs (or properties of inputs) that are explicitly allowed by policy because the inputs are assumed to be safe, but the list is too permissive - that is, it allows an input that is unsafe, leading to resultant weaknesses.Allowlist / Allow ListSafelist / Safe ListWhitelist / White List
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete List of Disallowed Inputs - (184)
699 (Software Development) > 1215 (Data Validation Issues) > 184 (Incomplete List of Disallowed Inputs)
The product implements a protection mechanism that relies on a list of inputs (or properties of inputs) that are not allowed by policy or otherwise require other action to neutralize before additional processing takes place, but the list is incomplete, leading to resultant weaknesses.Denylist / Deny ListBlocklist / Block ListBlacklist / Black List
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unchecked Input for Loop Condition - (606)
699 (Software Development) > 1215 (Data Validation Issues) > 606 (Unchecked Input for Loop Condition)
The product does not properly check inputs that are used for loop conditions, potentially leading to a denial of service or other consequences because of excessive looping.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources - (641)
699 (Software Development) > 1215 (Data Validation Issues) > 641 (Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources)
The application constructs the name of a file or other resource using input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the resulting name.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Use of Validation Framework - (1173)
699 (Software Development) > 1215 (Data Validation Issues) > 1173 (Improper Use of Validation Framework)
The application does not use, or incorrectly uses, an input validation framework that is provided by the source language or an independent library.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Lockout Mechanism Errors - (1216)
699 (Software Development) > 1216 (Lockout Mechanism Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to a software system's lockout mechanism. Frequently these deal with scenarios that take effect in case of multiple failed attempts to access a given resource. The weaknesses in this category could lead to a degradation of access to system assets if they are not addressed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism - (645)
699 (Software Development) > 1216 (Lockout Mechanism Errors) > 645 (Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism)
The software contains an account lockout protection mechanism, but the mechanism is too restrictive and can be triggered too easily, which allows attackers to deny service to legitimate users by causing their accounts to be locked out.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Memory Buffer Errors - (1218)
699 (Software Development) > 1218 (Memory Buffer Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the handling of memory buffers within a software system.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow') - (120)
699 (Software Development) > 1218 (Memory Buffer Errors) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow'))
The program copies an input buffer to an output buffer without verifying that the size of the input buffer is less than the size of the output buffer, leading to a buffer overflow.Classic Buffer OverflowUnbounded Transfer
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Write-what-where Condition - (123)
699 (Software Development) > 1218 (Memory Buffer Errors) > 123 (Write-what-where Condition)
Any condition where the attacker has the ability to write an arbitrary value to an arbitrary location, often as the result of a buffer overflow.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
699 (Software Development) > 1218 (Memory Buffer Errors) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.buffer underrun
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Out-of-bounds Read - (125)
699 (Software Development) > 1218 (Memory Buffer Errors) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read)
The software reads data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size - (131)
699 (Software Development) > 1218 (Memory Buffer Errors) > 131 (Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size)
The software does not correctly calculate the size to be used when allocating a buffer, which could lead to a buffer overflow.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer - (786)
699 (Software Development) > 1218 (Memory Buffer Errors) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Out-of-bounds Write - (787)
699 (Software Development) > 1218 (Memory Buffer Errors) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write)
The software writes data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.Memory Corruption
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer - (788)
699 (Software Development) > 1218 (Memory Buffer Errors) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location after the end of the buffer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value - (805)
699 (Software Development) > 1218 (Memory Buffer Errors) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value)
The software uses a sequential operation to read or write a buffer, but it uses an incorrect length value that causes it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Numeric Errors - (189)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper calculation or conversion of numbers.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Wrap-around Error - (128)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 128 (Wrap-around Error)
Wrap around errors occur whenever a value is incremented past the maximum value for its type and therefore "wraps around" to a very small, negative, or undefined value.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Integer Overflow or Wraparound - (190)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 190 (Integer Overflow or Wraparound)
The software performs a calculation that can produce an integer overflow or wraparound, when the logic assumes that the resulting value will always be larger than the original value. This can introduce other weaknesses when the calculation is used for resource management or execution control.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Integer Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound) - (191)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 191 (Integer Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound))
The product subtracts one value from another, such that the result is less than the minimum allowable integer value, which produces a value that is not equal to the correct result.Integer underflow
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Integer Coercion Error - (192)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 192 (Integer Coercion Error)
Integer coercion refers to a set of flaws pertaining to the type casting, extension, or truncation of primitive data types.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Off-by-one Error - (193)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 193 (Off-by-one Error)
A product calculates or uses an incorrect maximum or minimum value that is 1 more, or 1 less, than the correct value.off-by-five
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Numeric Truncation Error - (197)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 197 (Numeric Truncation Error)
Truncation errors occur when a primitive is cast to a primitive of a smaller size and data is lost in the conversion.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering - (198)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 198 (Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not account for byte ordering (e.g. big-endian and little-endian) when processing the input, causing an incorrect number or value to be used.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Divide By Zero - (369)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 369 (Divide By Zero)
The product divides a value by zero.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types - (681)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types)
When converting from one data type to another, such as long to integer, data can be omitted or translated in a way that produces unexpected values. If the resulting values are used in a sensitive context, then dangerous behaviors may occur.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Numeric Range Comparison Without Minimum Check - (839)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 839 (Numeric Range Comparison Without Minimum Check)
The program checks a value to ensure that it is less than or equal to a maximum, but it does not also verify that the value is greater than or equal to the minimum.Signed comparison
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Floating Point Comparison with Incorrect Operator - (1077)
699 (Software Development) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 1077 (Floating Point Comparison with Incorrect Operator)
The code performs a comparison such as an equality test between two float (floating point) values, but it uses comparison operators that do not account for the possibility of loss of precision.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Permission Issues - (275)
699 (Software Development) > 275 (Permission Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper assignment or handling of permissions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Default Permissions - (276)
699 (Software Development) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 276 (Incorrect Default Permissions)
During installation, installed file permissions are set to allow anyone to modify those files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insecure Inherited Permissions - (277)
699 (Software Development) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 277 (Insecure Inherited Permissions)
A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions - (278)
699 (Software Development) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 278 (Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions)
A product inherits a set of insecure permissions for an object, e.g. when copying from an archive file, without user awareness or involvement.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions - (279)
699 (Software Development) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 279 (Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions)
While it is executing, the software sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges - (280)
699 (Software Development) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 280 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges )
The application does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to access resources or functionality as specified by their permissions. This may cause it to follow unexpected code paths that may leave the application in an invalid state.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Preservation of Permissions - (281)
699 (Software Development) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 281 (Improper Preservation of Permissions)
The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrictive permissions than intended.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposed Unsafe ActiveX Method - (618)
699 (Software Development) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 618 (Exposed Unsafe ActiveX Method)
An ActiveX control is intended for use in a web browser, but it exposes dangerous methods that perform actions that are outside of the browser's security model (e.g. the zone or domain).
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Critical Data Element Declared Public - (766)
699 (Software Development) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 766 (Critical Data Element Declared Public)
The software declares a critical variable, field, or member to be public when intended security policy requires it to be private.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Access to Critical Private Variable via Public Method - (767)
699 (Software Development) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 767 (Access to Critical Private Variable via Public Method)
The software defines a public method that reads or modifies a private variable.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Pointer Issues - (465)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of pointers.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Return of Pointer Value Outside of Expected Range - (466)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 466 (Return of Pointer Value Outside of Expected Range)
A function can return a pointer to memory that is outside of the buffer that the pointer is expected to reference.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of sizeof() on a Pointer Type - (467)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 467 (Use of sizeof() on a Pointer Type)
The code calls sizeof() on a malloced pointer type, which always returns the wordsize/8. This can produce an unexpected result if the programmer intended to determine how much memory has been allocated.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Pointer Scaling - (468)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 468 (Incorrect Pointer Scaling)
In C and C++, one may often accidentally refer to the wrong memory due to the semantics of when math operations are implicitly scaled.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Pointer Subtraction to Determine Size - (469)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 469 (Use of Pointer Subtraction to Determine Size)
The application subtracts one pointer from another in order to determine size, but this calculation can be incorrect if the pointers do not exist in the same memory chunk.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.NULL Pointer Dereference - (476)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 476 (NULL Pointer Dereference)
A NULL pointer dereference occurs when the application dereferences a pointer that it expects to be valid, but is NULL, typically causing a crash or exit.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Assignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer - (587)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 587 (Assignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer)
The software sets a pointer to a specific address other than NULL or 0.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer - (588)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 588 (Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer)
Casting a non-structure type to a structure type and accessing a field can lead to memory access errors or data corruption.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference - (763)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference)
The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but calls the wrong release function or calls the appropriate release function incorrectly.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Untrusted Pointer Dereference - (822)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 822 (Untrusted Pointer Dereference)
The program obtains a value from an untrusted source, converts this value to a pointer, and dereferences the resulting pointer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Out-of-range Pointer Offset - (823)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 823 (Use of Out-of-range Pointer Offset)
The program performs pointer arithmetic on a valid pointer, but it uses an offset that can point outside of the intended range of valid memory locations for the resulting pointer.Untrusted pointer offset
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Access of Uninitialized Pointer - (824)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 824 (Access of Uninitialized Pointer)
The program accesses or uses a pointer that has not been initialized.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Expired Pointer Dereference - (825)
699 (Software Development) > 465 (Pointer Issues) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference)
The program dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.Dangling pointer
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Privilege Issues - (265)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues)
Weaknesses in this category occur with improper handling, assignment, or management of privileges. A privilege is a property of an agent, such as a user. It lets the agent do things that are not ordinarily allowed. For example, there are privileges which allow an agent to perform maintenance functions such as restart a computer.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Creation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory - (243)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 243 (Creation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory)
The program uses the chroot() system call to create a jail, but does not change the working directory afterward. This does not prevent access to files outside of the jail.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Execution with Unnecessary Privileges - (250)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 250 (Execution with Unnecessary Privileges)
The software performs an operation at a privilege level that is higher than the minimum level required, which creates new weaknesses or amplifies the consequences of other weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Privilege Assignment - (266)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment)
A product incorrectly assigns a privilege to a particular actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions - (267)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 267 (Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions)
A particular privilege, role, capability, or right can be used to perform unsafe actions that were not intended, even when it is assigned to the correct entity.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Privilege Chaining - (268)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 268 (Privilege Chaining)
Two distinct privileges, roles, capabilities, or rights can be combined in a way that allows an entity to perform unsafe actions that would not be allowed without that combination.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Privilege Context Switching Error - (270)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 270 (Privilege Context Switching Error)
The software does not properly manage privileges while it is switching between different contexts that have different privileges or spheres of control.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Least Privilege Violation - (272)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 272 (Least Privilege Violation)
The elevated privilege level required to perform operations such as chroot() should be dropped immediately after the operation is performed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Check for Dropped Privileges - (273)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 273 (Improper Check for Dropped Privileges)
The software attempts to drop privileges but does not check or incorrectly checks to see if the drop succeeded.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges - (274)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 274 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to perform an operation, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges - (280)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 280 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges )
The application does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to access resources or functionality as specified by their permissions. This may cause it to follow unexpected code paths that may leave the application in an invalid state.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Trust Boundary Violation - (501)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 501 (Trust Boundary Violation)
The product mixes trusted and untrusted data in the same data structure or structured message.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.clone() Method Without super.clone() - (580)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 580 (clone() Method Without super.clone())
The software contains a clone() method that does not call super.clone() to obtain the new object.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs - (648)
699 (Software Development) > 265 (Privilege Issues) > 648 (Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs)
The application does not conform to the API requirements for a function call that requires extra privileges. This could allow attackers to gain privileges by causing the function to be called incorrectly.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Random Number Issues - (1213)
699 (Software Development) > 1213 (Random Number Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to a software system's random number generation.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Entropy - (331)
699 (Software Development) > 1213 (Random Number Issues) > 331 (Insufficient Entropy)
The software uses an algorithm or scheme that produces insufficient entropy, leaving patterns or clusters of values that are more likely to occur than others.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Small Space of Random Values - (334)
699 (Software Development) > 1213 (Random Number Issues) > 334 (Small Space of Random Values)
The number of possible random values is smaller than needed by the product, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (335)
699 (Software Development) > 1213 (Random Number Issues) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
The software uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) that does not correctly manage seeds.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (338)
699 (Software Development) > 1213 (Random Number Issues) > 338 (Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
The product uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) in a security context, but the PRNG's algorithm is not cryptographically strong.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Predictable from Observable State - (341)
699 (Software Development) > 1213 (Random Number Issues) > 341 (Predictable from Observable State)
A number or object is predictable based on observations that the attacker can make about the state of the system or network, such as time, process ID, etc.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Predictable Exact Value from Previous Values - (342)
699 (Software Development) > 1213 (Random Number Issues) > 342 (Predictable Exact Value from Previous Values)
An exact value or random number can be precisely predicted by observing previous values.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Predictable Value Range from Previous Values - (343)
699 (Software Development) > 1213 (Random Number Issues) > 343 (Predictable Value Range from Previous Values)
The software's random number generator produces a series of values which, when observed, can be used to infer a relatively small range of possibilities for the next value that could be generated.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Predictable Algorithm in Random Number Generator - (1241)
699 (Software Development) > 1213 (Random Number Issues) > 1241 (Use of Predictable Algorithm in Random Number Generator)
The device uses an algorithm that is predictable and generates a pseudo-random number.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Resource Locking Problems - (411)
699 (Software Development) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of locks that are used to control access to resources.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock - (412)
699 (Software Development) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems) > 412 (Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock)
The software properly checks for the existence of a lock, but the lock can be externally controlled or influenced by an actor that is outside of the intended sphere of control.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Resource Locking - (413)
699 (Software Development) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems) > 413 (Improper Resource Locking)
The software does not lock or does not correctly lock a resource when the software must have exclusive access to the resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Lock Check - (414)
699 (Software Development) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems) > 414 (Missing Lock Check)
A product does not check to see if a lock is present before performing sensitive operations on a resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Double-Checked Locking - (609)
699 (Software Development) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems) > 609 (Double-Checked Locking)
The program uses double-checked locking to access a resource without the overhead of explicit synchronization, but the locking is insufficient.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource - (764)
699 (Software Development) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems) > 764 (Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource)
The software locks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource - (765)
699 (Software Development) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems) > 765 (Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource)
The software unlocks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked - (832)
699 (Software Development) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems) > 832 (Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked)
The software attempts to unlock a resource that is not locked.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Deadlock - (833)
699 (Software Development) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems) > 833 (Deadlock)
The software contains multiple threads or executable segments that are waiting for each other to release a necessary lock, resulting in deadlock.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Resource Management Errors - (399)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper management of system resources.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.External Control of File Name or Path - (73)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 73 (External Control of File Name or Path)
The software allows user input to control or influence paths or file names that are used in filesystem operations.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of File Descriptor to Unintended Control Sphere ('File Descriptor Leak') - (403)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 403 (Exposure of File Descriptor to Unintended Control Sphere ('File Descriptor Leak'))
A process does not close sensitive file descriptors before invoking a child process, which allows the child to perform unauthorized I/O operations using those descriptors.File descriptor leak
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Resource Pool - (410)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 410 (Insufficient Resource Pool)
The software's resource pool is not large enough to handle peak demand, which allows an attacker to prevent others from accessing the resource by using a (relatively) large number of requests for resources.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection') - (470)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 470 (Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection'))
The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper classes or code.Reflection Injection
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Deserialization of Untrusted Data - (502)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 502 (Deserialization of Untrusted Data)
The application deserializes untrusted data without sufficiently verifying that the resulting data will be valid.Marshaling, UnmarshalingPickling, UnpicklingPHP Object Injection
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Dangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection') - (619)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 619 (Dangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection'))
If a database cursor is not closed properly, then it could become accessible to other users while retaining the same privileges that were originally assigned, leaving the cursor "dangling."
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources - (641)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 641 (Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources)
The application constructs the name of a file or other resource using input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the resulting name.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier - (694)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 694 (Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier)
The software uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference - (763)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference)
The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but calls the wrong release function or calls the appropriate release function incorrectly.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling - (770)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on the size or number of resources that can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Reference to Active Allocated Resource - (771)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 771 (Missing Reference to Active Allocated Resource)
The software does not properly maintain a reference to a resource that has been allocated, which prevents the resource from being reclaimed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime - (772)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime)
The software does not release a resource after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the resource is no longer needed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Premature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime - (826)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 826 (Premature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime)
The program releases a resource that is still intended to be used by the program itself or another actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Uninitialized Resource - (908)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 908 (Use of Uninitialized Resource)
The software uses or accesses a resource that has not been initialized.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Initialization of Resource - (909)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 909 (Missing Initialization of Resource)
The software does not initialize a critical resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Expired File Descriptor - (910)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 910 (Use of Expired File Descriptor)
The software uses or accesses a file descriptor after it has been closed.Stale file descriptor
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Update of Reference Count - (911)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 911 (Improper Update of Reference Count)
The software uses a reference count to manage a resource, but it does not update or incorrectly updates the reference count.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables - (914)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables)
The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-identified variables.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes - (915)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 915 (Improperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes)
The software receives input from an upstream component that specifies multiple attributes, properties, or fields that are to be initialized or updated in an object, but it does not properly control which attributes can be modified.Mass AssignmentAutoBindingPHP Object Injection
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Power Consumption - (920)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 920 (Improper Restriction of Power Consumption)
The software operates in an environment in which power is a limited resource that cannot be automatically replenished, but the software does not properly restrict the amount of power that its operation consumes.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insecure Default Initialization of Resource - (1188)
699 (Software Development) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 1188 (Insecure Default Initialization of Resource)
The software initializes or sets a resource with a default that is intended to be changed by the administrator, but the default is not secure.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Signal Errors - (387)
699 (Software Development) > 387 (Signal Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the improper handling of signals.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Signal Handler Race Condition - (364)
699 (Software Development) > 387 (Signal Errors) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition)
The software uses a signal handler that introduces a race condition.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations - (432)
699 (Software Development) > 387 (Signal Errors) > 432 (Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations)
The application uses a signal handler that shares state with other signal handlers, but it does not properly mask or prevent those signal handlers from being invoked while the original signal handler is still running.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe - (828)
699 (Software Development) > 387 (Signal Errors) > 828 (Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe)
The software defines a signal handler that contains code sequences that are not asynchronous-safe, i.e., the functionality is not reentrant, or it can be interrupted.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Signal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals - (831)
699 (Software Development) > 387 (Signal Errors) > 831 (Signal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals)
The software defines a function that is used as a handler for more than one signal.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.State Issues - (371)
699 (Software Development) > 371 (State Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper management of system state.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.External Control of System or Configuration Setting - (15)
699 (Software Development) > 371 (State Issues) > 15 (External Control of System or Configuration Setting)
One or more system settings or configuration elements can be externally controlled by a user.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Internal State Distinction - (372)
699 (Software Development) > 371 (State Issues) > 372 (Incomplete Internal State Distinction)
The software does not properly determine which state it is in, causing it to assume it is in state X when in fact it is in state Y, causing it to perform incorrect operations in a security-relevant manner.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Passing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method - (374)
699 (Software Development) > 371 (State Issues) > 374 (Passing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method)
The program sends non-cloned mutable data as an argument to a method or function.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Returning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller - (375)
699 (Software Development) > 371 (State Issues) > 375 (Returning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller)
Sending non-cloned mutable data as a return value may result in that data being altered or deleted by the calling function.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unintended Reentrant Invocation of Non-reentrant Code Via Nested Calls - (1265)
699 (Software Development) > 371 (State Issues) > 1265 (Unintended Reentrant Invocation of Non-reentrant Code Via Nested Calls)
During execution of non-reentrant code, the software performs a call that unintentionally produces a nested invocation of the non-reentrant code.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.String Errors - (133)
699 (Software Development) > 133 (String Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the creation and modification of strings.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Externally-Controlled Format String - (134)
699 (Software Development) > 133 (String Errors) > 134 (Use of Externally-Controlled Format String)
The software uses a function that accepts a format string as an argument, but the format string originates from an external source.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length - (135)
699 (Software Development) > 133 (String Errors) > 135 (Incorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length)
The software does not correctly calculate the length of strings that can contain wide or multi-byte characters.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison - (597)
699 (Software Development) > 133 (String Errors) > 597 (Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison)
The product uses the wrong operator when comparing a string, such as using "==" when the equals() method should be used instead.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Type Errors - (136)
699 (Software Development) > 136 (Type Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are caused by improper data type transformation or improper handling of multiple data types.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types - (681)
699 (Software Development) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types)
When converting from one data type to another, such as long to integer, data can be omitted or translated in a way that produces unexpected values. If the resulting values are used in a sensitive context, then dangerous behaviors may occur.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Access of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion') - (843)
699 (Software Development) > 136 (Type Errors) > 843 (Access of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion'))
The program allocates or initializes a resource such as a pointer, object, or variable using one type, but it later accesses that resource using a type that is incompatible with the original type.Object Type Confusion
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.User Interface Security Issues - (355)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to or introduced in the User Interface (UI).
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI - (317)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues) > 317 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within the GUI.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Product UI does not Warn User of Unsafe Actions - (356)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues) > 356 (Product UI does not Warn User of Unsafe Actions)
The software's user interface does not warn the user before undertaking an unsafe action on behalf of that user. This makes it easier for attackers to trick users into inflicting damage to their system.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient UI Warning of Dangerous Operations - (357)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues) > 357 (Insufficient UI Warning of Dangerous Operations)
The user interface provides a warning to a user regarding dangerous or sensitive operations, but the warning is not noticeable enough to warrant attention.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unimplemented or Unsupported Feature in UI - (447)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues) > 447 (Unimplemented or Unsupported Feature in UI)
A UI function for a security feature appears to be supported and gives feedback to the user that suggests that it is supported, but the underlying functionality is not implemented.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Obsolete Feature in UI - (448)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues) > 448 (Obsolete Feature in UI)
A UI function is obsolete and the product does not warn the user.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.The UI Performs the Wrong Action - (449)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues) > 449 (The UI Performs the Wrong Action)
The UI performs the wrong action with respect to the user's request.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Multiple Interpretations of UI Input - (450)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues) > 450 (Multiple Interpretations of UI Input)
The UI has multiple interpretations of user input but does not prompt the user when it selects the less secure interpretation.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Password Field Masking - (549)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues) > 549 (Missing Password Field Masking)
The software does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Visual Distinction of Homoglyphs Presented to User - (1007)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues) > 1007 (Insufficient Visual Distinction of Homoglyphs Presented to User)
The software displays information or identifiers to a user, but the display mechanism does not make it easy for the user to distinguish between visually similar or identical glyphs (homoglyphs), which may cause the user to misinterpret a glyph and perform an unintended, insecure action.Homograph Attack
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames - (1021)
699 (Software Development) > 355 (User Interface Security Issues) > 1021 (Improper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames)
The web application does not restrict or incorrectly restricts frame objects or UI layers that belong to another application or domain, which can lead to user confusion about which interface the user is interacting with.ClickjackingUI Redress AttackTapjacking
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.User Session Errors - (1217)
699 (Software Development) > 1217 (User Session Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to session management. Frequently these deal with the information or status about each user and their access rights for the duration of multiple requests. The weaknesses in this category could lead to a degradation of the quality of session management if they are not addressed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Data Element to Wrong Session - (488)
699 (Software Development) > 1217 (User Session Errors) > 488 (Exposure of Data Element to Wrong Session)
The product does not sufficiently enforce boundaries between the states of different sessions, causing data to be provided to, or used by, the wrong session.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Session Expiration - (613)
699 (Software Development) > 1217 (User Session Errors) > 613 (Insufficient Session Expiration)
According to WASC, "Insufficient Session Expiration is when a web site permits an attacker to reuse old session credentials or session IDs for authorization."
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow - (841)
699 (Software Development) > 1217 (User Session Errors) > 841 (Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow)
The software supports a session in which more than one behavior must be performed by an actor, but it does not properly ensure that the actor performs the behaviors in the required sequence.
+ Notes

Other

The top level categories in this view represent commonly understood areas/terms within software development, and are meant to aid the user in identifying potential related weaknesses. It is possible for the same weakness to exist within multiple different categories.

Other

This view attempts to present weaknesses in a simple and intuitive way. As such it targets a single level of abstraction. It is important to realize that not every CWE will be represented in this view. High-level class weaknesses and low-level variant weaknesses are mostly ignored. However, by exploring the weaknesses that are included, and following the defined relationships, one can find these higher and lower level weaknesses.
+ View Metrics
CWEs in this viewTotal CWEs
Weaknesses418out of 891
Categories40out of 316
Views0out of 41
Total458out of1248
+ Content History
+ Submissions
Submission DateSubmitterOrganization
2008-09-09CWE Content TeamMITRE
+ Modifications
Modification DateModifierOrganization
2017-01-19CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Maintenance_Notes, Relationships
2017-05-03CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships
2017-11-08CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Maintenance_Notes, Relationships
2018-03-27CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Description, View_Audience
2020-02-24CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Description, Name, Other_Notes, Relationships, View_Audience
2020-08-20CWE Content TeamMITRE
updated Relationships
+ Previous Entry Names
Change DatePrevious Entry Name
2020-02-24Development Concepts
More information is available — Please select a different filter.
Page Last Updated: August 20, 2020