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A Community-Developed Dictionary of Software Weakness Types

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Home > CWE List > VIEW GRAPH: CWE-699: Development Concepts (Version 2.8)  

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CWE-699: Development Concepts

 
Development Concepts
Definition in a New Window Definition in a New Window
View ID: 699 (View: Graph)Status: Incomplete
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View Objective

This view organizes weaknesses around concepts that are frequently used or encountered in software development. Accordingly, this view can align closely with the perspectives of developers, educators, and assessment vendors. It borrows heavily from the organizational structure used by Seven Pernicious Kingdoms, but it also provides a variety of other categories that are intended to simplify navigation, browsing, and mapping.

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CWEs in this viewTotal CWEs
Total756out of1003
Views4out of32
Categories65out of244
Weaknesses682out of719
Compound_Elements5out of8
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StakeholderDescription
Assessment_Vendors
Developers
Educators
+ Relationships
NatureTypeIDNameView(s) this relationship pertains toView(s)
HasMemberCategoryCategory1Location
Development Concepts (primary)699
HasMemberCategoryCategory504Motivation/Intent
Development Concepts (primary)699
HasMemberViewView629Weaknesses in OWASP Top Ten (2007)
Development Concepts (primary)699
HasMemberViewView631Resource-specific Weaknesses
Development Concepts (primary)699
HasMemberViewView701Weaknesses Introduced During Design
Development Concepts (primary)699
HasMemberViewView702Weaknesses Introduced During Implementation
Development Concepts (primary)699
+ Content History
Submissions
Submission DateSubmitterOrganizationSource
2008-09-09MITREInternal CWE Team
699 - Development Concepts
+CategoryCategoryLocation - (1)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location)
Weaknesses in this category are organized based on which phase they are introduced during the software development and deployment process.
+CategoryCategoryCode - (17)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code)
Weaknesses in this category are typically introduced during code development, including specification, design, and implementation.
+CategoryCategoryByte/Object Code - (503)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 503 (Byte/Object Code)
Weaknesses in this category are typically found within byte code or object code.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCompiler Removal of Code to Clear Buffers - (14)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 503 (Byte/Object Code) > 14 (Compiler Removal of Code to Clear Buffers)
Sensitive memory is cleared according to the source code, but compiler optimizations leave the memory untouched when it is not read from again, aka "dead store removal."
+CategoryCategoryMobile Code Issues - (490)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 503 (Byte/Object Code) > 490 (Mobile Code Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are frequently found in mobile code.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantArray Declared Public, Final, and Static - (582)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 503 (Byte/Object Code) > 490 (Mobile Code Issues) > 582 (Array Declared Public, Final, and Static)
The program declares an array public, final, and static, which is not sufficient to prevent the array's contents from being modified.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCritical Public Variable Without Final Modifier - (493)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 503 (Byte/Object Code) > 490 (Mobile Code Issues) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier)
The product has a critical public variable that is not final, which allows the variable to be modified to contain unexpected values.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPublic Static Field Not Marked Final - (500)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 503 (Byte/Object Code) > 490 (Mobile Code Issues) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier) > 500 (Public Static Field Not Marked Final)
An object contains a public static field that is not marked final, which might allow it to be modified in unexpected ways.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDownload of Code Without Integrity Check - (494)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 503 (Byte/Object Code) > 490 (Mobile Code Issues) > 494 (Download of Code Without Integrity Check)
The product downloads source code or an executable from a remote location and executes the code without sufficiently verifying the origin and integrity of the code.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPublic cloneable() Method Without Final ('Object Hijack') - (491)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 503 (Byte/Object Code) > 490 (Mobile Code Issues) > 491 (Public cloneable() Method Without Final ('Object Hijack'))
A class has a cloneable() method that is not declared final, which allows an object to be created without calling the constructor. This can cause the object to be in an unexpected state.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Inner Class Containing Sensitive Data - (492)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 503 (Byte/Object Code) > 490 (Mobile Code Issues) > 492 (Use of Inner Class Containing Sensitive Data)
Inner classes are translated into classes that are accessible at package scope and may expose code that the programmer intended to keep private to attackers.
*Weakness VariantWeakness Variantfinalize() Method Declared Public - (583)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 503 (Byte/Object Code) > 490 (Mobile Code Issues) > 583 (finalize() Method Declared Public)
The program violates secure coding principles for mobile code by declaring a finalize() method public.
+CategoryCategorySource Code - (18)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code)
Weaknesses in this category are typically found within source code.
+CategoryCategoryBehavioral Problems - (438)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to unexpected behaviors from code that an application uses.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBehavioral Change in New Version or Environment - (439)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 439 (Behavioral Change in New Version or Environment)
A's behavior or functionality changes with a new version of A, or a new environment, which is not known (or manageable) by B.Functional change
+CategoryCategoryBusiness Logic Errors - (840)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors)
Weaknesses in this category identify some of the underlying problems that commonly allow attackers to manipulate the business logic of an application.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow - (841)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 841 (Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow)
The software supports a session in which more than one behavior must be performed by an actor, but it does not properly ensure that the actor performs the behaviors in the required sequence.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Behavior Order - (696)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 696 (Incorrect Behavior Order)
The software performs multiple related behaviors, but the behaviors are performed in the wrong order in ways which may produce resultant weaknesses.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOperation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime - (666)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime)
The software performs an operation on a resource at the wrong phase of the resource's lifecycle, which can lead to unexpected behaviors.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BasePremature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime - (826)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 826 (Premature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime)
The program releases a resource that is still intended to be used by the program itself or another actor.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAllocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling - (770)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many resources can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUncontrolled Memory Allocation - (789)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling) > 789 (Uncontrolled Memory Allocation)
The product allocates memory based on an untrusted size value, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the size, allowing arbitrary amounts of memory to be allocated.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAuthentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel - (288)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel)
A product requires authentication, but the product has an alternate path or channel that does not require authentication.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key - (639)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key)
The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.Insecure Direct Object ReferenceHorizontal Authorization
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key - (566)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key) > 566 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key)
The software uses a database table that includes records that should not be accessible to an actor, but it executes a SQL statement with a primary key that can be controlled by that actor.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Authorization - (285)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization)
The software does not perform or incorrectly performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Export of Android Application Components - (926)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 926 (Improper Export of Android Application Components)
The Android application exports a component for use by other applications, but does not properly restrict which applications can launch the component or access the data it contains.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Authorization - (863)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization)
The software performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action, but it does not correctly perform the check. This allows attackers to bypass intended access restrictions.AuthZ
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization - (551)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 551 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization)
If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions - (647)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 647 (Use of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions)
The software defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the assumption that a URL is canonical. This can allow a non-canonical URL to bypass the authorization.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassMissing Authorization - (862)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization)
The software does not perform an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key - (639)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key)
The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.Insecure Direct Object ReferenceHorizontal Authorization
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key - (566)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key) > 566 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key)
The software uses a database table that includes records that should not be accessible to an actor, but it executes a SQL statement with a primary key that can be controlled by that actor.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication - (927)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 927 (Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication)
The Android application uses an implicit intent for transmitting sensitive data to other applications.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions - (754)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions)
The software does not check or improperly checks for unusual or exceptional conditions that are not expected to occur frequently during day to day operation of the software.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Control of Interaction Frequency - (799)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 799 (Improper Control of Interaction Frequency)
The software does not properly limit the number or frequency of interactions that it has with an actor, such as the number of incoming requests.Insufficient anti-automationBrute force
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action - (837)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 799 (Improper Control of Interaction Frequency) > 837 (Improper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action)
The software requires that an actor should only be able to perform an action once, or to have only one unique action, but the software does not enforce or improperly enforces this restriction.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Ownership Management - (282)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management)
The software assigns the wrong ownership, or does not properly verify the ownership, of an object or resource.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Ownership Assignment - (708)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management) > 708 (Incorrect Ownership Assignment)
The software assigns an owner to a resource, but the owner is outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnverified Ownership - (283)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management) > 283 (Unverified Ownership)
The software does not properly verify that a critical resource is owned by the proper entity.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification - (408)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 408 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification)
The software allows an entity to perform a legitimate but expensive operation before authentication or authorization has taken place.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The software specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Semantic Object Comparison - (596)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 596 (Incorrect Semantic Object Comparison)
The software does not correctly compare two objects based on their conceptual content.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInformation Exposure - (200)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure)
An information exposure is the intentional or unintentional disclosure of information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have access to that information.Information LeakInformation Disclosure
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Sensitive Data Through Data Queries - (202)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 202 (Exposure of Sensitive Data Through Data Queries)
When trying to keep information confidential, an attacker can often infer some of the information by using statistics.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of System Data to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (497)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 497 (Exposure of System Data to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
Exposing system data or debugging information helps an adversary learn about the system and form an attack plan.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseFile and Directory Information Exposure - (538)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure)
The product stores sensitive information in files or directories that are accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (529)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 529 (Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores access control list files in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (530)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 530 (Exposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
A backup file is stored in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (527)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 527 (Exposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores a CVS repository in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (528)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 528 (Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product generates a core dump file in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Directory Listing - (548)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 548 (Information Exposure Through Directory Listing)
A directory listing is inappropriately exposed, yielding potentially sensitive information to attackers.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Log Files - (532)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files - (542)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 542 (Information Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files)
The application does not properly protect or delete a log file related to cleanup.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Log Files - (534)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 534 (Information Exposure Through Debug Log Files)
The application does not sufficiently restrict access to a log file that is used for debugging.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Server Log Files - (533)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 533 (Information Exposure Through Server Log Files)
A server.log file was found. This can give information on whatever application left the file. Usually this can give full path names and system information, and sometimes usernames and passwords.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Persistent Cookies - (539)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 539 (Information Exposure Through Persistent Cookies)
Persistent cookies are cookies that are stored on the browser's hard drive. This can cause security and privacy issues depending on the information stored in the cookie and how it is accessed.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Source Code - (540)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code)
Source code on a web server often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Comments - (615)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 615 (Information Exposure Through Comments)
While adding general comments is very useful, some programmers tend to leave important data, such as: filenames related to the web application, old links or links which were not meant to be browsed by users, old code fragments, etc.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Include Source Code - (541)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 541 (Information Exposure Through Include Source Code)
If an include file source is accessible, the file can contain usernames and passwords, as well as sensitive information pertaining to the application and system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Test Code - (531)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 531 (Information Exposure Through Test Code)
Accessible test applications can pose a variety of security risks. Since developers or administrators rarely consider that someone besides themselves would even know about the existence of these applications, it is common for them to contain sensitive information or functions.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through WSDL File - (651)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 651 (Information Exposure Through WSDL File)
The Web services architecture may require exposing a WSDL file that contains information on the publicly accessible services and how callers of these services should interact with them (e.g. what parameters they expect and what types they return).
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data - (212)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 212 (Improper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data)
The software uses a resource that contains sensitive data, but it does not properly remove that data before it stores, transfers, or shares the resource with actors in another control sphere.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Caching - (524)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 524 (Information Exposure Through Caching)
The application uses a cache to maintain a pool of objects, threads, connections, pages, or passwords to minimize the time it takes to access them or the resources to which they connect. If implemented improperly, these caches can allow access to unauthorized information or cause a denial of service vulnerability.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Browser Caching - (525)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 524 (Information Exposure Through Caching) > 525 (Information Exposure Through Browser Caching)
For each web page, the application should have an appropriate caching policy specifying the extent to which the page and its form fields should be cached.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Information - (215)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 215 (Information Exposure Through Debug Information)
The application contains debugging code that can expose sensitive information to untrusted parties.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInformation Exposure Through Discrepancy - (203)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy)
The product behaves differently or sends different responses in a way that exposes security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy - (205)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy)
The product's actions indicate important differences based on (1) the internal state of the product or (2) differences from other products in the same class.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through an External Behavioral Inconsistency - (207)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy) > 207 (Information Exposure Through an External Behavioral Inconsistency)
The product behaves differently than other products like it, in a way that is observable to an attacker and exposes security-relevant information about which product is being used.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure of Internal State Through Behavioral Inconsistency - (206)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy) > 206 (Information Exposure of Internal State Through Behavioral Inconsistency)
Two separate operations in a product cause the product to behave differently in a way that is observable to an attacker and reveals security-relevant information about the internal state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Timing Discrepancy - (208)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 208 (Information Exposure Through Timing Discrepancy)
Two separate operations in a product require different amounts of time to complete, in a way that is observable to an actor and reveals security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseResponse Discrepancy Information Exposure - (204)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 204 (Response Discrepancy Information Exposure)
The software provides different responses to incoming requests in a way that allows an actor to determine system state information that is outside of that actor's control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Environmental Variables - (526)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 526 (Information Exposure Through Environmental Variables)
Environmental variables may contain sensitive information about a remote server.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Indexing of Private Data - (612)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 612 (Information Exposure Through Indexing of Private Data)
The product performs an indexing routine against private documents, but does not sufficiently verify that the actors who can access the index also have the privileges to access the private documents.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Process Environment - (214)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 214 (Information Exposure Through Process Environment)
A process is invoked with sensitive arguments, environment variables, or other elements that can be seen by other processes on the operating system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Query Strings in GET Request - (598)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 598 (Information Exposure Through Query Strings in GET Request)
The web application uses the GET method to process requests that contain sensitive information, which can expose that information through the browser's history, Referers, web logs, and other sources.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Sent Data - (201)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 201 (Information Exposure Through Sent Data)
The accidental exposure of sensitive information through sent data refers to the transmission of data which are either sensitive in and of itself or useful in the further exploitation of the system through standard data channels.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through an Error Message - (209)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message)
The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Externally-generated Error Message - (211)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 211 (Information Exposure Through Externally-generated Error Message)
The software performs an operation that triggers an external diagnostic or error message that is not directly generated by the software, such as an error generated by the programming language interpreter that the software uses. The error can contain sensitive system information.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message - (210)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message)
The software identifies an error condition and creates its own diagnostic or error messages that contain sensitive information.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message - (537)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 537 (Information Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message)
In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause unhandled exception errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message - (536)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 536 (Information Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message)
A servlet error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in your web application code and may provide useful information to an attacker.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Shell Error Message - (535)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 535 (Information Exposure Through Shell Error Message)
A command shell error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in the web application code. In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause these errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Server Error Message - (550)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 550 (Information Exposure Through Server Error Message)
Certain conditions, such as network failure, will cause a server error message to be displayed.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIntentional Information Exposure - (213)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 213 (Intentional Information Exposure)
A product's design or configuration explicitly requires the publication of information that could be regarded as sensitive by an administrator.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseSensitive Information Uncleared Before Release - (226)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release)
The software does not fully clear previously used information in a data structure, file, or other resource, before making that resource available to a party in another control sphere.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseWeak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password - (640)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 840 (Business Logic Errors) > 640 (Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password)
The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExpected Behavior Violation - (440)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 440 (Expected Behavior Violation)
A feature, API, or function being used by a product behaves differently than the product expects.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Control of Interaction Frequency - (799)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 799 (Improper Control of Interaction Frequency)
The software does not properly limit the number or frequency of interactions that it has with an actor, such as the number of incoming requests.Insufficient anti-automationBrute force
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action - (837)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 799 (Improper Control of Interaction Frequency) > 837 (Improper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action)
The software requires that an actor should only be able to perform an action once, or to have only one unique action, but the software does not enforce or improperly enforces this restriction.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow - (841)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 438 (Behavioral Problems) > 841 (Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow)
The software supports a session in which more than one behavior must be performed by an actor, but it does not properly ensure that the actor performs the behaviors in the required sequence.
+CategoryCategoryChannel and Path Errors - (417)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of communication channels and access paths.
+CategoryCategoryChannel Errors - (418)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 418 (Channel Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of communication channels.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnprotected Alternate Channel - (420)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 418 (Channel Errors) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel)
The software protects a primary channel, but it does not use the same level of protection for an alternate channel.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseRace Condition During Access to Alternate Channel - (421)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 418 (Channel Errors) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel) > 421 (Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel)
The product opens an alternate channel to communicate with an authorized user, but the channel is accessible to other actors.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter') - (422)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 418 (Channel Errors) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel) > 422 (Unprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter'))
The software does not properly verify the source of a message in the Windows Messaging System while running at elevated privileges, creating an alternate channel through which an attacker can directly send a message to the product.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnprotected Primary Channel - (419)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 418 (Channel Errors) > 419 (Unprotected Primary Channel)
The software uses a primary channel for administration or restricted functionality, but it does not properly protect the channel.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassCovert Channel - (514)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 418 (Channel Errors) > 514 (Covert Channel)
A covert channel is a path that can be used to transfer information in a way not intended by the system's designers.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCovert Storage Channel - (515)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 418 (Channel Errors) > 514 (Covert Channel) > 515 (Covert Storage Channel)
A covert storage channel transfers information through the setting of bits by one program and the reading of those bits by another. What distinguishes this case from that of ordinary operation is that the bits are used to convey encoded information.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCovert Timing Channel - (385)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 418 (Channel Errors) > 514 (Covert Channel) > 385 (Covert Timing Channel)
Covert timing channels convey information by modulating some aspect of system behavior over time, so that the program receiving the information can observe system behavior and infer protected information.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Protection of Alternate Path - (424)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path)
The product does not sufficiently protect all possible paths that a user can take to access restricted functionality or resources.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUncontrolled Search Path Element - (427)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 427 (Uncontrolled Search Path Element)
The product uses a fixed or controlled search path to find resources, but one or more locations in that path can be under the control of unintended actors.DLL preloadingBinary plantingInsecure library loading
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnquoted Search Path or Element - (428)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 428 (Unquoted Search Path or Element)
The product uses a search path that contains an unquoted element, in which the element contains whitespace or other separators. This can cause the product to access resources in a parent path.
+Compound Element: CompositeCompound Element: CompositeUntrusted Search Path - (426)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path)
The application searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the application's direct control.Untrusted Path
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassContainment Errors (Container Errors) - (216)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors))
This tries to cover various problems in which improper data are included within a "container."
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseModification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID) - (471)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID))
The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.
*CategoryCategoryPermission Issues - (275)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 417 (Channel and Path Errors) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path) > 275 (Permission Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper assignment or handling of permissions.
+CategoryCategoryData Handling - (19)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling)
Weaknesses in this category are typically found in functionality that processes data.
+CategoryCategoryData Structure Issues - (461)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 461 (Data Structure Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of specific data structures.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAddition of Data Structure Sentinel - (464)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 461 (Data Structure Issues) > 464 (Addition of Data Structure Sentinel)
The accidental addition of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDeletion of Data Structure Sentinel - (463)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 461 (Data Structure Issues) > 463 (Deletion of Data Structure Sentinel)
The accidental deletion of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDuplicate Key in Associative List (Alist) - (462)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 461 (Data Structure Issues) > 462 (Duplicate Key in Associative List (Alist))
Duplicate keys in associative lists can lead to non-unique keys being mistaken for an error.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error') - (118)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error'))
The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts operations within the boundaries of a resource that is accessed using an index or pointer, such as memory or files.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer - (119)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer)
The software performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.Memory Corruption
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAccess of Memory Location After End of Buffer - (788)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location after the end of the buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Over-read - (126)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantHeap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAccess of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer - (786)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Under-read - (127)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer. buffer underrun
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAccess of Uninitialized Pointer - (824)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 824 (Access of Uninitialized Pointer)
The program accesses or uses a pointer that has not been initialized.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Access with Incorrect Length Value - (805)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value)
The software uses a sequential operation to read or write a buffer, but it uses an incorrect length value that causes it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer - (806)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value) > 806 (Buffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer)
The software uses the size of a source buffer when reading from or writing to a destination buffer, which may cause it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow') - (120)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow'))
The program copies an input buffer to an output buffer without verifying that the size of the input buffer is less than the size of the output buffer, leading to a buffer overflow.buffer overrunUnbounded Transfer
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer - (785)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow')) > 785 (Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer)
The software invokes a function for normalizing paths or file names, but it provides an output buffer that is smaller than the maximum possible size, such as PATH_MAX.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExpired Pointer Dereference - (825)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference)
The program dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.Dangling pointer
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency - (130)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 130 (Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency )
The software parses a formatted message or structure, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a length field that is inconsistent with the actual length of the associated data.length manipulationlength tampering
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOut-of-bounds Read - (125)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read)
The software reads data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Over-read - (126)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Under-read - (127)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOut-of-bounds Write - (787)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write)
The software writes data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer. buffer underrun
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantHeap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUntrusted Pointer Dereference - (822)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 822 (Untrusted Pointer Dereference)
The program obtains a value from an untrusted source, converts this value to a pointer, and dereferences the resulting pointer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Out-of-range Pointer Offset - (823)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 823 (Use of Out-of-range Pointer Offset)
The program performs pointer arithmetic on a valid pointer, but it uses an offset that can point outside of the intended range of valid memory locations for the resulting pointer. Untrusted pointer offset
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseWrite-what-where Condition - (123)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 123 (Write-what-where Condition)
Any condition where the attacker has the ability to write an arbitrary value to an arbitrary location, often as the result of a buffer overflow.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Encoding or Escaping of Output - (116)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output)
The software prepares a structured message for communication with another component, but encoding or escaping of the data is either missing or done incorrectly. As a result, the intended structure of the message is not preserved.Output SanitizationOutput ValidationOutput Encoding
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of HTTP Headers for Scripting Syntax - (644)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 644 (Improper Neutralization of HTTP Headers for Scripting Syntax)
The application does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes web scripting syntax in HTTP headers that can be used by web browser components that can process raw headers, such as Flash.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Output Neutralization for Logs - (117)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 117 (Improper Output Neutralization for Logs)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes output that is written to logs.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInappropriate Encoding for Output Context - (838)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 838 (Inappropriate Encoding for Output Context)
The software uses or specifies an encoding when generating output to a downstream component, but the specified encoding is not the same as the encoding that is expected by the downstream component.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure - (228)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles input that is not syntactically well-formed with respect to the associated specification.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Parameters - (233)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those parameters are undefined.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Handle Missing Parameter - (234)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 234 (Failure to Handle Missing Parameter)
If too few arguments are sent to a function, the function will still pop the expected number of arguments from the stack. Potentially, a variable number of arguments could be exhausted in a function as well.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Extra Parameters - (235)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 235 (Improper Handling of Extra Parameters)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when the number of parameters, fields, or arguments with the same name exceeds the expected amount.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Undefined Parameters - (236)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 236 (Improper Handling of Undefined Parameters)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular parameter, field, or argument name is not defined or supported by the product.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Structural Elements - (237)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles inputs that are related to complex structures.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Handle Incomplete Element - (239)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 239 (Failure to Handle Incomplete Element)
The software does not properly handle when a particular element is not completely specified.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements - (238)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 238 (Improper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular structural element is not completely specified.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements - (240)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 240 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when two or more structural elements should be consistent, but are not.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Unexpected Data Type - (241)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 241 (Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular element is not the expected type, e.g. it expects a digit (0-9) but is provided with a letter (A-Z).
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Values - (229)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of values for parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those values are undefined.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Extra Values - (231)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 231 (Improper Handling of Extra Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when more values are provided than expected.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Missing Values - (230)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 230 (Improper Handling of Missing Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a parameter, field, or argument name is specified, but the associated value is missing, i.e. it is empty, blank, or null.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Undefined Values - (232)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 232 (Improper Handling of Undefined Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a value is not defined or supported for the associated parameter, field, or argument name.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Input Validation - (20)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation)
The product does not validate or incorrectly validates input that can affect the control flow or data flow of a program.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework - (554)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 554 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework)
The ASP.NET application does not use an input validation framework.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDirect Use of Unsafe JNI - (111)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 111 (Direct Use of Unsafe JNI)
When a Java application uses the Java Native Interface (JNI) to call code written in another programming language, it can expose the application to weaknesses in that code, even if those weaknesses cannot occur in Java.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExternal Control of File Name or Path - (73)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 73 (External Control of File Name or Path)
The software allows user input to control or influence paths or file names that are used in filesystem operations.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code - (781)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 781 (Improper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code)
The software defines an IOCTL that uses METHOD_NEITHER for I/O, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the addresses that are provided.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection') - (74)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a command, data structure, or record using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify how it is parsed or interpreted when it is sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassFailure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection) - (75)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 75 (Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection))
The software does not adequately filter user-controlled input for special elements with control implications.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements - (76)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 75 (Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection)) > 76 (Improper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements)
The software properly neutralizes certain special elements, but it improperly neutralizes equivalent special elements.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection') - (94)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the syntax or behavior of the intended code segment.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection') - (95)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 95 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before using the input in a dynamic evaluation call (e.g. "eval").
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection') - (96)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable resource, such as a library, configuration file, or template.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page - (97)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection')) > 97 (Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page)
The software generates a web page, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input that could be interpreted as a server-side include (SSI) directive.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection') - (99)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before it is used as an identifier for a resource that may be outside the intended sphere of control.Insecure Direct Object Reference
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources - (641)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 641 (Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources)
The application constructs the name of a file or other resource using input from an upstream component, but does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the resulting name.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier - (694)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 694 (Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier)
The software uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection') - (93)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 93 (Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection'))
The software uses CRLF (carriage return line feeds) as a special element, e.g. to separate lines or records, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes CRLF sequences from inputs.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting') - (79)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting'))
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input before it is placed in output that is used as a web page that is served to other users.XSSCSS
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDoubled Character XSS Manipulations - (85)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 85 (Doubled Character XSS Manipulations)
The web application does not filter user-controlled input for executable script disguised using doubling of the involved characters.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Alternate XSS Syntax - (87)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 87 (Improper Neutralization of Alternate XSS Syntax)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controlled input for alternate script syntax.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Encoded URI Schemes in a Web Page - (84)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 84 (Improper Neutralization of Encoded URI Schemes in a Web Page)
The web application improperly neutralizes user-controlled input for executable script disguised with URI encodings.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages - (86)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 86 (Improper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes invalid characters or byte sequences in the middle of tag names, URI schemes, and other identifiers.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page - (83)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 83 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes "javascript:" or other URIs from dangerous attributes within tags, such as onmouseover, onload, onerror, or style.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Script in Attributes of IMG Tags in a Web Page - (82)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 83 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page) > 82 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes of IMG Tags in a Web Page)
The web application does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes scripting elements within attributes of HTML IMG tags, such as the src attribute.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Script in an Error Message Web Page - (81)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 81 (Improper Neutralization of Script in an Error Message Web Page)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special characters that could be interpreted as web-scripting elements when they are sent to an error page.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Script-Related HTML Tags in a Web Page (Basic XSS) - (80)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 80 (Improper Neutralization of Script-Related HTML Tags in a Web Page (Basic XSS))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special characters such as "<", ">", and "&" that could be interpreted as web-scripting elements when they are sent to a downstream component that processes web pages.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements - (138)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as control elements or syntactic markers when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters - (157)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 157 (Failure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters)
The software does not properly handle the characters that are used to mark the beginning and ending of a group of entities, such as parentheses, brackets, and braces.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassFailure to Sanitize Special Element - (159)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element)
Weaknesses in this attack-focused category do not properly filter and interpret special elements in user-controlled input which could cause adverse effect on the software behavior and integrity.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Additional Special Element - (167)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 167 (Improper Handling of Additional Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is missing.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements - (168)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 168 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements)
The software does not handle when an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Missing Special Element - (166)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 166 (Improper Handling of Missing Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements - (164)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements - (165)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements) > 165 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements - (160)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements - (161)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements) > 161 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements - (162)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements - (163)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements) > 163 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters - (151)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 151 (Improper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as comment delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Delimiters - (140)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes delimiters.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters - (146)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 146 (Improper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as expression or command delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Line Delimiters - (144)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 144 (Improper Neutralization of Line Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as line delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters - (141)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 141 (Improper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as parameter or argument delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Record Delimiters - (143)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 143 (Improper Neutralization of Record Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as record delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Section Delimiters - (145)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 145 (Improper Neutralization of Section Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as section delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Value Delimiters - (142)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 142 (Improper Neutralization of Value Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as value delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences - (150)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 150 (Improper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as escape, meta, or control character sequences when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Input Leaders - (148)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 148 (Improper Neutralization of Input Leaders)
The application does not properly handle when a leading character or sequence ("leader") is missing or malformed, or if multiple leaders are used when only one should be allowed.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Input Terminators - (147)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 147 (Improper Neutralization of Input Terminators)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as input terminators when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Macro Symbols - (152)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 152 (Improper Neutralization of Macro Symbols)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as macro symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character - (158)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 158 (Improper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes NUL characters or null bytes when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax - (149)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 149 (Improper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax)
Quotes injected into an application can be used to compromise a system. As data are parsed, an injected/absent/duplicate/malformed use of quotes may cause the process to take unexpected actions.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Substitution Characters - (153)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 153 (Improper Neutralization of Substitution Characters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as substitution characters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters - (154)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 154 (Improper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as variable name delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Whitespace - (156)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 156 (Improper Neutralization of Whitespace)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as whitespace when they are sent to a downstream component.White space
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols - (155)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 155 (Improper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as wildcards or matching symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
+CategoryCategoryTechnology-Specific Special Elements - (169)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 169 (Technology-Specific Special Elements)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of special elements within particular technologies.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Null Termination - (170)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 169 (Technology-Specific Special Elements) > 170 (Improper Null Termination)
The software does not terminate or incorrectly terminates a string or array with a null character or equivalent terminator.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic - (943)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic)
The application generates a query intended to access or manipulate data in a data store such as a database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that can modify the intended logic of the query.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection') - (643)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 643 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XPath expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection') - (652)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 652 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XQuery expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection') - (90)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 90 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an LDAP query using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended LDAP query when it is sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection') - (89)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 89 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an SQL command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended SQL command when it is sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSQL Injection: Hibernate - (564)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 89 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection')) > 564 (SQL Injection: Hibernate)
Using Hibernate to execute a dynamic SQL statement built with user-controlled input can allow an attacker to modify the statement's meaning or to execute arbitrary SQL commands.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection') - (77)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended command when it is sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseArgument Injection or Modification - (88)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 88 (Argument Injection or Modification)
The software does not sufficiently delimit the arguments being passed to a component in another control sphere, allowing alternate arguments to be provided, leading to potentially security-relevant changes.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExecutable Regular Expression Error - (624)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 624 (Executable Regular Expression Error)
The product uses a regular expression that either (1) contains an executable component with user-controlled inputs, or (2) allows a user to enable execution by inserting pattern modifiers.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection') - (917)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 917 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an expression language (EL) statement in a Java Server Page (JSP) using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended EL statement before it is executed.EL Injection
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection') - (78)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 78 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an OS command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended OS command when it is sent to a downstream component.Shell injectionShell metacharacters
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUncontrolled Format String - (134)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 134 (Uncontrolled Format String)
The software uses externally-controlled format strings in printf-style functions, which can lead to buffer overflows or data representation problems.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseXML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection) - (91)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection))
The software does not properly neutralize special elements that are used in XML, allowing attackers to modify the syntax, content, or commands of the XML before it is processed by an end system.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection') - (643)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection)) > 643 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XPath expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection') - (652)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection)) > 652 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XQuery expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer - (119)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer)
The software performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.Memory Corruption
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAccess of Memory Location After End of Buffer - (788)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location after the end of the buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Over-read - (126)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantHeap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAccess of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer - (786)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Under-read - (127)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer. buffer underrun
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAccess of Uninitialized Pointer - (824)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 824 (Access of Uninitialized Pointer)
The program accesses or uses a pointer that has not been initialized.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Access with Incorrect Length Value - (805)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value)
The software uses a sequential operation to read or write a buffer, but it uses an incorrect length value that causes it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer - (806)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value) > 806 (Buffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer)
The software uses the size of a source buffer when reading from or writing to a destination buffer, which may cause it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow') - (120)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow'))
The program copies an input buffer to an output buffer without verifying that the size of the input buffer is less than the size of the output buffer, leading to a buffer overflow.buffer overrunUnbounded Transfer
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer - (785)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow')) > 785 (Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer)
The software invokes a function for normalizing paths or file names, but it provides an output buffer that is smaller than the maximum possible size, such as PATH_MAX.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExpired Pointer Dereference - (825)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference)
The program dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.Dangling pointer
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency - (130)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 130 (Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency )
The software parses a formatted message or structure, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a length field that is inconsistent with the actual length of the associated data.length manipulationlength tampering
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOut-of-bounds Read - (125)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read)
The software reads data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Over-read - (126)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Under-read - (127)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOut-of-bounds Write - (787)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write)
The software writes data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer. buffer underrun
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantHeap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUntrusted Pointer Dereference - (822)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 822 (Untrusted Pointer Dereference)
The program obtains a value from an untrusted source, converts this value to a pointer, and dereferences the resulting pointer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Out-of-range Pointer Offset - (823)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 823 (Use of Out-of-range Pointer Offset)
The program performs pointer arithmetic on a valid pointer, but it uses an offset that can point outside of the intended range of valid memory locations for the resulting pointer. Untrusted pointer offset
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseWrite-what-where Condition - (123)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 123 (Write-what-where Condition)
Any condition where the attacker has the ability to write an arbitrary value to an arbitrary location, often as the result of a buffer overflow.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Validation of Array Index - (129)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 129 (Improper Validation of Array Index)
The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index references a valid position within the array. out-of-bounds array indexindex-out-of-rangearray index underflow
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Validation of Function Hook Arguments - (622)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 622 (Improper Validation of Function Hook Arguments)
A product adds hooks to user-accessible API functions, but does not properly validate the arguments. This could lead to resultant vulnerabilities.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing XML Validation - (112)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 112 (Missing XML Validation)
The software accepts XML from an untrusted source but does not validate the XML against the proper schema.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantNull Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte) - (626)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 626 (Null Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte))
The product does not properly handle null bytes or NUL characters when passing data between different representations or components.
+CategoryCategoryPathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors - (21)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors)
Weaknesses in this category can be used to access files outside of a restricted directory (path traversal) or to perform operations on files that would otherwise be restricted (path equivalence).
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources - (66)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles a file name that identifies a "virtual" resource that is not directly specified within the directory that is associated with the file name, causing the product to perform file-based operations on a resource that is not a file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path - (72)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 72 (Improper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path)
The software does not properly handle special paths that may identify the data or resource fork of a file on the HFS+ file system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream - (69)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 69 (Improper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream)
The software does not properly prevent access to, or detect usage of, alternate data streams (ADS).
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Windows Device Names - (67)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 67 (Improper Handling of Windows Device Names)
The software constructs pathnames from user input, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a pathname containing a Windows device name such as AUX or CON. This typically leads to denial of service or an information exposure when the application attempts to process the pathname as a regular file.
+CategoryCategoryMac Virtual File Problems - (70)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 70 (Mac Virtual File Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of virtual files within Mac-based operating systems.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantApple '.DS_Store' - (71)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 70 (Mac Virtual File Problems) > 71 (Apple '.DS_Store')
Software operating in a MAC OS environment, where .DS_Store is in effect, must carefully manage hard links, otherwise an attacker may be able to leverage a hard link from .DS_Store to overwrite arbitrary files and gain privileges.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path - (72)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 70 (Mac Virtual File Problems) > 72 (Improper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path)
The software does not properly handle special paths that may identify the data or resource fork of a file on the HFS+ file system.
+CategoryCategoryWindows Virtual File Problems - (68)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 68 (Windows Virtual File Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of virtual files within Windows-based operating systems.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream - (69)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 68 (Windows Virtual File Problems) > 69 (Improper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream)
The software does not properly prevent access to, or detect usage of, alternate data streams (ADS).
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal') - (22)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal'))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that is intended to identify a file or directory that is located underneath a restricted parent directory, but the software does not properly neutralize special elements within the pathname that can cause the pathname to resolve to a location that is outside of the restricted directory.Directory traversalPath traversal
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAbsolute Path Traversal - (36)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize absolute path sequences such as "/abs/path" that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here' - (37)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 37 (Path Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a slash absolute path ('/absolute/pathname/here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: 'C:dirname' - (39)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 39 (Path Traversal: 'C:dirname')
An attacker can inject a drive letter or Windows volume letter ('C:dirname') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share) - (40)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 40 (Path Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share))
An attacker can inject a Windows UNC share ('\\UNC\share\name') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here' - (38)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 38 (Path Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a backslash absolute path ('\absolute\pathname\here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseRelative Path Traversal - (23)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize sequences such as ".." that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot) - (32)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 32 (Path Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '...' (triple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot) - (33)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 33 (Path Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....' (multiple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '....//' - (34)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 34 (Path Traversal: '....//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....//' (doubled dot dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '.../...//' - (35)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 35 (Path Traversal: '.../...//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '.../...//' (doubled triple dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '../filedir' - (24)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 24 (Path Traversal: '../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '..\filedir' - (28)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 28 (Path Traversal: '..\filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "..\" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '/../filedir' - (25)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 25 (Path Traversal: '/../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '/dir/../filename' - (26)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 26 (Path Traversal: '/dir/../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/dir/../filename" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\..\filename' - (29)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 29 (Path Traversal: '\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\dir\..\filename' - (30)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 30 (Path Traversal: '\dir\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\dir\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: 'dir/../../filename' - (27)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 27 (Path Traversal: 'dir/../../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize multiple internal "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename' - (31)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 31 (Path Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize 'dir\..\..\filename' (multiple internal backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following') - (59)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following'))
The software attempts to access a file based on the filename, but it does not properly prevent that filename from identifying a link or shortcut that resolves to an unintended resource.insecure temporary file
+CategoryCategoryUNIX Path Link Problems - (60)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 60 (UNIX Path Link Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of links within Unix-based operating systems.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUNIX Hard Link - (62)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 60 (UNIX Path Link Problems) > 62 (UNIX Hard Link)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.
+Compound Element: CompositeCompound Element: CompositeUNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following - (61)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 60 (UNIX Path Link Problems) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the file is a symbolic link that resolves to a target outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.Symlink followingsymlink vulnerability
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassConcurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition') - (362)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 60 (UNIX Path Link Problems) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition'))
The program contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a timing window exists in which the shared resource can be modified by another code sequence that is operating concurrently.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassContainment Errors (Container Errors) - (216)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 60 (UNIX Path Link Problems) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors))
This tries to cover various problems in which improper data are included within a "container."
*CategoryCategoryPermission Issues - (275)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 60 (UNIX Path Link Problems) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following) > 275 (Permission Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper assignment or handling of permissions.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassPredictability Problems - (340)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 60 (UNIX Path Link Problems) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following) > 340 (Predictability Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to schemes that generate numbers or identifiers that are more predictable than required by the application.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseSymbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object - (386)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 60 (UNIX Path Link Problems) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following) > 386 (Symbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object)
A constant symbolic reference to an object is used, even though the reference can resolve to a different object over time.
+CategoryCategoryWindows Path Link Problems - (63)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 63 (Windows Path Link Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of links within Windows-based operating systems.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantWindows Hard Link - (65)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 63 (Windows Path Link Problems) > 65 (Windows Hard Link)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantWindows Shortcut Following (.LNK) - (64)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 63 (Windows Path Link Problems) > 64 (Windows Shortcut Following (.LNK))
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the file is a Windows shortcut (.LNK) whose target is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.Windows symbolic link followingsymlink
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Resolution of Path Equivalence - (41)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence)
The system or application is vulnerable to file system contents disclosure through path equivalence. Path equivalence involves the use of special characters in file and directory names. The associated manipulations are intended to generate multiple names for the same object.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space) - (47)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 47 (Path Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of leading space (' filedir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory) - (55)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 55 (Path Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of single dot directory exploit ('/./') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash' - (50)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 50 (Path Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple leading slash ('//multiple/leading/slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash' - (51)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 51 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal slash ('/multiple//internal/slash/') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//' - (52)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 52 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing slash ('/multiple/trailing/slash//') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash' - (53)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 53 (Path Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal backslash ('\multiple\trailing\\slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename' - (57)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 57 (Path Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename')
The software contains protection mechanisms to restrict access to 'realdir/filename', but it constructs pathnames using external input in the form of 'fakedir/../realdir/filename' that are not handled by those mechanisms. This allows attackers to perform unauthorized actions against the targeted file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace) - (48)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 48 (Path Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of internal space ('file(SPACE)name') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot) - (44)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 44 (Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of internal dot ('file.ordir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot) - (45)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 44 (Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot)) > 45 (Path Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal dot ('file...dir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard) - (56)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 56 (Path Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of asterisk wildcard ('filedir*') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash) - (54)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 54 (Path Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing backslash ('filedir\') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space) - (46)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 46 (Path Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing space ('filedir ') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot) - (42)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 42 (Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing dot ('filedir.') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot) - (43)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 42 (Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot)) > 43 (Path Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing dot ('filedir....') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash) - (49)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 49 (Path Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing slash ('filedir/') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename - (58)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 58 (Path Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename)
The software contains a protection mechanism that restricts access to a long filename on a Windows operating system, but the software does not properly restrict access to the equivalent short "8.3" filename.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseProcess Control - (114)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 114 (Process Control)
Executing commands or loading libraries from an untrusted source or in an untrusted environment can cause an application to execute malicious commands (and payloads) on behalf of an attacker.
+CategoryCategoryTechnology-Specific Input Validation Problems - (100)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are caused by inadequately implemented input validation within particular technologies.
+CategoryCategoryStruts Validation Problems - (101)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are caused by inadequately implemented protection mechanisms that use the STRUTS framework.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Duplicate Validation Forms - (102)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems) > 102 (Struts: Duplicate Validation Forms)
The application uses multiple validation forms with the same name, which might cause the Struts Validator to validate a form that the programmer does not expect.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Form Bean Does Not Extend Validation Class - (104)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems) > 104 (Struts: Form Bean Does Not Extend Validation Class)
If a form bean does not extend an ActionForm subclass of the Validator framework, it can expose the application to other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Form Field Without Validator - (105)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems) > 105 (Struts: Form Field Without Validator)
The application has a form field that is not validated by a corresponding validation form, which can introduce other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Incomplete validate() Method Definition - (103)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems) > 103 (Struts: Incomplete validate() Method Definition)
The application has a validator form that either does not define a validate() method, or defines a validate() method but does not call super.validate().
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class - (608)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems) > 608 (Struts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class)
An ActionForm class contains a field that has not been declared private, which can be accessed without using a setter or getter.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Plug-in Framework not in Use - (106)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems) > 106 (Struts: Plug-in Framework not in Use)
When an application does not use an input validation framework such as the Struts Validator, there is a greater risk of introducing weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Unused Validation Form - (107)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems) > 107 (Struts: Unused Validation Form)
An unused validation form indicates that validation logic is not up-to-date.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Unvalidated Action Form - (108)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems) > 108 (Struts: Unvalidated Action Form)
Every Action Form must have a corresponding validation form.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Validator Turned Off - (109)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems) > 109 (Struts: Validator Turned Off)
Automatic filtering via a Struts bean has been turned off, which disables the Struts Validator and custom validation logic. This exposes the application to other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Validator Without Form Field - (110)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 100 (Technology-Specific Input Validation Problems) > 101 (Struts Validation Problems) > 110 (Struts: Validator Without Form Field)
Validation fields that do not appear in forms they are associated with indicate that the validation logic is out of date.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantURL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect') - (601)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 601 (URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect'))
A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks.Open RedirectCross-site RedirectCross-domain Redirect
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnchecked Input for Loop Condition - (606)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 606 (Unchecked Input for Loop Condition)
The product does not properly check inputs that are used for loop conditions, potentially leading to a denial of service because of excessive looping.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection') - (470)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 470 (Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection'))
The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper classes or code.Reflection Injection
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer - (785)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 785 (Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer)
The software invokes a function for normalizing paths or file names, but it provides an output buffer that is smaller than the maximum possible size, such as PATH_MAX.
+CategoryCategoryInformation Management Errors - (199)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of sensitive information.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassContainment Errors (Container Errors) - (216)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors))
This tries to cover various problems in which improper data are included within a "container."
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSensitive Data Under FTP Root - (220)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 220 (Sensitive Data Under FTP Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the FTP document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSensitive Data Under Web Root - (219)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the web document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInformation Exposure - (200)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure)
An information exposure is the intentional or unintentional disclosure of information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have access to that information.Information LeakInformation Disclosure
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Sensitive Data Through Data Queries - (202)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 202 (Exposure of Sensitive Data Through Data Queries)
When trying to keep information confidential, an attacker can often infer some of the information by using statistics.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of System Data to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (497)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 497 (Exposure of System Data to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
Exposing system data or debugging information helps an adversary learn about the system and form an attack plan.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseFile and Directory Information Exposure - (538)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure)
The product stores sensitive information in files or directories that are accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (529)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 529 (Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores access control list files in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (530)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 530 (Exposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
A backup file is stored in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (527)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 527 (Exposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores a CVS repository in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (528)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 528 (Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product generates a core dump file in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Directory Listing - (548)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 548 (Information Exposure Through Directory Listing)
A directory listing is inappropriately exposed, yielding potentially sensitive information to attackers.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Log Files - (532)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files - (542)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 542 (Information Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files)
The application does not properly protect or delete a log file related to cleanup.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Log Files - (534)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 534 (Information Exposure Through Debug Log Files)
The application does not sufficiently restrict access to a log file that is used for debugging.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Server Log Files - (533)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 533 (Information Exposure Through Server Log Files)
A server.log file was found. This can give information on whatever application left the file. Usually this can give full path names and system information, and sometimes usernames and passwords.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Persistent Cookies - (539)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 539 (Information Exposure Through Persistent Cookies)
Persistent cookies are cookies that are stored on the browser's hard drive. This can cause security and privacy issues depending on the information stored in the cookie and how it is accessed.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Source Code - (540)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code)
Source code on a web server often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Comments - (615)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 615 (Information Exposure Through Comments)
While adding general comments is very useful, some programmers tend to leave important data, such as: filenames related to the web application, old links or links which were not meant to be browsed by users, old code fragments, etc.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Include Source Code - (541)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 541 (Information Exposure Through Include Source Code)
If an include file source is accessible, the file can contain usernames and passwords, as well as sensitive information pertaining to the application and system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Test Code - (531)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 531 (Information Exposure Through Test Code)
Accessible test applications can pose a variety of security risks. Since developers or administrators rarely consider that someone besides themselves would even know about the existence of these applications, it is common for them to contain sensitive information or functions.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through WSDL File - (651)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 651 (Information Exposure Through WSDL File)
The Web services architecture may require exposing a WSDL file that contains information on the publicly accessible services and how callers of these services should interact with them (e.g. what parameters they expect and what types they return).
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data - (212)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 212 (Improper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data)
The software uses a resource that contains sensitive data, but it does not properly remove that data before it stores, transfers, or shares the resource with actors in another control sphere.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Caching - (524)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 524 (Information Exposure Through Caching)
The application uses a cache to maintain a pool of objects, threads, connections, pages, or passwords to minimize the time it takes to access them or the resources to which they connect. If implemented improperly, these caches can allow access to unauthorized information or cause a denial of service vulnerability.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Browser Caching - (525)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 524 (Information Exposure Through Caching) > 525 (Information Exposure Through Browser Caching)
For each web page, the application should have an appropriate caching policy specifying the extent to which the page and its form fields should be cached.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Information - (215)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 215 (Information Exposure Through Debug Information)
The application contains debugging code that can expose sensitive information to untrusted parties.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInformation Exposure Through Discrepancy - (203)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy)
The product behaves differently or sends different responses in a way that exposes security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy - (205)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy)
The product's actions indicate important differences based on (1) the internal state of the product or (2) differences from other products in the same class.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through an External Behavioral Inconsistency - (207)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy) > 207 (Information Exposure Through an External Behavioral Inconsistency)
The product behaves differently than other products like it, in a way that is observable to an attacker and exposes security-relevant information about which product is being used.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure of Internal State Through Behavioral Inconsistency - (206)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy) > 206 (Information Exposure of Internal State Through Behavioral Inconsistency)
Two separate operations in a product cause the product to behave differently in a way that is observable to an attacker and reveals security-relevant information about the internal state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Timing Discrepancy - (208)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 208 (Information Exposure Through Timing Discrepancy)
Two separate operations in a product require different amounts of time to complete, in a way that is observable to an actor and reveals security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseResponse Discrepancy Information Exposure - (204)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 204 (Response Discrepancy Information Exposure)
The software provides different responses to incoming requests in a way that allows an actor to determine system state information that is outside of that actor's control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Environmental Variables - (526)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 526 (Information Exposure Through Environmental Variables)
Environmental variables may contain sensitive information about a remote server.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Indexing of Private Data - (612)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 612 (Information Exposure Through Indexing of Private Data)
The product performs an indexing routine against private documents, but does not sufficiently verify that the actors who can access the index also have the privileges to access the private documents.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Process Environment - (214)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 214 (Information Exposure Through Process Environment)
A process is invoked with sensitive arguments, environment variables, or other elements that can be seen by other processes on the operating system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Query Strings in GET Request - (598)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 598 (Information Exposure Through Query Strings in GET Request)
The web application uses the GET method to process requests that contain sensitive information, which can expose that information through the browser's history, Referers, web logs, and other sources.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Sent Data - (201)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 201 (Information Exposure Through Sent Data)
The accidental exposure of sensitive information through sent data refers to the transmission of data which are either sensitive in and of itself or useful in the further exploitation of the system through standard data channels.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through an Error Message - (209)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message)
The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Externally-generated Error Message - (211)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 211 (Information Exposure Through Externally-generated Error Message)
The software performs an operation that triggers an external diagnostic or error message that is not directly generated by the software, such as an error generated by the programming language interpreter that the software uses. The error can contain sensitive system information.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message - (210)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message)
The software identifies an error condition and creates its own diagnostic or error messages that contain sensitive information.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message - (537)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 537 (Information Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message)
In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause unhandled exception errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message - (536)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 536 (Information Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message)
A servlet error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in your web application code and may provide useful information to an attacker.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Shell Error Message - (535)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 535 (Information Exposure Through Shell Error Message)
A command shell error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in the web application code. In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause these errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Server Error Message - (550)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 550 (Information Exposure Through Server Error Message)
Certain conditions, such as network failure, will cause a server error message to be displayed.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIntentional Information Exposure - (213)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 213 (Intentional Information Exposure)
A product's design or configuration explicitly requires the publication of information that could be regarded as sensitive by an administrator.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseSensitive Information Uncleared Before Release - (226)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release)
The software does not fully clear previously used information in a data structure, file, or other resource, before making that resource available to a party in another control sphere.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInformation Loss or Omission - (221)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission)
The software does not record, or improperly records, security-relevant information that leads to an incorrect decision or hampers later analysis.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseObscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name - (224)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 224 (Obscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name)
The software records security-relevant information according to an alternate name of the affected entity, instead of the canonical name.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOmission of Security-relevant Information - (223)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 223 (Omission of Security-relevant Information)
The application does not record or display information that would be important for identifying the source or nature of an attack, or determining if an action is safe.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficient Logging - (778)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 223 (Omission of Security-relevant Information) > 778 (Insufficient Logging)
When a security-critical event occurs, the software either does not record the event or omits important details about the event when logging it.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseTruncation of Security-relevant Information - (222)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 222 (Truncation of Security-relevant Information)
The application truncates the display, recording, or processing of security-relevant information in a way that can obscure the source or nature of an attack.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseLogging of Excessive Data - (779)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 779 (Logging of Excessive Data)
The software logs too much information, making log files hard to process and possibly hindering recovery efforts or forensic analysis after an attack.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseModification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID) - (471)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID))
The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExternal Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter - (472)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 472 (External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter)
The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.Assumed-Immutable Parameter Tampering
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPHP External Variable Modification - (473)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 473 (PHP External Variable Modification)
A PHP application does not properly protect against the modification of variables from external sources, such as query parameters or cookies. This can expose the application to numerous weaknesses that would not exist otherwise.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPublic Static Final Field References Mutable Object - (607)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 607 (Public Static Final Field References Mutable Object)
A public or protected static final field references a mutable object, which allows the object to be changed by malicious code, or accidentally from another package.
+CategoryCategoryNumeric Errors - (189)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper calculation or conversion of numbers.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Calculation - (682)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation)
The software performs a calculation that generates incorrect or unintended results that are later used in security-critical decisions or resource management.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDivide By Zero - (369)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 369 (Divide By Zero)
The product divides a value by zero.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Calculation of Buffer Size - (131)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 131 (Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size)
The software does not correctly calculate the size to be used when allocating a buffer, which could lead to a buffer overflow.
*CategoryCategoryInteger Coercion Error - (192)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 192 (Integer Coercion Error)
Integer coercion refers to a set of flaws pertaining to the type casting, extension, or truncation of primitive data types.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInteger Overflow or Wraparound - (190)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 190 (Integer Overflow or Wraparound)
The software performs a calculation that can produce an integer overflow or wraparound, when the logic assumes that the resulting value will always be larger than the original value. This can introduce other weaknesses when the calculation is used for resource management or execution control.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInteger Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound) - (191)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 191 (Integer Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound))
The product subtracts one value from another, such that the result is less than the minimum allowable integer value, which produces a value that is not equal to the correct result.Integer underflow
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOff-by-one Error - (193)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 193 (Off-by-one Error)
A product calculates or uses an incorrect maximum or minimum value that is 1 more, or 1 less, than the correct value.off-by-five
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseWrap-around Error - (128)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 128 (Wrap-around Error)
Wrap around errors occur whenever a value is incremented past the maximum value for its type and therefore "wraps around" to a very small, negative, or undefined value.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseNumeric Range Comparison Without Minimum Check - (839)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 839 (Numeric Range Comparison Without Minimum Check)
The program checks a value to ensure that it does not exceed a maximum, but it does not verify that the value exceeds the minimum.Signed comparison
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Incorrect Byte Ordering - (198)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 198 (Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not account for byte ordering (e.g. big-endian and little-endian) when processing the input, causing an incorrect number or value to be used.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Validation of Array Index - (129)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 129 (Improper Validation of Array Index)
The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index references a valid position within the array. out-of-bounds array indexindex-out-of-rangearray index underflow
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Conversion between Numeric Types - (681)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types)
When converting from one data type to another, such as long to integer, data can be omitted or translated in a way that produces unexpected values. If the resulting values are used in a sensitive context, then dangerous behaviors may occur.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseNumeric Truncation Error - (197)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 197 (Numeric Truncation Error)
Truncation errors occur when a primitive is cast to a primitive of a smaller size and data is lost in the conversion.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSigned to Unsigned Conversion Error - (195)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 195 (Signed to Unsigned Conversion Error)
The software uses a signed primitive and performs a cast to an unsigned primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the signed primitive can not be represented using an unsigned primitive.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnexpected Sign Extension - (194)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 194 (Unexpected Sign Extension)
The software performs an operation on a number that causes it to be sign extended when it is transformed into a larger data type. When the original number is negative, this can produce unexpected values that lead to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnsigned to Signed Conversion Error - (196)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 196 (Unsigned to Signed Conversion Error)
The software uses an unsigned primitive and performs a cast to a signed primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the unsigned primitive can not be represented using a signed primitive.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInteger Overflow or Wraparound - (190)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 190 (Integer Overflow or Wraparound)
The software performs a calculation that can produce an integer overflow or wraparound, when the logic assumes that the resulting value will always be larger than the original value. This can introduce other weaknesses when the calculation is used for resource management or execution control.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSigned to Unsigned Conversion Error - (195)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 195 (Signed to Unsigned Conversion Error)
The software uses a signed primitive and performs a cast to an unsigned primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the signed primitive can not be represented using an unsigned primitive.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseWrap-around Error - (128)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 128 (Wrap-around Error)
Wrap around errors occur whenever a value is incremented past the maximum value for its type and therefore "wraps around" to a very small, negative, or undefined value.
+CategoryCategoryRepresentation Errors - (137)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are introduced when inserting or converting data from one representation into another.
+CategoryCategoryCleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors - (171)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of data within protection mechanisms that attempt to perform neutralization for untrusted data.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCollapse of Data into Unsafe Value - (182)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 182 (Collapse of Data into Unsafe Value)
The software filters data in a way that causes it to be reduced or "collapsed" into an unsafe value that violates an expected security property.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassEncoding Error - (172)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error)
The software does not properly encode or decode the data, resulting in unexpected values.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDouble Decoding of the Same Data - (174)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 174 (Double Decoding of the Same Data)
The software decodes the same input twice, which can limit the effectiveness of any protection mechanism that occurs in between the decoding operations.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Alternate Encoding - (173)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 173 (Improper Handling of Alternate Encoding)
The software does not properly handle when an input uses an alternate encoding that is valid for the control sphere to which the input is being sent.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Mixed Encoding - (175)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 175 (Improper Handling of Mixed Encoding)
The software does not properly handle when the same input uses several different (mixed) encodings.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of URL Encoding (Hex Encoding) - (177)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 177 (Improper Handling of URL Encoding (Hex Encoding))
The software does not properly handle when all or part of an input has been URL encoded.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Unicode Encoding - (176)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 176 (Improper Handling of Unicode Encoding)
The software does not properly handle when an input contains Unicode encoding.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Case Sensitivity - (178)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 178 (Improper Handling of Case Sensitivity)
The software does not properly account for differences in case sensitivity when accessing or determining the properties of a resource, leading to inconsistent results.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncomplete Blacklist - (184)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 184 (Incomplete Blacklist)
An application uses a "blacklist" of prohibited values, but the blacklist is incomplete.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation - (179)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation)
The software validates input before applying protection mechanisms that modify the input, which could allow an attacker to bypass the validation via dangerous inputs that only arise after the modification.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize - (180)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 180 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize)
The software validates input before it is canonicalized, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the canonicalization step.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter - (181)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 181 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter)
The software validates data before it has been filtered, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the filtering step.Validate-before-cleanse
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Regular Expression - (185)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 185 (Incorrect Regular Expression)
The software specifies a regular expression in a way that causes data to be improperly matched or compared.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOverly Restrictive Regular Expression - (186)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 185 (Incorrect Regular Expression) > 186 (Overly Restrictive Regular Expression)
A regular expression is overly restrictive, which prevents dangerous values from being detected.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BasePermissive Regular Expression - (625)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 185 (Incorrect Regular Expression) > 625 (Permissive Regular Expression)
The product uses a regular expression that does not sufficiently restrict the set of allowed values.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantRegular Expression without Anchors - (777)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 185 (Incorrect Regular Expression) > 625 (Permissive Regular Expression) > 777 (Regular Expression without Anchors)
The software uses a regular expression to perform neutralization, but the regular expression is not anchored and may allow malicious or malformed data to slip through.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantIncorrect Short Circuit Evaluation - (768)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 768 (Incorrect Short Circuit Evaluation)
The software contains a conditional statement with multiple logical expressions in which one of the non-leading expressions may produce side effects. This may lead to an unexpected state in the program after the execution of the conditional, because short-circuiting logic may prevent the side effects from occurring.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInsufficient Comparison - (697)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 697 (Insufficient Comparison)
The software compares two entities in a security-relevant context, but the comparison is insufficient, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BasePartial Comparison - (187)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 187 (Partial Comparison)
The software performs a comparison that only examines a portion of a factor before determining whether there is a match, such as a substring, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BasePermissive Whitelist - (183)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 183 (Permissive Whitelist)
An application uses a "whitelist" of acceptable values, but the whitelist includes at least one unsafe value, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantComparison of Classes by Name - (486)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 486 (Comparison of Classes by Name)
The program compares classes by name, which can cause it to use the wrong class when multiple classes can have the same name.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseComparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents - (595)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 595 (Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents)
The program compares object references instead of the contents of the objects themselves, preventing it from detecting equivalent objects.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Wrong Operator in String Comparison - (597)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 595 (Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents) > 597 (Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison)
The product uses the wrong operator when comparing a string, such as using "==" when the equals() method should be used instead.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Semantic Object Comparison - (596)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 596 (Incorrect Semantic Object Comparison)
The software does not correctly compare two objects based on their conceptual content.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMissing Default Case in Switch Statement - (478)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 478 (Missing Default Case in Switch Statement)
The code does not have a default case in a switch statement, which might lead to complex logical errors and resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReliance on Data/Memory Layout - (188)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 188 (Reliance on Data/Memory Layout)
The software makes invalid assumptions about how protocol data or memory is organized at a lower level, resulting in unintended program behavior.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure - (228)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles input that is not syntactically well-formed with respect to the associated specification.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Parameters - (233)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those parameters are undefined.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Handle Missing Parameter - (234)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 234 (Failure to Handle Missing Parameter)
If too few arguments are sent to a function, the function will still pop the expected number of arguments from the stack. Potentially, a variable number of arguments could be exhausted in a function as well.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Extra Parameters - (235)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 235 (Improper Handling of Extra Parameters)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when the number of parameters, fields, or arguments with the same name exceeds the expected amount.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Undefined Parameters - (236)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 236 (Improper Handling of Undefined Parameters)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular parameter, field, or argument name is not defined or supported by the product.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Structural Elements - (237)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles inputs that are related to complex structures.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Handle Incomplete Element - (239)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 239 (Failure to Handle Incomplete Element)
The software does not properly handle when a particular element is not completely specified.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements - (238)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 238 (Improper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular structural element is not completely specified.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements - (240)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 240 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when two or more structural elements should be consistent, but are not.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Unexpected Data Type - (241)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 241 (Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular element is not the expected type, e.g. it expects a digit (0-9) but is provided with a letter (A-Z).
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Values - (229)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of values for parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those values are undefined.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Extra Values - (231)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 231 (Improper Handling of Extra Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when more values are provided than expected.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Missing Values - (230)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 230 (Improper Handling of Missing Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a parameter, field, or argument name is specified, but the associated value is missing, i.e. it is empty, blank, or null.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Undefined Values - (232)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 232 (Improper Handling of Undefined Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a value is not defined or supported for the associated parameter, field, or argument name.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements - (138)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as control elements or syntactic markers when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters - (157)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 157 (Failure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters)
The software does not properly handle the characters that are used to mark the beginning and ending of a group of entities, such as parentheses, brackets, and braces.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassFailure to Sanitize Special Element - (159)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element)
Weaknesses in this attack-focused category do not properly filter and interpret special elements in user-controlled input which could cause adverse effect on the software behavior and integrity.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Additional Special Element - (167)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 167 (Improper Handling of Additional Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is missing.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements - (168)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 168 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements)
The software does not handle when an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Missing Special Element - (166)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 166 (Improper Handling of Missing Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements - (164)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements - (165)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements) > 165 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements - (160)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements - (161)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements) > 161 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements - (162)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements - (163)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements) > 163 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters - (151)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 151 (Improper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as comment delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Delimiters - (140)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes delimiters.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters - (146)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 146 (Improper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as expression or command delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Line Delimiters - (144)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 144 (Improper Neutralization of Line Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as line delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters - (141)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 141 (Improper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as parameter or argument delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Record Delimiters - (143)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 143 (Improper Neutralization of Record Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as record delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Section Delimiters - (145)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 145 (Improper Neutralization of Section Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as section delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Value Delimiters - (142)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 142 (Improper Neutralization of Value Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as value delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences - (150)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 150 (Improper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as escape, meta, or control character sequences when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Input Leaders - (148)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 148 (Improper Neutralization of Input Leaders)
The application does not properly handle when a leading character or sequence ("leader") is missing or malformed, or if multiple leaders are used when only one should be allowed.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Input Terminators - (147)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 147 (Improper Neutralization of Input Terminators)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as input terminators when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Macro Symbols - (152)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 152 (Improper Neutralization of Macro Symbols)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as macro symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character - (158)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 158 (Improper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes NUL characters or null bytes when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax - (149)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 149 (Improper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax)
Quotes injected into an application can be used to compromise a system. As data are parsed, an injected/absent/duplicate/malformed use of quotes may cause the process to take unexpected actions.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Substitution Characters - (153)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 153 (Improper Neutralization of Substitution Characters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as substitution characters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters - (154)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 154 (Improper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as variable name delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Whitespace - (156)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 156 (Improper Neutralization of Whitespace)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as whitespace when they are sent to a downstream component.White space
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols - (155)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 155 (Improper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as wildcards or matching symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
+CategoryCategoryTechnology-Specific Special Elements - (169)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 169 (Technology-Specific Special Elements)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of special elements within particular technologies.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Null Termination - (170)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 169 (Technology-Specific Special Elements) > 170 (Improper Null Termination)
The software does not terminate or incorrectly terminates a string or array with a null character or equivalent terminator.
+CategoryCategoryString Errors - (133)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 133 (String Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the creation and modification of strings.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length - (135)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 133 (String Errors) > 135 (Incorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length)
The software does not correctly calculate the length of strings that can contain wide or multi-byte characters.
*CategoryCategoryOften Misused: String Management - (251)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 133 (String Errors) > 251 (Often Misused: String Management)
Functions that manipulate strings encourage buffer overflows.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUncontrolled Format String - (134)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 133 (String Errors) > 134 (Uncontrolled Format String)
The software uses externally-controlled format strings in printf-style functions, which can lead to buffer overflows or data representation problems.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Wrong Operator in String Comparison - (597)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 133 (String Errors) > 597 (Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison)
The product uses the wrong operator when comparing a string, such as using "==" when the equals() method should be used instead.
+CategoryCategoryType Errors - (136)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 136 (Type Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are caused by improper data type transformation or improper handling of multiple data types.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Conversion between Numeric Types - (681)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types)
When converting from one data type to another, such as long to integer, data can be omitted or translated in a way that produces unexpected values. If the resulting values are used in a sensitive context, then dangerous behaviors may occur.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseNumeric Truncation Error - (197)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 197 (Numeric Truncation Error)
Truncation errors occur when a primitive is cast to a primitive of a smaller size and data is lost in the conversion.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSigned to Unsigned Conversion Error - (195)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 195 (Signed to Unsigned Conversion Error)
The software uses a signed primitive and performs a cast to an unsigned primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the signed primitive can not be represented using an unsigned primitive.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnexpected Sign Extension - (194)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 194 (Unexpected Sign Extension)
The software performs an operation on a number that causes it to be sign extended when it is transformed into a larger data type. When the original number is negative, this can produce unexpected values that lead to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnsigned to Signed Conversion Error - (196)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 19 (Data Handling) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 196 (Unsigned to Signed Conversion Error)
The software uses an unsigned primitive and performs a cast to a signed primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the unsigned primitive can not be represented using a signed primitive.
+CategoryCategoryError Handling - (388)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling)
This category includes weaknesses that occur when an application does not properly handle errors that occur during processing.
+CategoryCategoryError Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes - (389)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes)
If a function in a product does not generate the correct return/status codes, or if the product does not handle all possible return/status codes that could be generated by a function, then security issues may result.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDeclaration of Catch for Generic Exception - (396)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 396 (Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception)
Catching overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDeclaration of Throws for Generic Exception - (397)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 397 (Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception)
Throwing overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassDetection of Error Condition Without Action - (390)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 390 (Detection of Error Condition Without Action)
The software detects a specific error, but takes no actions to handle the error.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Report of Error Condition - (392)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 392 (Missing Report of Error Condition)
The software encounters an error but does not provide a status code or return value to indicate that an error has occurred.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReturn Inside Finally Block - (584)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 584 (Return Inside Finally Block)
The code has a return statement inside a finally block, which will cause any thrown exception in the try block to be discarded.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReturn of Wrong Status Code - (393)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 393 (Return of Wrong Status Code)
A function or operation returns an incorrect return value or status code that does not indicate an error, but causes the product to modify its behavior based on the incorrect result.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnchecked Error Condition - (391)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 391 (Unchecked Error Condition)
Ignoring exceptions and other error conditions may allow an attacker to induce unexpected behavior unnoticed.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnexpected Status Code or Return Value - (394)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 394 (Unexpected Status Code or Return Value)
The software does not properly check when a function or operation returns a value that is legitimate for the function, but is not expected by the software.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference - (395)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 395 (Use of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference)
Catching NullPointerException should not be used as an alternative to programmatic checks to prevent dereferencing a null pointer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Check of Function Return Value - (253)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 253 (Incorrect Check of Function Return Value)
The software incorrectly checks a return value from a function, which prevents the software from detecting errors or exceptional conditions.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUncaught Exception - (248)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 248 (Uncaught Exception)
An exception is thrown from a function, but it is not caught.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnchecked Return Value - (252)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 252 (Unchecked Return Value)
The software does not check the return value from a method or function, which can prevent it from detecting unexpected states and conditions.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions - (754)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions)
The software does not check or improperly checks for unusual or exceptional conditions that are not expected to occur frequently during day to day operation of the software.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassMissing Custom Error Page - (756)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 756 (Missing Custom Error Page)
The software does not return custom error pages to the user, possibly exposing sensitive information.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page - (7)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 756 (Missing Custom Error Page) > 7 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page)
The default error page of a web application should not display sensitive information about the software system.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism - (544)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 544 (Missing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism)
The software does not use a standardized method for handling errors throughout the code, which might introduce inconsistent error handling and resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUncaught Exception in Servlet - (600)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 600 (Uncaught Exception in Servlet )
The Servlet does not catch all exceptions, which may reveal sensitive debugging information.Missing Catch Block
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassNot Failing Securely ('Failing Open') - (636)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 388 (Error Handling) > 636 (Not Failing Securely ('Failing Open'))
When the product encounters an error condition or failure, its design requires it to fall back to a state that is less secure than other options that are available, such as selecting the weakest encryption algorithm or using the most permissive access control restrictions.Failing Open
+CategoryCategoryHandler Errors - (429)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 429 (Handler Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper management of handlers.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDeployment of Wrong Handler - (430)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 430 (Deployment of Wrong Handler)
The wrong "handler" is assigned to process an object.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantIncomplete Identification of Uploaded File Variables (PHP) - (616)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 616 (Incomplete Identification of Uploaded File Variables (PHP))
The PHP application uses an old method for processing uploaded files by referencing the four global variables that are set for each file (e.g. $varname, $varname_size, $varname_name, $varname_type). These variables could be overwritten by attackers, causing the application to process unauthorized files.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Handler - (431)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 431 (Missing Handler)
A handler is not available or implemented.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnparsed Raw Web Content Delivery - (433)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 433 (Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery)
The software stores raw content or supporting code under the web document root with an extension that is not specifically handled by the server.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type - (434)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 434 (Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type)
The software allows the attacker to upload or transfer files of dangerous types that can be automatically processed within the product's environment.Unrestricted File Upload
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations - (432)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 432 (Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations)
The application uses a signal handler that shares state with other signal handlers, but it does not properly mask or prevent those signal handlers from being invoked while the original signal handler is still running.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSignal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function - (479)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 429 (Handler Errors) > 479 (Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function)
The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse') - (227)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse'))
The software uses an API in a manner contrary to its intended use.API Abuse
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCall to Non-ubiquitous API - (589)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 589 (Call to Non-ubiquitous API)
The software uses an API function that does not exist on all versions of the target platform. This could cause portability problems or inconsistencies that allow denial of service or other consequences.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCreation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory - (243)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 243 (Creation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory)
The program uses the chroot() system call to create a jail, but does not change the working directory afterward. This does not prevent access to files outside of the jail.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExecution with Unnecessary Privileges - (250)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 250 (Execution with Unnecessary Privileges)
The software performs an operation at a privilege level that is higher than the minimum level required, which creates new weaknesses or amplifies the consequences of other weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection') - (244)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 244 (Improper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection'))
Using realloc() to resize buffers that store sensitive information can leave the sensitive information exposed to attack, because it is not removed from memory.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Following of Specification by Caller - (573)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller)
The software does not follow or incorrectly follows the specifications as required by the implementation language, environment, framework, protocol, or platform.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Class Loader - (578)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 578 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Class Loader)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using the class loader.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Sockets - (577)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 577 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Sockets)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using sockets.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Non-serializable Object Stored in Session - (579)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 579 (J2EE Bad Practices: Non-serializable Object Stored in Session)
The application stores a non-serializable object as an HttpSession attribute, which can hurt reliability.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseObject Model Violation: Just One of Equals and Hashcode Defined - (581)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 581 (Object Model Violation: Just One of Equals and Hashcode Defined)
The software does not maintain equal hashcodes for equal objects.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Low-Level Functionality - (695)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality)
The software uses low-level functionality that is explicitly prohibited by the framework or specification under which the software is supposed to operate.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of AWT Swing - (575)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality) > 575 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of AWT Swing)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using AWT/Swing.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Java I/O - (576)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality) > 576 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Java I/O)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using the java.io package.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives - (574)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality) > 574 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using thread synchronization primitives.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier - (694)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 694 (Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier)
The software uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.
*Weakness VariantWeakness Variantclone() Method Without super.clone() - (580)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 580 (clone() Method Without super.clone())
The software contains a clone() method that does not call super.clone() to obtain the new object.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Check of Function Return Value - (253)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 253 (Incorrect Check of Function Return Value)
The software incorrectly checks a return value from a function, which prevents the software from detecting errors or exceptional conditions.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Provision of Specified Functionality - (684)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality)
The code does not function according to its published specifications, potentially leading to incorrect usage.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Direct Management of Connections - (245)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 245 (J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Management of Connections)
The J2EE application directly manages connections, instead of using the container's connection management facilities.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Sockets - (246)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 246 (J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Sockets)
The J2EE application directly uses sockets instead of using framework method calls.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMultiple Binds to the Same Port - (605)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 605 (Multiple Binds to the Same Port)
When multiple sockets are allowed to bind to the same port, other services on that port may be stolen or spoofed.
+CategoryCategoryOften Misused: Arguments and Parameters - (559)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 559 (Often Misused: Arguments and Parameters)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper use of arguments or parameters within function calls.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseFunction Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments - (628)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 559 (Often Misused: Arguments and Parameters) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments)
The product calls a function, procedure, or routine with arguments that are not correctly specified, leading to always-incorrect behavior and resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFunction Call With Incorrect Argument Type - (686)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 559 (Often Misused: Arguments and Parameters) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 686 (Function Call With Incorrect Argument Type)
The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies an argument that is the wrong data type, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFunction Call With Incorrect Number of Arguments - (685)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 559 (Often Misused: Arguments and Parameters) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 685 (Function Call With Incorrect Number of Arguments)
The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies too many arguments, or too few arguments, which may lead to undefined behavior and resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFunction Call With Incorrect Order of Arguments - (683)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 559 (Often Misused: Arguments and Parameters) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 683 (Function Call With Incorrect Order of Arguments)
The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies the arguments in an incorrect order, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFunction Call With Incorrect Variable or Reference as Argument - (688)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 559 (Often Misused: Arguments and Parameters) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 688 (Function Call With Incorrect Variable or Reference as Argument)
The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies the wrong variable or reference as one of the arguments, which may lead to undefined behavior and resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFunction Call With Incorrectly Specified Argument Value - (687)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 559 (Often Misused: Arguments and Parameters) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 687 (Function Call With Incorrectly Specified Argument Value)
The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies an argument that contains the wrong value, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of umask() with chmod-style Argument - (560)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 559 (Often Misused: Arguments and Parameters) > 560 (Use of umask() with chmod-style Argument)
The product calls umask() with an incorrect argument that is specified as if it is an argument to chmod().
*CategoryCategoryOften Misused: String Management - (251)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 251 (Often Misused: String Management)
Functions that manipulate strings encourage buffer overflows.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUncaught Exception - (248)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 248 (Uncaught Exception)
An exception is thrown from a function, but it is not caught.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnchecked Return Value - (252)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 252 (Unchecked Return Value)
The software does not check the return value from a method or function, which can prevent it from detecting unexpected states and conditions.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Inherently Dangerous Function - (242)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 242 (Use of Inherently Dangerous Function)
The program calls a function that can never be guaranteed to work safely.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Use of System.exit() - (382)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 382 (J2EE Bad Practices: Use of System.exit())
A J2EE application uses System.exit(), which also shuts down its container.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action - (350)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 350 (Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action)
The software performs reverse DNS resolution on an IP address to obtain the hostname and make a security decision, but it does not properly ensure that the IP address is truly associated with the hostname.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIndicator of Poor Code Quality - (398)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality)
The code has features that do not directly introduce a weakness or vulnerability, but indicate that the product has not been carefully developed or maintained.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAssignment to Variable without Use ('Unused Variable') - (563)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 563 (Assignment to Variable without Use ('Unused Variable'))
The variable's value is assigned but never used, making it a dead store.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDead Code - (561)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 561 (Dead Code)
The software contains dead code, which can never be executed.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExpression is Always False - (570)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 561 (Dead Code) > 570 (Expression is Always False)
The software contains an expression that will always evaluate to false.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExpression is Always True - (571)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 561 (Dead Code) > 571 (Expression is Always True)
The software contains an expression that will always evaluate to true.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEmpty Synchronized Block - (585)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 585 (Empty Synchronized Block)
The software contains an empty synchronized block.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExplicit Call to Finalize() - (586)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 586 (Explicit Call to Finalize())
The software makes an explicit call to the finalize() method from outside the finalizer.
+CategoryCategoryExpression Issues - (569)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to incorrectly written expressions within code.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAssigning instead of Comparing - (481)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 481 (Assigning instead of Comparing)
The code uses an operator for assignment when the intention was to perform a comparison.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantComparing instead of Assigning - (482)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 482 (Comparing instead of Assigning)
The code uses an operator for comparison when the intention was to perform an assignment.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseComparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents - (595)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 595 (Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents)
The program compares object references instead of the contents of the objects themselves, preventing it from detecting equivalent objects.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Wrong Operator in String Comparison - (597)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 595 (Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents) > 597 (Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison)
The product uses the wrong operator when comparing a string, such as using "==" when the equals() method should be used instead.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Semantic Object Comparison - (596)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 596 (Incorrect Semantic Object Comparison)
The software does not correctly compare two objects based on their conceptual content.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantOperator Precedence Logic Error - (783)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 783 (Operator Precedence Logic Error)
The program uses an expression in which operator precedence causes incorrect logic to be used.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Incorrect Operator - (480)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator)
The programmer accidentally uses the wrong operator, which changes the application logic in security-relevant ways.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAssigning instead of Comparing - (481)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator) > 481 (Assigning instead of Comparing)
The code uses an operator for assignment when the intention was to perform a comparison.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantComparing instead of Assigning - (482)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator) > 482 (Comparing instead of Assigning)
The code uses an operator for comparison when the intention was to perform an assignment.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Wrong Operator in String Comparison - (597)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator) > 597 (Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison)
The product uses the wrong operator when comparing a string, such as using "==" when the equals() method should be used instead.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAttempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer - (588)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 588 (Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer)
Casting a non-structure type to a structure type and accessing a field can lead to memory access errors or data corruption.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExpression is Always False - (570)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 570 (Expression is Always False)
The software contains an expression that will always evaluate to false.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExpression is Always True - (571)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 569 (Expression Issues) > 571 (Expression is Always True)
The software contains an expression that will always evaluate to true.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Resource Shutdown or Release - (404)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release)
The program does not release or incorrectly releases a resource before it is made available for re-use.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection') - (619)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 619 (Dangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection'))
If a database cursor is not closed properly, then it could become accessible to other users while retaining the same privileges that were originally assigned, leaving the cursor "dangling."
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantIncorrect Block Delimitation - (483)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 483 (Incorrect Block Delimitation)
The code does not explicitly delimit a block that is intended to contain 2 or more statements, creating a logic error.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMissing Default Case in Switch Statement - (478)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 478 (Missing Default Case in Switch Statement)
The code does not have a default case in a switch statement, which might lead to complex logical errors and resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseNULL Pointer Dereference - (476)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 476 (NULL Pointer Dereference)
A NULL pointer dereference occurs when the application dereferences a pointer that it expects to be valid, but is NULL, typically causing a crash or exit.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOmitted Break Statement in Switch - (484)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 484 (Omitted Break Statement in Switch)
The program omits a break statement within a switch or similar construct, causing code associated with multiple conditions to execute. This can cause problems when the programmer only intended to execute code associated with one condition.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReachable Assertion - (617)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 617 (Reachable Assertion)
The product contains an assert() or similar statement that can be triggered by an attacker, which leads to an application exit or other behavior that is more severe than necessary.
+CategoryCategoryResource Management Errors - (399)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper management of system resources.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassAsymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification) - (405)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification))
Software that does not appropriately monitor or control resource consumption can lead to adverse system performance.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAlgorithmic Complexity - (407)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 407 (Algorithmic Complexity)
An algorithm in a product has an inefficient worst-case computational complexity that may be detrimental to system performance and can be triggered by an attacker, typically using crafted manipulations that ensure that the worst case is being reached.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification) - (409)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 409 (Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification))
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles a compressed input with a very high compression ratio that produces a large output.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion') - (776)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 409 (Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification)) > 776 (Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion'))
The software uses XML documents and allows their structure to be defined with a Document Type Definition (DTD), but it does not properly control the number of recursive definitions of entities.XEEBillion Laughs AttackXML Bomb
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification - (408)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 408 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification)
The software allows an entity to perform a legitimate but expensive operation before authentication or authorization has taken place.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficient Control of Network Message Volume (Network Amplification) - (406)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 406 (Insufficient Control of Network Message Volume (Network Amplification))
The software does not sufficiently monitor or control transmitted network traffic volume, so that an actor can cause the software to transmit more traffic than should be allowed for that actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDouble Free - (415)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 415 (Double Free)
The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.Double-free
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFree of Memory not on the Heap - (590)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 590 (Free of Memory not on the Heap)
The application calls free() on a pointer to memory that was not allocated using associated heap allocation functions such as malloc(), calloc(), or realloc().
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference ('Memory Leak') - (401)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 401 (Improper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference ('Memory Leak'))
The software does not sufficiently track and release allocated memory after it has been used, which slowly consumes remaining memory.Memory Leak
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Resource Shutdown or Release - (404)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release)
The program does not release or incorrectly releases a resource before it is made available for re-use.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection') - (619)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 619 (Dangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection'))
If a database cursor is not closed properly, then it could become accessible to other users while retaining the same privileges that were originally assigned, leaving the cursor "dangling."
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficient Resource Pool - (410)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 410 (Insufficient Resource Pool)
The software's resource pool is not large enough to handle peak demand, which allows an attacker to prevent others from accessing the resource by using a (relatively) large number of requests for resources.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMismatched Memory Management Routines - (762)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 762 (Mismatched Memory Management Routines)
The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but it calls a release function that is not compatible with the function that was originally used to allocate that resource.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseRelease of Invalid Pointer or Reference - (763)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference)
The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but calls the wrong release function or calls the appropriate release function incorrectly.
+CategoryCategoryResource Locking Problems - (411)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of locks that are used to control access to resources.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Resource Locking - (413)
699 (Development Concepts) > 1 (Location) > 17 (Code) > 18 (Source Code) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 411 (Resource Locking Problems) > 413 (Improper Resource Locking)
The software does not lock or does not correctly lock a resource when the software must have exclusive access to the resource.