CWE

Common Weakness Enumeration

A Community-Developed List of Software Weakness Types

CWE/SANS Top 25 Most Dangerous Software Errors
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ID

CWE VIEW: Development Concepts

View ID: 699
Type: Graph
Status: Incomplete
+ Objective
This view organizes weaknesses around concepts that are frequently used or encountered in software development. Accordingly, this view can align closely with the perspectives of developers, educators, and assessment vendors. It borrows heavily from the organizational structure used by Seven Pernicious Kingdoms, but it also provides a variety of other categories that are intended to simplify navigation, browsing, and mapping.
+ Audience
StakeholderDescription
Assessment Vendors
Software Developers
Educators
+ Relationships
Show Details:
699 - Development Concepts
+CategoryCategoryConfiguration - (16)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration)
Weaknesses in this category are typically introduced during the configuration of the software.
+CategoryCategoryJ2EE Environment Issues - (4)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 4 (J2EE Environment Issues)
J2EE framework related environment issues with security implications.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Data Transmission Without Encryption - (5)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 4 (J2EE Environment Issues) > 5 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Data Transmission Without Encryption)
Information sent over a network can be compromised while in transit. An attacker may be able to read or modify the contents if the data are sent in plaintext or are weakly encrypted.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File - (555)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 4 (J2EE Environment Issues) > 555 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File)
The J2EE application stores a plaintext password in a configuration file.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Insufficient Session-ID Length - (6)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 4 (J2EE Environment Issues) > 6 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Insufficient Session-ID Length)
The J2EE application is configured to use an insufficient session ID length.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page - (7)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 4 (J2EE Environment Issues) > 7 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page)
The default error page of a web application should not display sensitive information about the software system.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Entity Bean Declared Remote - (8)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 4 (J2EE Environment Issues) > 8 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Entity Bean Declared Remote)
When an application exposes a remote interface for an entity bean, it might also expose methods that get or set the bean's data. These methods could be leveraged to read sensitive information, or to change data in ways that violate the application's expectations, potentially leading to other vulnerabilities.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods - (9)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 4 (J2EE Environment Issues) > 9 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods)
If elevated access rights are assigned to EJB methods, then an attacker can take advantage of the permissions to exploit the software system.
+CategoryCategory.NET Environment Issues - (519)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 519 (.NET Environment Issues)
This category lists weaknesses related to environmental problems in .NET framework applications, including ASP.NET.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Creating Debug Binary - (11)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 519 (.NET Environment Issues) > 11 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Creating Debug Binary)
Debugging messages help attackers learn about the system and plan a form of attack.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page - (12)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 519 (.NET Environment Issues) > 12 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page)
An ASP .NET application must enable custom error pages in order to prevent attackers from mining information from the framework's built-in responses.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File - (13)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 519 (.NET Environment Issues) > 13 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File)
Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource making them an easy target for attackers.
*VariantVariant.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation - (520)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 519 (.NET Environment Issues) > 520 (.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation)
Allowing a .NET application to run at potentially escalated levels of access to the underlying operating and file systems can be dangerous and result in various forms of attacks.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework - (554)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 519 (.NET Environment Issues) > 554 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework)
The ASP.NET application does not use an input validation framework.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation - (556)
699 (Development Concepts) > 16 (Configuration) > 519 (.NET Environment Issues) > 556 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation)
Configuring an ASP.NET application to run with impersonated credentials may give the application unnecessary privileges.
+CategoryCategoryData Processing Errors - (19)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are typically found in functionality that processes data.
+ClassClassImproper Encoding or Escaping of Output - (116)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output)
The software prepares a structured message for communication with another component, but encoding or escaping of the data is either missing or done incorrectly. As a result, the intended structure of the message is not preserved.Output SanitizationOutput ValidationOutput Encoding
*BaseBaseImproper Output Neutralization for Logs - (117)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 117 (Improper Output Neutralization for Logs)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes output that is written to logs.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of HTTP Headers for Scripting Syntax - (644)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 644 (Improper Neutralization of HTTP Headers for Scripting Syntax)
The application does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes web scripting syntax in HTTP headers that can be used by web browser components that can process raw headers, such as Flash.
+ClassClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection') - (74)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a command, data structure, or record using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify how it is parsed or interpreted when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBaseUse of Externally-Controlled Format String - (134)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 134 (Use of Externally-Controlled Format String)
The software uses a function that accepts a format string as an argument, but the format string originates from an external source.
+ClassClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements - (138)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as control elements or syntactic markers when they are sent to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Delimiters - (140)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes delimiters.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters - (141)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 141 (Improper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as parameter or argument delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Value Delimiters - (142)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 142 (Improper Neutralization of Value Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as value delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Record Delimiters - (143)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 143 (Improper Neutralization of Record Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as record delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Line Delimiters - (144)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 144 (Improper Neutralization of Line Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as line delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Section Delimiters - (145)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 145 (Improper Neutralization of Section Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as section delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters - (146)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 146 (Improper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as expression or command delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Input Terminators - (147)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 147 (Improper Neutralization of Input Terminators)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as input terminators when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Input Leaders - (148)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 148 (Improper Neutralization of Input Leaders)
The application does not properly handle when a leading character or sequence ("leader") is missing or malformed, or if multiple leaders are used when only one should be allowed.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax - (149)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 149 (Improper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax)
Quotes injected into an application can be used to compromise a system. As data are parsed, an injected/absent/duplicate/malformed use of quotes may cause the process to take unexpected actions.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences - (150)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 150 (Improper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as escape, meta, or control character sequences when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters - (151)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 151 (Improper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as comment delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Macro Symbols - (152)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 152 (Improper Neutralization of Macro Symbols)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as macro symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Substitution Characters - (153)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 153 (Improper Neutralization of Substitution Characters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as substitution characters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters - (154)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 154 (Improper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as variable name delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols - (155)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 155 (Improper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as wildcards or matching symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Whitespace - (156)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 156 (Improper Neutralization of Whitespace)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as whitespace when they are sent to a downstream component.White space
*VariantVariantFailure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters - (157)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 157 (Failure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters)
The software does not properly handle the characters that are used to mark the beginning and ending of a group of entities, such as parentheses, brackets, and braces.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character - (158)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 158 (Improper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes NUL characters or null bytes when they are sent to a downstream component.
+ClassClassFailure to Sanitize Special Element - (159)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element)
Weaknesses in this attack-focused category do not properly filter and interpret special elements in user-controlled input which could cause adverse effect on the software behavior and integrity.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Missing Special Element - (166)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 166 (Improper Handling of Missing Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Additional Special Element - (167)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 167 (Improper Handling of Additional Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is missing.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements - (168)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 168 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements)
The software does not handle when an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements - (160)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements - (161)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements) > 161 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements - (162)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements - (163)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements) > 163 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements - (164)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements - (165)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements) > 165 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBaseImproper Null Termination - (170)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 170 (Improper Null Termination)
The software does not terminate or incorrectly terminates a string or array with a null character or equivalent terminator.
+ClassClassImproper Filtering of Special Elements - (790)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter or incorrectly filters special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseIncomplete Filtering of Special Elements - (791)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
+VariantVariantIncomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements - (792)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 792 (Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter one or more instances of special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantOnly Filtering One Instance of a Special Element - (793)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 792 (Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements) > 793 (Only Filtering One Instance of a Special Element)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only filters a single instance of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantIncomplete Filtering of Multiple Instances of Special Elements - (794)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 792 (Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements) > 794 (Incomplete Filtering of Multiple Instances of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter all instances of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseOnly Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location - (795)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at a specified location, thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantOnly Filtering Special Elements Relative to a Marker - (796)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location) > 796 (Only Filtering Special Elements Relative to a Marker)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements positioned relative to a marker (e.g. "at the beginning/end of a string; the second argument"), thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantOnly Filtering Special Elements at an Absolute Position - (797)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location) > 797 (Only Filtering Special Elements at an Absolute Position)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at an absolute position (e.g. "byte number 10"), thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
+ClassClassFailure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection) - (75)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 75 (Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection))
The software does not adequately filter user-controlled input for special elements with control implications.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements - (76)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 75 (Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection)) > 76 (Improper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements)
The software properly neutralizes certain special elements, but it improperly neutralizes equivalent special elements.
+ClassClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection') - (77)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended command when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBaseExecutable Regular Expression Error - (624)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 624 (Executable Regular Expression Error)
The product uses a regular expression that either (1) contains an executable component with user-controlled inputs, or (2) allows a user to enable execution by inserting pattern modifiers.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection') - (78)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 78 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an OS command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended OS command when it is sent to a downstream component.Shell injectionShell metacharacters
*BaseBaseArgument Injection or Modification - (88)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 88 (Argument Injection or Modification)
The software does not sufficiently delimit the arguments being passed to a component in another control sphere, allowing alternate arguments to be provided, leading to potentially security-relevant changes.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection') - (917)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 917 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an expression language (EL) statement in a Java Server Page (JSP) using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended EL statement before it is executed.EL Injection
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting') - (79)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting'))
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input before it is placed in output that is used as a web page that is served to other users.XSSCSS
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Script-Related HTML Tags in a Web Page (Basic XSS) - (80)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 80 (Improper Neutralization of Script-Related HTML Tags in a Web Page (Basic XSS))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special characters such as "<", ">", and "&" that could be interpreted as web-scripting elements when they are sent to a downstream component that processes web pages.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Script in an Error Message Web Page - (81)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 81 (Improper Neutralization of Script in an Error Message Web Page)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special characters that could be interpreted as web-scripting elements when they are sent to an error page.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page - (83)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 83 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes "javascript:" or other URIs from dangerous attributes within tags, such as onmouseover, onload, onerror, or style.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Script in Attributes of IMG Tags in a Web Page - (82)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 83 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page) > 82 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes of IMG Tags in a Web Page)
The web application does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes scripting elements within attributes of HTML IMG tags, such as the src attribute.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Encoded URI Schemes in a Web Page - (84)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 84 (Improper Neutralization of Encoded URI Schemes in a Web Page)
The web application improperly neutralizes user-controlled input for executable script disguised with URI encodings.
*VariantVariantDoubled Character XSS Manipulations - (85)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 85 (Doubled Character XSS Manipulations)
The web application does not filter user-controlled input for executable script disguised using doubling of the involved characters.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages - (86)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 86 (Improper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes invalid characters or byte sequences in the middle of tag names, URI schemes, and other identifiers.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Alternate XSS Syntax - (87)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 87 (Improper Neutralization of Alternate XSS Syntax)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controlled input for alternate script syntax.
+BaseBaseXML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection) - (91)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection))
The software does not properly neutralize special elements that are used in XML, allowing attackers to modify the syntax, content, or commands of the XML before it is processed by an end system.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection') - (643)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection)) > 643 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XPath expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection') - (652)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection)) > 652 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XQuery expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection') - (93)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 93 (Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection'))
The software uses CRLF (carriage return line feeds) as a special element, e.g. to separate lines or records, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes CRLF sequences from inputs.
+ClassClassImproper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection') - (94)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the syntax or behavior of the intended code segment.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection') - (95)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 95 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before using the input in a dynamic evaluation call (e.g. "eval").
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection') - (96)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable resource, such as a library, configuration file, or template.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page - (97)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection')) > 97 (Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page)
The software generates a web page, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input that could be interpreted as a server-side include (SSI) directive.
+ClassClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic - (943)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic)
The application generates a query intended to access or manipulate data in a data store such as a database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that can modify the intended logic of the query.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection') - (643)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 643 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XPath expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection') - (652)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 652 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XQuery expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection') - (89)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 89 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an SQL command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended SQL command when it is sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantSQL Injection: Hibernate - (564)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 89 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection')) > 564 (SQL Injection: Hibernate)
Using Hibernate to execute a dynamic SQL statement built with user-controlled input can allow an attacker to modify the statement's meaning or to execute arbitrary SQL commands.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection') - (90)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 90 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an LDAP query using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended LDAP query when it is sent to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseImproper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection') - (99)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before it is used as an identifier for a resource that may be outside the intended sphere of control.Insecure Direct Object Reference
*BaseBaseImproper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources - (641)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 641 (Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources)
The application constructs the name of a file or other resource using input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the resulting name.
*BaseBaseUse of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier - (694)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 694 (Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier)
The software uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.
+BaseBaseImproper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables - (914)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables)
The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-identified variables.
*BaseBaseVariable Extraction Error - (621)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables) > 621 (Variable Extraction Error)
The product uses external input to determine the names of variables into which information is extracted, without verifying that the names of the specified variables are valid. This could cause the program to overwrite unintended variables.Variable overwrite
*BaseBaseDynamic Variable Evaluation - (627)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables) > 627 (Dynamic Variable Evaluation)
In a language where the user can influence the name of a variable at runtime, if the variable names are not controlled, an attacker can read or write to arbitrary variables, or access arbitrary functions.Dynamic evaluation
*BaseBaseInappropriate Encoding for Output Context - (838)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 838 (Inappropriate Encoding for Output Context)
The software uses or specifies an encoding when generating output to a downstream component, but the specified encoding is not the same as the encoding that is expected by the downstream component.
+ClassClassImproper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer - (119)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer)
The software performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.Memory Corruption
+BaseBaseBuffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow') - (120)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow'))
The program copies an input buffer to an output buffer without verifying that the size of the input buffer is less than the size of the output buffer, leading to a buffer overflow.buffer overrunUnbounded Transfer
*VariantVariantUse of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer - (785)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow')) > 785 (Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer)
The software invokes a function for normalizing paths or file names, but it provides an output buffer that is smaller than the maximum possible size, such as PATH_MAX.
*BaseBaseWrite-what-where Condition - (123)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 123 (Write-what-where Condition)
Any condition where the attacker has the ability to write an arbitrary value to an arbitrary location, often as the result of a buffer overflow.
+BaseBaseOut-of-bounds Read - (125)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read)
The software reads data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*VariantVariantBuffer Over-read - (126)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
*VariantVariantBuffer Under-read - (127)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency - (130)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 130 (Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency )
The software parses a formatted message or structure, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a length field that is inconsistent with the actual length of the associated data.length manipulationlength tampering
+BaseBaseAccess of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer - (786)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.
*BaseBaseBuffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.buffer underrun
*VariantVariantBuffer Under-read - (127)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
+BaseBaseOut-of-bounds Write - (787)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write)
The software writes data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*VariantVariantStack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
*VariantVariantHeap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*BaseBaseBuffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.buffer underrun
+BaseBaseAccess of Memory Location After End of Buffer - (788)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location after the end of the buffer.
*VariantVariantStack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
*VariantVariantHeap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*VariantVariantBuffer Over-read - (126)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
+BaseBaseBuffer Access with Incorrect Length Value - (805)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value)
The software uses a sequential operation to read or write a buffer, but it uses an incorrect length value that causes it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
*VariantVariantBuffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer - (806)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value) > 806 (Buffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer)
The software uses the size of a source buffer when reading from or writing to a destination buffer, which may cause it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
*BaseBaseUntrusted Pointer Dereference - (822)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 822 (Untrusted Pointer Dereference)
The program obtains a value from an untrusted source, converts this value to a pointer, and dereferences the resulting pointer.
*BaseBaseUse of Out-of-range Pointer Offset - (823)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 823 (Use of Out-of-range Pointer Offset)
The program performs pointer arithmetic on a valid pointer, but it uses an offset that can point outside of the intended range of valid memory locations for the resulting pointer.Untrusted pointer offset
*BaseBaseAccess of Uninitialized Pointer - (824)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 824 (Access of Uninitialized Pointer)
The program accesses or uses a pointer that has not been initialized.
*BaseBaseExpired Pointer Dereference - (825)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference)
The program dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.Dangling pointer
+CategoryCategoryString Errors - (133)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 133 (String Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the creation and modification of strings.
*BaseBaseUse of Externally-Controlled Format String - (134)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 133 (String Errors) > 134 (Use of Externally-Controlled Format String)
The software uses a function that accepts a format string as an argument, but the format string originates from an external source.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length - (135)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 133 (String Errors) > 135 (Incorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length)
The software does not correctly calculate the length of strings that can contain wide or multi-byte characters.
*CategoryCategoryOften Misused: String Management - (251)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 133 (String Errors) > 251 (Often Misused: String Management)
Functions that manipulate strings encourage buffer overflows.
*VariantVariantUse of Wrong Operator in String Comparison - (597)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 133 (String Errors) > 597 (Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison)
The product uses the wrong operator when comparing a string, such as using "==" when the equals() method should be used instead.
+CategoryCategoryType Errors - (136)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 136 (Type Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are caused by improper data type transformation or improper handling of multiple data types.
+ClassClassIncorrect Conversion between Numeric Types - (681)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types)
When converting from one data type to another, such as long to integer, data can be omitted or translated in a way that produces unexpected values. If the resulting values are used in a sensitive context, then dangerous behaviors may occur.
*BaseBaseUnexpected Sign Extension - (194)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 194 (Unexpected Sign Extension)
The software performs an operation on a number that causes it to be sign extended when it is transformed into a larger data type. When the original number is negative, this can produce unexpected values that lead to resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariantSigned to Unsigned Conversion Error - (195)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 195 (Signed to Unsigned Conversion Error)
The software uses a signed primitive and performs a cast to an unsigned primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the signed primitive can not be represented using an unsigned primitive.
*VariantVariantUnsigned to Signed Conversion Error - (196)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 196 (Unsigned to Signed Conversion Error)
The software uses an unsigned primitive and performs a cast to a signed primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the unsigned primitive can not be represented using a signed primitive.
*BaseBaseNumeric Truncation Error - (197)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 136 (Type Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 197 (Numeric Truncation Error)
Truncation errors occur when a primitive is cast to a primitive of a smaller size and data is lost in the conversion.
+ClassClassIncorrect Type Conversion or Cast - (704)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 136 (Type Errors) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast)
The software does not correctly convert an object, resource or structure from one type to a different type.
*BaseBaseAccess of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion') - (843)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 136 (Type Errors) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 843 (Access of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion'))
The program allocates or initializes a resource such as a pointer, object, or variable using one type, but it later accesses that resource using a type that is incompatible with the original type.Object Type Confusion
+CategoryCategoryRepresentation Errors - (137)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are introduced when inserting or converting data from one representation into another.
+ClassClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements - (138)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as control elements or syntactic markers when they are sent to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Delimiters - (140)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes delimiters.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters - (141)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 141 (Improper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as parameter or argument delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Value Delimiters - (142)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 142 (Improper Neutralization of Value Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as value delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Record Delimiters - (143)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 143 (Improper Neutralization of Record Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as record delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Line Delimiters - (144)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 144 (Improper Neutralization of Line Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as line delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Section Delimiters - (145)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 145 (Improper Neutralization of Section Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as section delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters - (146)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 146 (Improper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as expression or command delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Input Terminators - (147)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 147 (Improper Neutralization of Input Terminators)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as input terminators when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Input Leaders - (148)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 148 (Improper Neutralization of Input Leaders)
The application does not properly handle when a leading character or sequence ("leader") is missing or malformed, or if multiple leaders are used when only one should be allowed.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax - (149)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 149 (Improper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax)
Quotes injected into an application can be used to compromise a system. As data are parsed, an injected/absent/duplicate/malformed use of quotes may cause the process to take unexpected actions.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences - (150)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 150 (Improper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as escape, meta, or control character sequences when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters - (151)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 151 (Improper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as comment delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Macro Symbols - (152)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 152 (Improper Neutralization of Macro Symbols)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as macro symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Substitution Characters - (153)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 153 (Improper Neutralization of Substitution Characters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as substitution characters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters - (154)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 154 (Improper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as variable name delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols - (155)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 155 (Improper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as wildcards or matching symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Whitespace - (156)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 156 (Improper Neutralization of Whitespace)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as whitespace when they are sent to a downstream component.White space
*VariantVariantFailure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters - (157)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 157 (Failure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters)
The software does not properly handle the characters that are used to mark the beginning and ending of a group of entities, such as parentheses, brackets, and braces.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character - (158)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 158 (Improper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes NUL characters or null bytes when they are sent to a downstream component.
+ClassClassFailure to Sanitize Special Element - (159)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element)
Weaknesses in this attack-focused category do not properly filter and interpret special elements in user-controlled input which could cause adverse effect on the software behavior and integrity.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Missing Special Element - (166)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 166 (Improper Handling of Missing Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Additional Special Element - (167)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 167 (Improper Handling of Additional Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is missing.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements - (168)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 168 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements)
The software does not handle when an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements - (160)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements - (161)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements) > 161 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements - (162)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements - (163)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements) > 163 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements - (164)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements - (165)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements) > 165 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBaseImproper Null Termination - (170)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 170 (Improper Null Termination)
The software does not terminate or incorrectly terminates a string or array with a null character or equivalent terminator.
+ClassClassImproper Filtering of Special Elements - (790)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter or incorrectly filters special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseIncomplete Filtering of Special Elements - (791)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
+VariantVariantIncomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements - (792)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 792 (Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter one or more instances of special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantOnly Filtering One Instance of a Special Element - (793)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 792 (Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements) > 793 (Only Filtering One Instance of a Special Element)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only filters a single instance of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantIncomplete Filtering of Multiple Instances of Special Elements - (794)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 792 (Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements) > 794 (Incomplete Filtering of Multiple Instances of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter all instances of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseOnly Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location - (795)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at a specified location, thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantOnly Filtering Special Elements Relative to a Marker - (796)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location) > 796 (Only Filtering Special Elements Relative to a Marker)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements positioned relative to a marker (e.g. "at the beginning/end of a string; the second argument"), thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantOnly Filtering Special Elements at an Absolute Position - (797)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location) > 797 (Only Filtering Special Elements at an Absolute Position)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at an absolute position (e.g. "byte number 10"), thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
+CategoryCategoryCleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors - (171)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of data within protection mechanisms that attempt to perform neutralization for untrusted data.
+ClassClassEncoding Error - (172)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error)
The software does not properly encode or decode the data, resulting in unexpected values.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Alternate Encoding - (173)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 173 (Improper Handling of Alternate Encoding)
The software does not properly handle when an input uses an alternate encoding that is valid for the control sphere to which the input is being sent.
*VariantVariantDouble Decoding of the Same Data - (174)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 174 (Double Decoding of the Same Data)
The software decodes the same input twice, which can limit the effectiveness of any protection mechanism that occurs in between the decoding operations.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Mixed Encoding - (175)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 175 (Improper Handling of Mixed Encoding)
The software does not properly handle when the same input uses several different (mixed) encodings.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Unicode Encoding - (176)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 176 (Improper Handling of Unicode Encoding)
The software does not properly handle when an input contains Unicode encoding.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of URL Encoding (Hex Encoding) - (177)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 177 (Improper Handling of URL Encoding (Hex Encoding))
The software does not properly handle when all or part of an input has been URL encoded.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Case Sensitivity - (178)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 178 (Improper Handling of Case Sensitivity)
The software does not properly account for differences in case sensitivity when accessing or determining the properties of a resource, leading to inconsistent results.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation - (179)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation)
The software validates input before applying protection mechanisms that modify the input, which could allow an attacker to bypass the validation via dangerous inputs that only arise after the modification.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize - (180)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 180 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize)
The software validates input before it is canonicalized, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the canonicalization step.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter - (181)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 181 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter)
The software validates data before it has been filtered, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the filtering step.Validate-before-cleanse
*BaseBaseCollapse of Data into Unsafe Value - (182)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 182 (Collapse of Data into Unsafe Value)
The software filters data in a way that causes it to be reduced or "collapsed" into an unsafe value that violates an expected security property.
*BaseBasePermissive Whitelist - (183)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 183 (Permissive Whitelist)
An application uses a "whitelist" of acceptable values, but the whitelist includes at least one unsafe value, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBaseIncomplete Blacklist - (184)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 184 (Incomplete Blacklist)
An application uses a "blacklist" of prohibited values, but the blacklist is incomplete.
+ClassClassIncorrect Regular Expression - (185)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 185 (Incorrect Regular Expression)
The software specifies a regular expression in a way that causes data to be improperly matched or compared.
*BaseBaseOverly Restrictive Regular Expression - (186)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 185 (Incorrect Regular Expression) > 186 (Overly Restrictive Regular Expression)
A regular expression is overly restrictive, which prevents dangerous values from being detected.
+BaseBasePermissive Regular Expression - (625)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 185 (Incorrect Regular Expression) > 625 (Permissive Regular Expression)
The product uses a regular expression that does not sufficiently restrict the set of allowed values.
*VariantVariantRegular Expression without Anchors - (777)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 185 (Incorrect Regular Expression) > 625 (Permissive Regular Expression) > 777 (Regular Expression without Anchors)
The software uses a regular expression to perform neutralization, but the regular expression is not anchored and may allow malicious or malformed data to slip through.
*BaseBasePartial Comparison - (187)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 187 (Partial Comparison)
The software performs a comparison that only examines a portion of a factor before determining whether there is a match, such as a substring, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariantMissing Default Case in Switch Statement - (478)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 478 (Missing Default Case in Switch Statement)
The code does not have a default case in a switch statement, which might lead to complex logical errors and resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariantComparison of Classes by Name - (486)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 486 (Comparison of Classes by Name)
The program compares classes by name, which can cause it to use the wrong class when multiple classes can have the same name.
+BaseBaseComparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents - (595)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 595 (Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents)
The program compares object references instead of the contents of the objects themselves, preventing it from detecting equivalent objects.
*VariantVariantUse of Wrong Operator in String Comparison - (597)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 595 (Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents) > 597 (Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison)
The product uses the wrong operator when comparing a string, such as using "==" when the equals() method should be used instead.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Semantic Object Comparison - (596)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 596 (Incorrect Semantic Object Comparison)
The software does not correctly compare two objects based on their conceptual content.
*ClassClassInsufficient Comparison - (697)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 697 (Insufficient Comparison)
The software compares two entities in a security-relevant context, but the comparison is insufficient, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.
*ClassClassImproper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure - (707)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure)
The software does not enforce or incorrectly enforces that structured messages or data are well-formed before being read from an upstream component or sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Short Circuit Evaluation - (768)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 171 (Cleansing, Canonicalization, and Comparison Errors) > 768 (Incorrect Short Circuit Evaluation)
The software contains a conditional statement with multiple logical expressions in which one of the non-leading expressions may produce side effects. This may lead to an unexpected state in the program after the execution of the conditional, because short-circuiting logic may prevent the side effects from occurring.
*BaseBaseReliance on Data/Memory Layout - (188)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 188 (Reliance on Data/Memory Layout)
The software makes invalid assumptions about how protocol data or memory is organized at a lower level, resulting in unintended program behavior.
+ClassClassImproper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure - (228)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles input that is not syntactically well-formed with respect to the associated specification.
+BaseBaseImproper Handling of Values - (229)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of values for parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those values are undefined.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Missing Values - (230)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 230 (Improper Handling of Missing Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a parameter, field, or argument name is specified, but the associated value is missing, i.e. it is empty, blank, or null.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Extra Values - (231)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 231 (Improper Handling of Extra Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when more values are provided than expected.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Undefined Values - (232)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 232 (Improper Handling of Undefined Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a value is not defined or supported for the associated parameter, field, or argument name.
+BaseBaseImproper Handling of Parameters - (233)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those parameters are undefined.
*VariantVariantFailure to Handle Missing Parameter - (234)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 234 (Failure to Handle Missing Parameter)
If too few arguments are sent to a function, the function will still pop the expected number of arguments from the stack. Potentially, a variable number of arguments could be exhausted in a function as well.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Extra Parameters - (235)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 235 (Improper Handling of Extra Parameters)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when the number of parameters, fields, or arguments with the same name exceeds the expected amount.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Undefined Parameters - (236)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 236 (Improper Handling of Undefined Parameters)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular parameter, field, or argument name is not defined or supported by the product.
+BaseBaseImproper Handling of Structural Elements - (237)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles inputs that are related to complex structures.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements - (238)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 238 (Improper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular structural element is not completely specified.
*VariantVariantFailure to Handle Incomplete Element - (239)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 239 (Failure to Handle Incomplete Element)
The software does not properly handle when a particular element is not completely specified.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements - (240)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 240 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when two or more structural elements should be consistent, but are not.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Unexpected Data Type - (241)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 137 (Representation Errors) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 241 (Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular element is not the expected type, e.g. it expects a digit (0-9) but is provided with a letter (A-Z).
+CategoryCategoryInformation Management Errors - (199)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of sensitive information.
+ClassClassInformation Exposure - (200)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure)
An information exposure is the intentional or unintentional disclosure of information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have access to that information.Information LeakInformation Disclosure
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Sent Data - (201)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 201 (Information Exposure Through Sent Data)
The accidental exposure of sensitive information through sent data refers to the transmission of data which are either sensitive in and of itself or useful in the further exploitation of the system through standard data channels.
*VariantVariantExposure of Sensitive Data Through Data Queries - (202)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 202 (Exposure of Sensitive Data Through Data Queries)
When trying to keep information confidential, an attacker can often infer some of the information by using statistics.
+ClassClassInformation Exposure Through Discrepancy - (203)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy)
The product behaves differently or sends different responses in a way that exposes security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*BaseBaseResponse Discrepancy Information Exposure - (204)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 204 (Response Discrepancy Information Exposure)
The software provides different responses to incoming requests in a way that allows an actor to determine system state information that is outside of that actor's control sphere.
+BaseBaseInformation Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy - (205)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy)
The product's actions indicate important differences based on (1) the internal state of the product or (2) differences from other products in the same class.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure of Internal State Through Behavioral Inconsistency - (206)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy) > 206 (Information Exposure of Internal State Through Behavioral Inconsistency)
Two separate operations in a product cause the product to behave differently in a way that is observable to an attacker and reveals security-relevant information about the internal state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through an External Behavioral Inconsistency - (207)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy) > 207 (Information Exposure Through an External Behavioral Inconsistency)
The product behaves differently than other products like it, in a way that is observable to an attacker and exposes security-relevant information about which product is being used.
*BaseBaseInformation Exposure Through Timing Discrepancy - (208)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 208 (Information Exposure Through Timing Discrepancy)
Two separate operations in a product require different amounts of time to complete, in a way that is observable to an actor and reveals security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
+BaseBaseInformation Exposure Through an Error Message - (209)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message)
The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.
+BaseBaseInformation Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message - (210)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message)
The software identifies an error condition and creates its own diagnostic or error messages that contain sensitive information.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Shell Error Message - (535)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 535 (Information Exposure Through Shell Error Message)
A command shell error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in the web application code. In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause these errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message - (536)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 536 (Information Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message)
A servlet error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in your web application code and may provide useful information to an attacker.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message - (537)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 537 (Information Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message)
In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause unhandled exception errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*BaseBaseInformation Exposure Through Externally-Generated Error Message - (211)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 211 (Information Exposure Through Externally-Generated Error Message)
The software performs an operation that triggers an external diagnostic or error message that is not directly generated by the software, such as an error generated by the programming language interpreter that the software uses. The error can contain sensitive system information.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Server Error Message - (550)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 550 (Information Exposure Through Server Error Message)
Certain conditions, such as network failure, will cause a server error message to be displayed.
*BaseBaseImproper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data - (212)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 212 (Improper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data)
The software uses a resource that contains sensitive data, but it does not properly remove that data before it stores, transfers, or shares the resource with actors in another control sphere.
*BaseBaseIntentional Information Exposure - (213)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 213 (Intentional Information Exposure)
A product's design or configuration explicitly requires the publication of information that could be regarded as sensitive by an administrator.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Process Environment - (214)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 214 (Information Exposure Through Process Environment)
A process is invoked with sensitive arguments, environment variables, or other elements that can be seen by other processes on the operating system.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Information - (215)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 215 (Information Exposure Through Debug Information)
The application contains debugging code that can expose sensitive information to untrusted parties.
+BaseBaseSensitive Information Uncleared Before Release - (226)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release)
The software does not fully clear previously used information in a data structure, file, or other resource, before making that resource available to a party in another control sphere.
*VariantVariantImproper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection') - (244)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release) > 244 (Improper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection'))
Using realloc() to resize buffers that store sensitive information can leave the sensitive information exposed to attack, because it is not removed from memory.
*VariantVariantExposure of System Data to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (497)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 497 (Exposure of System Data to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
Exposing system data or debugging information helps an adversary learn about the system and form an attack plan.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Caching - (524)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 524 (Information Exposure Through Caching)
The application uses a cache to maintain a pool of objects, threads, connections, pages, or passwords to minimize the time it takes to access them or the resources to which they connect. If implemented improperly, these caches can allow access to unauthorized information or cause a denial of service vulnerability.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Browser Caching - (525)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 524 (Information Exposure Through Caching) > 525 (Information Exposure Through Browser Caching)
For each web page, the application should have an appropriate caching policy specifying the extent to which the page and its form fields should be cached.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Environmental Variables - (526)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 526 (Information Exposure Through Environmental Variables)
Environmental variables may contain sensitive information about a remote server.
+BaseBaseFile and Directory Information Exposure - (538)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure)
The product stores sensitive information in files or directories that are accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (527)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 527 (Exposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores a CVS repository in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (528)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 528 (Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product generates a core dump file in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (529)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 529 (Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores access control list files in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (530)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 530 (Exposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
A backup file is stored in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Log Files - (532)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Server Log Files - (533)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 533 (Information Exposure Through Server Log Files)
A server.log file was found. This can give information on whatever application left the file. Usually this can give full path names and system information, and sometimes usernames and passwords.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Log Files - (534)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 534 (Information Exposure Through Debug Log Files)
The application does not sufficiently restrict access to a log file that is used for debugging.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files - (542)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 542 (Information Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files)
The application does not properly protect or delete a log file related to cleanup.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Persistent Cookies - (539)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 539 (Information Exposure Through Persistent Cookies)
Persistent cookies are cookies that are stored on the browser's hard drive. This can cause security and privacy issues depending on the information stored in the cookie and how it is accessed.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Source Code - (540)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code)
Source code on a web server often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Test Code - (531)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 531 (Information Exposure Through Test Code)
Accessible test applications can pose a variety of security risks. Since developers or administrators rarely consider that someone besides themselves would even know about the existence of these applications, it is common for them to contain sensitive information or functions.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Include Source Code - (541)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 541 (Information Exposure Through Include Source Code)
If an include file source is accessible, the file can contain usernames and passwords, as well as sensitive information pertaining to the application and system.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Comments - (615)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 615 (Information Exposure Through Comments)
While adding general comments is very useful, some programmers tend to leave important data, such as: filenames related to the web application, old links or links which were not meant to be browsed by users, old code fragments, etc.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Directory Listing - (548)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 548 (Information Exposure Through Directory Listing)
A directory listing is inappropriately exposed, yielding potentially sensitive information to attackers.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through WSDL File - (651)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 651 (Information Exposure Through WSDL File)
The Web services architecture may require exposing a Web Service Definition Language (WSDL) file that contains information on the publicly accessible services and how callers of these services should interact with them (e.g. what parameters they expect and what types they return).
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Query Strings in GET Request - (598)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 598 (Information Exposure Through Query Strings in GET Request)
The web application uses the GET method to process requests that contain sensitive information, which can expose that information through the browser's history, Referers, web logs, and other sources.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Indexing of Private Data - (612)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 612 (Information Exposure Through Indexing of Private Data)
The product performs an indexing routine against private documents, but does not sufficiently verify that the actors who can access the index also have the privileges to access the private documents.
+ClassClassContainment Errors (Container Errors) - (216)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors))
This tries to cover various problems in which improper data are included within a "container."
*VariantVariantSensitive Data Under Web Root - (219)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the web document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*VariantVariantSensitive Data Under FTP Root - (220)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 220 (Sensitive Data Under FTP Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the FTP document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
+ClassClassInformation Loss or Omission - (221)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission)
The software does not record, or improperly records, security-relevant information that leads to an incorrect decision or hampers later analysis.
*BaseBaseTruncation of Security-relevant Information - (222)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 222 (Truncation of Security-relevant Information)
The application truncates the display, recording, or processing of security-relevant information in a way that can obscure the source or nature of an attack.
+BaseBaseOmission of Security-relevant Information - (223)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 223 (Omission of Security-relevant Information)
The application does not record or display information that would be important for identifying the source or nature of an attack, or determining if an action is safe.
*BaseBaseInsufficient Logging - (778)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 223 (Omission of Security-relevant Information) > 778 (Insufficient Logging)
When a security-critical event occurs, the software either does not record the event or omits important details about the event when logging it.
*BaseBaseObscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name - (224)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 224 (Obscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name)
The software records security-relevant information according to an alternate name of the affected entity, instead of the canonical name.
*BaseBaseLogging of Excessive Data - (779)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 199 (Information Management Errors) > 779 (Logging of Excessive Data)
The software logs too much information, making log files hard to process and possibly hindering recovery efforts or forensic analysis after an attack.
+ClassClassImproper Input Validation - (20)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation)
The product does not validate or incorrectly validates input that can affect the control flow or data flow of a program.
*VariantVariantStruts: Duplicate Validation Forms - (102)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 102 (Struts: Duplicate Validation Forms)
The application uses multiple validation forms with the same name, which might cause the Struts Validator to validate a form that the programmer does not expect.
*VariantVariantStruts: Incomplete validate() Method Definition - (103)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 103 (Struts: Incomplete validate() Method Definition)
The application has a validator form that either does not define a validate() method, or defines a validate() method but does not call super.validate().
*VariantVariantStruts: Form Bean Does Not Extend Validation Class - (104)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 104 (Struts: Form Bean Does Not Extend Validation Class)
If a form bean does not extend an ActionForm subclass of the Validator framework, it can expose the application to other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*VariantVariantStruts: Form Field Without Validator - (105)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 105 (Struts: Form Field Without Validator)
The application has a form field that is not validated by a corresponding validation form, which can introduce other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*VariantVariantStruts: Plug-in Framework not in Use - (106)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 106 (Struts: Plug-in Framework not in Use)
When an application does not use an input validation framework such as the Struts Validator, there is a greater risk of introducing weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*VariantVariantStruts: Unused Validation Form - (107)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 107 (Struts: Unused Validation Form)
An unused validation form indicates that validation logic is not up-to-date.
*VariantVariantStruts: Unvalidated Action Form - (108)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 108 (Struts: Unvalidated Action Form)
Every Action Form must have a corresponding validation form.
*VariantVariantStruts: Validator Turned Off - (109)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 109 (Struts: Validator Turned Off)
Automatic filtering via a Struts bean has been turned off, which disables the Struts Validator and custom validation logic. This exposes the application to other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*VariantVariantStruts: Validator Without Form Field - (110)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 110 (Struts: Validator Without Form Field)
Validation fields that do not appear in forms they are associated with indicate that the validation logic is out of date.
*BaseBaseDirect Use of Unsafe JNI - (111)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 111 (Direct Use of Unsafe JNI)
When a Java application uses the Java Native Interface (JNI) to call code written in another programming language, it can expose the application to weaknesses in that code, even if those weaknesses cannot occur in Java.
*BaseBaseMissing XML Validation - (112)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 112 (Missing XML Validation)
The software accepts XML from an untrusted source but does not validate the XML against the proper schema.
*BaseBaseProcess Control - (114)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 114 (Process Control)
Executing commands or loading libraries from an untrusted source or in an untrusted environment can cause an application to execute malicious commands (and payloads) on behalf of an attacker.
*BaseBaseImproper Validation of Array Index - (129)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 129 (Improper Validation of Array Index)
The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index references a valid position within the array.out-of-bounds array indexindex-out-of-rangearray index underflow
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation - (179)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation)
The software validates input before applying protection mechanisms that modify the input, which could allow an attacker to bypass the validation via dangerous inputs that only arise after the modification.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize - (180)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 180 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize)
The software validates input before it is canonicalized, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the canonicalization step.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter - (181)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 181 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter)
The software validates data before it has been filtered, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the filtering step.Validate-before-cleanse
*BaseBaseUse of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection') - (470)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 470 (Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection'))
The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper classes or code.Reflection Injection
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework - (554)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 554 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework)
The ASP.NET application does not use an input validation framework.
*VariantVariantURL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect') - (601)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 601 (URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect'))
A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks.Open RedirectCross-site RedirectCross-domain Redirect
*BaseBaseUnchecked Input for Loop Condition - (606)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 606 (Unchecked Input for Loop Condition)
The product does not properly check inputs that are used for loop conditions, potentially leading to a denial of service because of excessive looping.
*VariantVariantStruts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class - (608)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 608 (Struts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class)
An ActionForm class contains a field that has not been declared private, which can be accessed without using a setter or getter.
*VariantVariantImproper Validation of Function Hook Arguments - (622)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 622 (Improper Validation of Function Hook Arguments)
A product adds hooks to user-accessible API functions, but does not properly validate the arguments. This could lead to resultant vulnerabilities.
*VariantVariantNull Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte) - (626)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 626 (Null Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte))
The product does not properly handle null bytes or NUL characters when passing data between different representations or components.
*ClassClassExternal Control of File Name or Path - (73)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 73 (External Control of File Name or Path)
The software allows user input to control or influence paths or file names that are used in filesystem operations.
+ClassClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection') - (74)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a command, data structure, or record using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify how it is parsed or interpreted when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBaseUse of Externally-Controlled Format String - (134)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 134 (Use of Externally-Controlled Format String)
The software uses a function that accepts a format string as an argument, but the format string originates from an external source.
+ClassClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements - (138)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as control elements or syntactic markers when they are sent to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Delimiters - (140)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes delimiters.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters - (141)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 141 (Improper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as parameter or argument delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Value Delimiters - (142)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 142 (Improper Neutralization of Value Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as value delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Record Delimiters - (143)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 143 (Improper Neutralization of Record Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as record delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Line Delimiters - (144)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 144 (Improper Neutralization of Line Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as line delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Section Delimiters - (145)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 145 (Improper Neutralization of Section Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as section delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters - (146)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters) > 146 (Improper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as expression or command delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Input Terminators - (147)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 147 (Improper Neutralization of Input Terminators)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as input terminators when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Input Leaders - (148)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 148 (Improper Neutralization of Input Leaders)
The application does not properly handle when a leading character or sequence ("leader") is missing or malformed, or if multiple leaders are used when only one should be allowed.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax - (149)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 149 (Improper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax)
Quotes injected into an application can be used to compromise a system. As data are parsed, an injected/absent/duplicate/malformed use of quotes may cause the process to take unexpected actions.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences - (150)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 150 (Improper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as escape, meta, or control character sequences when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters - (151)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 151 (Improper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as comment delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Macro Symbols - (152)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 152 (Improper Neutralization of Macro Symbols)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as macro symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Substitution Characters - (153)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 153 (Improper Neutralization of Substitution Characters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as substitution characters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters - (154)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 154 (Improper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as variable name delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols - (155)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 155 (Improper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as wildcards or matching symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Whitespace - (156)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 156 (Improper Neutralization of Whitespace)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as whitespace when they are sent to a downstream component.White space
*VariantVariantFailure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters - (157)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 157 (Failure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters)
The software does not properly handle the characters that are used to mark the beginning and ending of a group of entities, such as parentheses, brackets, and braces.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character - (158)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 158 (Improper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes NUL characters or null bytes when they are sent to a downstream component.
+ClassClassFailure to Sanitize Special Element - (159)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element)
Weaknesses in this attack-focused category do not properly filter and interpret special elements in user-controlled input which could cause adverse effect on the software behavior and integrity.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Missing Special Element - (166)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 166 (Improper Handling of Missing Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Additional Special Element - (167)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 167 (Improper Handling of Additional Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is missing.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements - (168)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 168 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements)
The software does not handle when an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements - (160)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements - (161)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements) > 161 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements - (162)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements - (163)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements) > 163 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements - (164)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements - (165)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements) > 165 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBaseImproper Null Termination - (170)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 170 (Improper Null Termination)
The software does not terminate or incorrectly terminates a string or array with a null character or equivalent terminator.
+ClassClassImproper Filtering of Special Elements - (790)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter or incorrectly filters special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseIncomplete Filtering of Special Elements - (791)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
+VariantVariantIncomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements - (792)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 792 (Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter one or more instances of special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantOnly Filtering One Instance of a Special Element - (793)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 792 (Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements) > 793 (Only Filtering One Instance of a Special Element)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only filters a single instance of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantIncomplete Filtering of Multiple Instances of Special Elements - (794)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 792 (Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements) > 794 (Incomplete Filtering of Multiple Instances of Special Elements)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter all instances of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseOnly Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location - (795)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at a specified location, thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantOnly Filtering Special Elements Relative to a Marker - (796)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location) > 796 (Only Filtering Special Elements Relative to a Marker)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements positioned relative to a marker (e.g. "at the beginning/end of a string; the second argument"), thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantOnly Filtering Special Elements at an Absolute Position - (797)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location) > 797 (Only Filtering Special Elements at an Absolute Position)
The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at an absolute position (e.g. "byte number 10"), thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
+ClassClassFailure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection) - (75)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 75 (Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection))
The software does not adequately filter user-controlled input for special elements with control implications.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements - (76)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 75 (Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection)) > 76 (Improper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements)
The software properly neutralizes certain special elements, but it improperly neutralizes equivalent special elements.
+ClassClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection') - (77)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended command when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBaseExecutable Regular Expression Error - (624)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 624 (Executable Regular Expression Error)
The product uses a regular expression that either (1) contains an executable component with user-controlled inputs, or (2) allows a user to enable execution by inserting pattern modifiers.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection') - (78)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 78 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an OS command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended OS command when it is sent to a downstream component.Shell injectionShell metacharacters
*BaseBaseArgument Injection or Modification - (88)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 88 (Argument Injection or Modification)
The software does not sufficiently delimit the arguments being passed to a component in another control sphere, allowing alternate arguments to be provided, leading to potentially security-relevant changes.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection') - (917)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')) > 917 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an expression language (EL) statement in a Java Server Page (JSP) using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended EL statement before it is executed.EL Injection
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting') - (79)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting'))
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input before it is placed in output that is used as a web page that is served to other users.XSSCSS
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Script-Related HTML Tags in a Web Page (Basic XSS) - (80)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 80 (Improper Neutralization of Script-Related HTML Tags in a Web Page (Basic XSS))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special characters such as "<", ">", and "&" that could be interpreted as web-scripting elements when they are sent to a downstream component that processes web pages.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Script in an Error Message Web Page - (81)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 81 (Improper Neutralization of Script in an Error Message Web Page)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special characters that could be interpreted as web-scripting elements when they are sent to an error page.
+VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page - (83)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 83 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes "javascript:" or other URIs from dangerous attributes within tags, such as onmouseover, onload, onerror, or style.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Script in Attributes of IMG Tags in a Web Page - (82)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 83 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page) > 82 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes of IMG Tags in a Web Page)
The web application does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes scripting elements within attributes of HTML IMG tags, such as the src attribute.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Encoded URI Schemes in a Web Page - (84)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 84 (Improper Neutralization of Encoded URI Schemes in a Web Page)
The web application improperly neutralizes user-controlled input for executable script disguised with URI encodings.
*VariantVariantDoubled Character XSS Manipulations - (85)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 85 (Doubled Character XSS Manipulations)
The web application does not filter user-controlled input for executable script disguised using doubling of the involved characters.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages - (86)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 86 (Improper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes invalid characters or byte sequences in the middle of tag names, URI schemes, and other identifiers.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Alternate XSS Syntax - (87)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')) > 87 (Improper Neutralization of Alternate XSS Syntax)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controlled input for alternate script syntax.
+BaseBaseXML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection) - (91)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection))
The software does not properly neutralize special elements that are used in XML, allowing attackers to modify the syntax, content, or commands of the XML before it is processed by an end system.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection') - (643)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection)) > 643 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XPath expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection') - (652)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection)) > 652 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XQuery expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection') - (93)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 93 (Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection'))
The software uses CRLF (carriage return line feeds) as a special element, e.g. to separate lines or records, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes CRLF sequences from inputs.
+ClassClassImproper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection') - (94)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the syntax or behavior of the intended code segment.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection') - (95)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 95 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before using the input in a dynamic evaluation call (e.g. "eval").
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection') - (96)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable resource, such as a library, configuration file, or template.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page - (97)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection')) > 97 (Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page)
The software generates a web page, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input that could be interpreted as a server-side include (SSI) directive.
+ClassClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic - (943)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic)
The application generates a query intended to access or manipulate data in a data store such as a database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that can modify the intended logic of the query.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection') - (643)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 643 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XPath expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection') - (652)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 652 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection'))
The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XQuery expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection') - (89)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 89 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an SQL command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended SQL command when it is sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariantSQL Injection: Hibernate - (564)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 89 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection')) > 564 (SQL Injection: Hibernate)
Using Hibernate to execute a dynamic SQL statement built with user-controlled input can allow an attacker to modify the statement's meaning or to execute arbitrary SQL commands.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection') - (90)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic) > 90 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of an LDAP query using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended LDAP query when it is sent to a downstream component.
+BaseBaseImproper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection') - (99)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before it is used as an identifier for a resource that may be outside the intended sphere of control.Insecure Direct Object Reference
*BaseBaseImproper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources - (641)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 641 (Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources)
The application constructs the name of a file or other resource using input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the resulting name.
*BaseBaseUse of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier - (694)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 694 (Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier)
The software uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.
+BaseBaseImproper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables - (914)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables)
The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-identified variables.
*BaseBaseVariable Extraction Error - (621)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables) > 621 (Variable Extraction Error)
The product uses external input to determine the names of variables into which information is extracted, without verifying that the names of the specified variables are valid. This could cause the program to overwrite unintended variables.Variable overwrite
*BaseBaseDynamic Variable Evaluation - (627)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables) > 627 (Dynamic Variable Evaluation)
In a language where the user can influence the name of a variable at runtime, if the variable names are not controlled, an attacker can read or write to arbitrary variables, or access arbitrary functions.Dynamic evaluation
*VariantVariantImproper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code - (781)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 781 (Improper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code)
The software defines an IOCTL that uses METHOD_NEITHER for I/O, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the addresses that are provided.
*VariantVariantUse of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer - (785)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 785 (Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer)
The software invokes a function for normalizing paths or file names, but it provides an output buffer that is smaller than the maximum possible size, such as PATH_MAX.
+CategoryCategoryData Structure Issues - (461)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 461 (Data Structure Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of specific data structures.
*BaseBaseDuplicate Key in Associative List (Alist) - (462)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 461 (Data Structure Issues) > 462 (Duplicate Key in Associative List (Alist))
Duplicate keys in associative lists can lead to non-unique keys being mistaken for an error.
*BaseBaseDeletion of Data Structure Sentinel - (463)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 461 (Data Structure Issues) > 463 (Deletion of Data Structure Sentinel)
The accidental deletion of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.
*BaseBaseAddition of Data Structure Sentinel - (464)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 461 (Data Structure Issues) > 464 (Addition of Data Structure Sentinel)
The accidental addition of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.
+BaseBaseModification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID) - (471)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID))
The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.
*BaseBaseExternal Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter - (472)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 472 (External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter)
The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.Assumed-Immutable Parameter Tampering
*VariantVariantPHP External Variable Modification - (473)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 473 (PHP External Variable Modification)
A PHP application does not properly protect against the modification of variables from external sources, such as query parameters or cookies. This can expose the application to numerous weaknesses that would not exist otherwise.
*VariantVariantPublic Static Final Field References Mutable Object - (607)
699 (Development Concepts) > 19 (Data Processing Errors) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 607 (Public Static Final Field References Mutable Object)
A public or protected static final field references a mutable object, which allows the object to be changed by malicious code, or accidentally from another package.
+CategoryCategoryPathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors - (21)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors)
Weaknesses in this category can be used to access files outside of a restricted directory (path traversal) or to perform operations on files that would otherwise be restricted (path equivalence). Files, directories, and folders are so central to information technology that many different weaknesses and variants have been discovered. The manipulations generally involve special characters or sequences in pathnames, or the use of alternate references or channels.
+ClassClassImproper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal') - (22)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal'))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that is intended to identify a file or directory that is located underneath a restricted parent directory, but the software does not properly neutralize special elements within the pathname that can cause the pathname to resolve to a location that is outside of the restricted directory.Directory traversalPath traversal
+BaseBaseRelative Path Traversal - (23)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize sequences such as ".." that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '../filedir' - (24)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 24 (Path Traversal: '../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '/../filedir' - (25)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 25 (Path Traversal: '/../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '/dir/../filename' - (26)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 26 (Path Traversal: '/dir/../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/dir/../filename" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: 'dir/../../filename' - (27)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 27 (Path Traversal: 'dir/../../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize multiple internal "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '..\filedir' - (28)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 28 (Path Traversal: '..\filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "..\" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\..\filename' - (29)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 29 (Path Traversal: '\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\dir\..\filename' - (30)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 30 (Path Traversal: '\dir\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\dir\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename' - (31)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 31 (Path Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize 'dir\..\..\filename' (multiple internal backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot) - (32)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 32 (Path Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '...' (triple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot) - (33)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 33 (Path Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....' (multiple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '....//' - (34)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 34 (Path Traversal: '....//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....//' (doubled dot dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '.../...//' - (35)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 35 (Path Traversal: '.../...//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '.../...//' (doubled triple dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
+BaseBaseAbsolute Path Traversal - (36)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize absolute path sequences such as "/abs/path" that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here' - (37)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 37 (Path Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a slash absolute path ('/absolute/pathname/here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here' - (38)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 38 (Path Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a backslash absolute path ('\absolute\pathname\here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: 'C:dirname' - (39)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 39 (Path Traversal: 'C:dirname')
An attacker can inject a drive letter or Windows volume letter ('C:dirname') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share) - (40)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 40 (Path Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share))
An attacker can inject a Windows UNC share ('\\UNC\share\name') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
+BaseBaseImproper Resolution of Path Equivalence - (41)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence)
The system or application is vulnerable to file system contents disclosure through path equivalence. Path equivalence involves the use of special characters in file and directory names. The associated manipulations are intended to generate multiple names for the same object.
+VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot) - (42)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 42 (Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing dot ('filedir.') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot) - (43)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 42 (Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot)) > 43 (Path Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing dot ('filedir....') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot) - (44)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 44 (Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of internal dot ('file.ordir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot) - (45)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 44 (Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot)) > 45 (Path Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal dot ('file...dir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space) - (46)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 46 (Path Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing space ('filedir ') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space) - (47)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 47 (Path Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of leading space (' filedir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace) - (48)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 48 (Path Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of internal space ('file(SPACE)name') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash) - (49)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 49 (Path Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing slash ('filedir/') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash' - (50)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 50 (Path Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple leading slash ('//multiple/leading/slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash' - (51)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 51 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal slash ('/multiple//internal/slash/') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//' - (52)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 52 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing slash ('/multiple/trailing/slash//') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash' - (53)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 53 (Path Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal backslash ('\multiple\trailing\\slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash) - (54)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 54 (Path Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing backslash ('filedir\') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory) - (55)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 55 (Path Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of single dot directory exploit ('/./') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard) - (56)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 56 (Path Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of asterisk wildcard ('filedir*') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename' - (57)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 57 (Path Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename')
The software contains protection mechanisms to restrict access to 'realdir/filename', but it constructs pathnames using external input in the form of 'fakedir/../realdir/filename' that are not handled by those mechanisms. This allows attackers to perform unauthorized actions against the targeted file.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename - (58)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 58 (Path Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename)
The software contains a protection mechanism that restricts access to a long filename on a Windows operating system, but the software does not properly restrict access to the equivalent short "8.3" filename.
+BaseBaseImproper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following') - (59)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following'))
The software attempts to access a file based on the filename, but it does not properly prevent that filename from identifying a link or shortcut that resolves to an unintended resource.insecure temporary file
*CompositeCompositeUNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following - (61)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the file is a symbolic link that resolves to a target outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.Symlink followingsymlink vulnerability
*VariantVariantUNIX Hard Link - (62)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 62 (UNIX Hard Link)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.
*VariantVariantWindows Shortcut Following (.LNK) - (64)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 64 (Windows Shortcut Following (.LNK))
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the file is a Windows shortcut (.LNK) whose target is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.Windows symbolic link followingsymlink
*VariantVariantWindows Hard Link - (65)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 65 (Windows Hard Link)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.
+BaseBaseImproper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources - (66)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles a file name that identifies a "virtual" resource that is not directly specified within the directory that is associated with the file name, causing the product to perform file-based operations on a resource that is not a file.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Windows Device Names - (67)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 67 (Improper Handling of Windows Device Names)
The software constructs pathnames from user input, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a pathname containing a Windows device name such as AUX or CON. This typically leads to denial of service or an information exposure when the application attempts to process the pathname as a regular file.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream - (69)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 69 (Improper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream)
The software does not properly prevent access to, or detect usage of, alternate data streams (ADS).
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path - (72)
699 (Development Concepts) > 21 (Pathname Traversal and Equivalence Errors) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 72 (Improper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path)
The software does not properly handle special paths that may identify the data or resource fork of a file on the HFS+ file system.
+CategoryCategoryNumeric Errors - (189)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper calculation or conversion of numbers.
*BaseBaseImproper Validation of Array Index - (129)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 129 (Improper Validation of Array Index)
The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index references a valid position within the array.out-of-bounds array indexindex-out-of-rangearray index underflow
*BaseBaseUse of Incorrect Byte Ordering - (198)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 198 (Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not account for byte ordering (e.g. big-endian and little-endian) when processing the input, causing an incorrect number or value to be used.
+ClassClassIncorrect Conversion between Numeric Types - (681)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types)
When converting from one data type to another, such as long to integer, data can be omitted or translated in a way that produces unexpected values. If the resulting values are used in a sensitive context, then dangerous behaviors may occur.
*BaseBaseUnexpected Sign Extension - (194)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 194 (Unexpected Sign Extension)
The software performs an operation on a number that causes it to be sign extended when it is transformed into a larger data type. When the original number is negative, this can produce unexpected values that lead to resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariantSigned to Unsigned Conversion Error - (195)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 195 (Signed to Unsigned Conversion Error)
The software uses a signed primitive and performs a cast to an unsigned primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the signed primitive can not be represented using an unsigned primitive.
*VariantVariantUnsigned to Signed Conversion Error - (196)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 196 (Unsigned to Signed Conversion Error)
The software uses an unsigned primitive and performs a cast to a signed primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the unsigned primitive can not be represented using a signed primitive.
*BaseBaseNumeric Truncation Error - (197)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 197 (Numeric Truncation Error)
Truncation errors occur when a primitive is cast to a primitive of a smaller size and data is lost in the conversion.
+ClassClassIncorrect Calculation - (682)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation)
The software performs a calculation that generates incorrect or unintended results that are later used in security-critical decisions or resource management.
*BaseBaseWrap-around Error - (128)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 128 (Wrap-around Error)
Wrap around errors occur whenever a value is incremented past the maximum value for its type and therefore "wraps around" to a very small, negative, or undefined value.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Calculation of Buffer Size - (131)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 131 (Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size)
The software does not correctly calculate the size to be used when allocating a buffer, which could lead to a buffer overflow.
*BaseBaseInteger Overflow or Wraparound - (190)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 190 (Integer Overflow or Wraparound)
The software performs a calculation that can produce an integer overflow or wraparound, when the logic assumes that the resulting value will always be larger than the original value. This can introduce other weaknesses when the calculation is used for resource management or execution control.
*BaseBaseInteger Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound) - (191)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 191 (Integer Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound))
The product subtracts one value from another, such that the result is less than the minimum allowable integer value, which produces a value that is not equal to the correct result.Integer underflow
*ClassClassInteger Coercion Error - (192)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 192 (Integer Coercion Error)
Integer coercion refers to a set of flaws pertaining to the type casting, extension, or truncation of primitive data types.
*BaseBaseOff-by-one Error - (193)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 193 (Off-by-one Error)
A product calculates or uses an incorrect maximum or minimum value that is 1 more, or 1 less, than the correct value.off-by-five
*BaseBaseDivide By Zero - (369)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 369 (Divide By Zero)
The product divides a value by zero.
*BaseBaseNumeric Range Comparison Without Minimum Check - (839)
699 (Development Concepts) > 189 (Numeric Errors) > 839 (Numeric Range Comparison Without Minimum Check)
The program checks a value to ensure that it does not exceed a maximum, but it does not verify that the value exceeds the minimum.Signed comparison
+CategoryCategory7PK - Security Features - (254)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features)
Software security is not security software. Here we're concerned with topics like authentication, access control, confidentiality, cryptography, and privilege management.
+CategoryCategoryCredentials Management - (255)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the management of credentials.
*VariantVariantWeak Cryptography for Passwords - (261)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 261 (Weak Cryptography for Passwords)
Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.
*VariantVariantNot Using Password Aging - (262)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 262 (Not Using Password Aging)
If no mechanism is in place for managing password aging, users will have no incentive to update passwords in a timely manner.
*BaseBasePassword Aging with Long Expiration - (263)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 263 (Password Aging with Long Expiration)
Allowing password aging to occur unchecked can result in the possibility of diminished password integrity.
*BaseBaseWeak Password Requirements - (521)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 521 (Weak Password Requirements)
The product does not require that users should have strong passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to compromise user accounts.
+BaseBaseInsufficiently Protected Credentials - (522)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials)
This weakness occurs when the application transmits or stores authentication credentials and uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.
*VariantVariantPlaintext Storage of a Password - (256)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 256 (Plaintext Storage of a Password)
Storing a password in plaintext may result in a system compromise.
*BaseBaseStoring Passwords in a Recoverable Format - (257)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 257 (Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format)
The storage of passwords in a recoverable format makes them subject to password reuse attacks by malicious users. In fact, it should be noted that recoverable encrypted passwords provide no significant benefit over plaintext passwords since they are subject not only to reuse by malicious attackers but also by malicious insiders. If a system administrator can recover a password directly, or use a brute force search on the available information, the administrator can use the password on other accounts.
+VariantVariantPassword in Configuration File - (260)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File)
The software stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.
*VariantVariantEmpty Password in Configuration File - (258)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 258 (Empty Password in Configuration File)
Using an empty string as a password is insecure.
*VariantVariantUnprotected Transport of Credentials - (523)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 523 (Unprotected Transport of Credentials)
Login pages not using adequate measures to protect the user name and password while they are in transit from the client to the server.
*VariantVariantMissing Password Field Masking - (549)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 549 (Missing Password Field Masking)
The software does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.
*VariantVariantUnverified Password Change - (620)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 620 (Unverified Password Change)
When setting a new password for a user, the product does not require knowledge of the original password, or using another form of authentication.
*BaseBaseWeak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password - (640)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 640 (Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password)
The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.
+BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Credentials - (798)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials)
The software contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to external components, or encryption of internal data.
*BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Password - (259)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 259 (Use of Hard-coded Password)
The software contains a hard-coded password, which it uses for its own inbound authentication or for outbound communication to external components.
*BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key - (321)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 255 (Credentials Management) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 321 (Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key)
The use of a hard-coded cryptographic key significantly increases the possibility that encrypted data may be recovered.
+CategoryCategoryPermissions, Privileges, and Access Controls - (264)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the management of permissions, privileges, and other security features that are used to perform access control.
+CategoryCategoryPrivilege / Sandbox Issues - (265)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues)
Weaknesses in this category occur with improper enforcement of sandbox environments, or the improper handling, assignment, or management of privileges.
*VariantVariantCreation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory - (243)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 243 (Creation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory)
The program uses the chroot() system call to create a jail, but does not change the working directory afterward. This does not prevent access to files outside of the jail.
*ClassClassExecution with Unnecessary Privileges - (250)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 250 (Execution with Unnecessary Privileges)
The software performs an operation at a privilege level that is higher than the minimum level required, which creates new weaknesses or amplifies the consequences of other weaknesses.
+BaseBaseIncorrect Privilege Assignment - (266)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment)
A product incorrectly assigns a privilege to a particular actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*VariantVariantImproper Restriction of Cross-Origin Permission to window.opener.location - (1022)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 1022 (Improper Restriction of Cross-Origin Permission to window.opener.location)
The web application does not restrict or incorrectly restricts modification of its window opener object's location property by an external application from a different origin.
+BaseBasePrivilege Defined With Unsafe Actions - (267)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 267 (Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions)
A particular privilege, role, capability, or right can be used to perform unsafe actions that were not intended, even when it is assigned to the correct entity.
*VariantVariantUnsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting - (623)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 267 (Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions) > 623 (Unsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting)
An ActiveX control is intended for restricted use, but it has been marked as safe-for-scripting.
*BaseBasePrivilege Chaining - (268)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 268 (Privilege Chaining)
Two distinct privileges, roles, capabilities, or rights can be combined in a way that allows an entity to perform unsafe actions that would not be allowed without that combination.
+ClassClassImproper Privilege Management - (269)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management)
The software does not properly assign, modify, track, or check privileges for an actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*BaseBasePrivilege Context Switching Error - (270)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 270 (Privilege Context Switching Error)
The software does not properly manage privileges while it is switching between different contexts that have different privileges or spheres of control.
*VariantVariantExposure of Data Element to Wrong Session - (488)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 488 (Exposure of Data Element to Wrong Session)
The product does not sufficiently enforce boundaries between the states of different sessions, causing data to be provided to, or used by, the wrong session.
+ClassClassPrivilege Dropping / Lowering Errors - (271)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors)
The software does not drop privileges before passing control of a resource to an actor that does not have those privileges.
*BaseBaseLeast Privilege Violation - (272)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors) > 272 (Least Privilege Violation)
The elevated privilege level required to perform operations such as chroot() should be dropped immediately after the operation is performed.
*BaseBaseImproper Check for Dropped Privileges - (273)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors) > 273 (Improper Check for Dropped Privileges)
The software attempts to drop privileges but does not check or incorrectly checks to see if the drop succeeded.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Insufficient Privileges - (274)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 274 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to perform an operation, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBaseTrust Boundary Violation - (501)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 501 (Trust Boundary Violation)
The product mixes trusted and untrusted data in the same data structure or structured message.
*VariantVariantclone() Method Without super.clone() - (580)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 580 (clone() Method Without super.clone())
The software contains a clone() method that does not call super.clone() to obtain the new object.
+ClassClassExternally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere - (610)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere)
The product uses an externally controlled name or reference that resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.
+ClassClassUnintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy') - (441)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 441 (Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy'))
The software receives a request, message, or directive from an upstream component, but the software does not sufficiently preserve the original source of the request before forwarding the request to an external actor that is outside of the software's control sphere. This causes the software to appear to be the source of the request, leading it to act as a proxy or other intermediary between the upstream component and the external actor.Confused Deputy
*BaseBaseServer-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) - (918)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 441 (Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy')) > 918 (Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF))
The web server receives a URL or similar request from an upstream component and retrieves the contents of this URL, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the request is being sent to the expected destination.XSPA
*BaseBaseIncorrect Use of Privileged APIs - (648)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 648 (Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs)
The application does not conform to the API requirements for a function call that requires extra privileges. This could allow attackers to gain privileges by causing the function to be called incorrectly.
*VariantVariantCritical Variable Declared Public - (766)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 766 (Critical Variable Declared Public)
The software declares a critical variable or field to be public when intended security policy requires it to be private.
*VariantVariantAccess to Critical Private Variable via Public Method - (767)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 265 (Privilege / Sandbox Issues) > 767 (Access to Critical Private Variable via Public Method)
The software defines a public method that reads or modifies a private variable.
+CategoryCategoryPermission Issues - (275)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 275 (Permission Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper assignment or handling of permissions.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Default Permissions - (276)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 276 (Incorrect Default Permissions)
The software, upon installation, sets incorrect permissions for an object that exposes it to an unintended actor.
*VariantVariantInsecure Inherited Permissions - (277)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 277 (Insecure Inherited Permissions)
A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.
*VariantVariantInsecure Preserved Inherited Permissions - (278)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 278 (Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions)
A product inherits a set of insecure permissions for an object, e.g. when copying from an archive file, without user awareness or involvement.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions - (279)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 279 (Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions)
While it is executing, the software sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges - (280)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 280 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges )
The application does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to access resources or functionality as specified by their permissions. This may cause it to follow unexpected code paths that may leave the application in an invalid state.
*BaseBaseImproper Preservation of Permissions - (281)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 281 (Improper Preservation of Permissions)
The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrictive permissions than intended.
*BaseBaseExposed Unsafe ActiveX Method - (618)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 618 (Exposed Unsafe ActiveX Method)
An ActiveX control is intended for use in a web browser, but it exposes dangerous methods that perform actions that are outside of the browser's security model (e.g. the zone or domain).
*ClassClassIncorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 275 (Permission Issues) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The software specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
+ClassClassImproper Ownership Management - (282)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management)
The software assigns the wrong ownership, or does not properly verify the ownership, of an object or resource.
*BaseBaseUnverified Ownership - (283)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management) > 283 (Unverified Ownership)
The software does not properly verify that a critical resource is owned by the proper entity.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Ownership Assignment - (708)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management) > 708 (Incorrect Ownership Assignment)
The software assigns an owner to a resource, but the owner is outside of the intended control sphere.
+ClassClassImproper Access Control - (284)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control)
The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts access to a resource from an unauthorized actor.Authorization
+ClassClassImproper Privilege Management - (269)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management)
The software does not properly assign, modify, track, or check privileges for an actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*BaseBasePrivilege Context Switching Error - (270)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 270 (Privilege Context Switching Error)
The software does not properly manage privileges while it is switching between different contexts that have different privileges or spheres of control.
*VariantVariantExposure of Data Element to Wrong Session - (488)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 488 (Exposure of Data Element to Wrong Session)
The product does not sufficiently enforce boundaries between the states of different sessions, causing data to be provided to, or used by, the wrong session.
+ClassClassImproper Authorization - (285)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization)
The software does not perform or incorrectly performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
+ClassClassMissing Authorization - (862)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization)
The software does not perform an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
*BaseBaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
+BaseBaseAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key - (639)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key)
The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.Insecure Direct Object ReferenceHorizontal Authorization
*VariantVariantAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key - (566)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key) > 566 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key)
The software uses a database table that includes records that should not be accessible to an actor, but it executes a SQL statement with a primary key that can be controlled by that actor.
*BaseBaseImproper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme - (939)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 939 (Improper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme)
The software uses a handler for a custom URL scheme, but it does not properly restrict which actors can invoke the handler using the scheme.
+ClassClassIncorrect Authorization - (863)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization)
The software performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action, but it does not correctly perform the check. This allows attackers to bypass intended access restrictions.AuthZ
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization - (551)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 551 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization)
If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.
*VariantVariantUse of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions - (647)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 647 (Use of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions)
The software defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the assumption that a URL is canonical. This can allow a non-canonical URL to bypass the authorization.
*BaseBaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
*VariantVariantImproper Export of Android Application Components - (926)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 926 (Improper Export of Android Application Components)
The Android application exports a component for use by other applications, but does not properly restrict which applications can launch the component or access the data it contains.
*VariantVariantUse of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication - (927)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 927 (Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication)
The Android application uses an implicit intent for transmitting sensitive data to other applications.
+ClassClassIncorrect User Management - (286)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 286 (Incorrect User Management)
The software does not properly manage a user within its environment.
*BaseBasePlacement of User into Incorrect Group - (842)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 286 (Incorrect User Management) > 842 (Placement of User into Incorrect Group)
The software or the administrator places a user into an incorrect group.
+ClassClassImproper Authentication - (287)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication)
When an actor claims to have a given identity, the software does not prove or insufficiently proves that the claim is correct.authentificationAuthC
+BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel - (288)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel)
A product requires authentication, but the product has an alternate path or channel that does not require authentication.
*BaseBaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*VariantVariantAuthentication Bypass by Alternate Name - (289)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 289 (Authentication Bypass by Alternate Name)
The software performs authentication based on the name of a resource being accessed, or the name of the actor performing the access, but it does not properly check all possible names for that resource or actor.
+BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass by Spoofing - (290)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing)
This attack-focused weakness is caused by improperly implemented authentication schemes that are subject to spoofing attacks.
*VariantVariantReliance on IP Address for Authentication - (291)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 291 (Reliance on IP Address for Authentication)
The software uses an IP address for authentication.
*VariantVariantUsing Referer Field for Authentication - (293)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 293 (Using Referer Field for Authentication)
The referer field in HTTP requests can be easily modified and, as such, is not a valid means of message integrity checking.referrer
*VariantVariantReliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action - (350)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 350 (Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action)
The software performs reverse DNS resolution on an IP address to obtain the hostname and make a security decision, but it does not properly ensure that the IP address is truly associated with the hostname.
*BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass by Capture-replay - (294)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 294 (Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay)
A capture-replay flaw exists when the design of the software makes it possible for a malicious user to sniff network traffic and bypass authentication by replaying it to the server in question to the same effect as the original message (or with minor changes).
*VariantVariantReflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol - (301)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 301 (Reflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol)
Simple authentication protocols are subject to reflection attacks if a malicious user can use the target machine to impersonate a trusted user.
*VariantVariantAuthentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data - (302)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 302 (Authentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data)
The authentication scheme or implementation uses key data elements that are assumed to be immutable, but can be controlled or modified by the attacker.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm - (303)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 303 (Incorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm)
The requirements for the software dictate the use of an established authentication algorithm, but the implementation of the algorithm is incorrect.
*BaseBaseMissing Critical Step in Authentication - (304)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 304 (Missing Critical Step in Authentication)
The software implements an authentication technique, but it skips a step that weakens the technique.
*BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass by Primary Weakness - (305)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 305 (Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness)
The authentication algorithm is sound, but the implemented mechanism can be bypassed as the result of a separate weakness that is primary to the authentication error.
*VariantVariantMissing Authentication for Critical Function - (306)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 306 (Missing Authentication for Critical Function)
The software does not perform any authentication for functionality that requires a provable user identity or consumes a significant amount of resources.
*BaseBaseImproper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts - (307)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 307 (Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts)
The software does not implement sufficient measures to prevent multiple failed authentication attempts within in a short time frame, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*BaseBaseUse of Single-factor Authentication - (308)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 308 (Use of Single-factor Authentication)
The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.
*BaseBaseUse of Password System for Primary Authentication - (309)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 309 (Use of Password System for Primary Authentication)
The use of password systems as the primary means of authentication may be subject to several flaws or shortcomings, each reducing the effectiveness of the mechanism.
*CompositeCompositeSession Fixation - (384)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 384 (Session Fixation)
Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal authenticated sessions.
*VariantVariantAuthentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created - (593)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 593 (Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created)
The software modifies the SSL context after connection creation has begun.
*BaseBaseUse of Client-Side Authentication - (603)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 603 (Use of Client-Side Authentication)
A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client that omits the authentication check.
*VariantVariantUnverified Password Change - (620)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 620 (Unverified Password Change)
When setting a new password for a user, the product does not require knowledge of the original password, or using another form of authentication.
*BaseBaseOverly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism - (645)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 645 (Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism)
The software contains an account lockout protection mechanism, but the mechanism is too restrictive and can be triggered too easily, which allows attackers to deny service to legitimate users by causing their accounts to be locked out.
*BaseBaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
*BaseBaseUse of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication - (836)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 836 (Use of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication)
The software records password hashes in a data store, receives a hash of a password from a client, and compares the supplied hash to the hash obtained from the data store.
*BaseBaseOrigin Validation Error - (346)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
*VariantVariantExposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control - (782)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 782 (Exposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control)
The software implements an IOCTL with functionality that should be restricted, but it does not properly enforce access control for the IOCTL.
+ClassClassImproper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints - (923)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints)
The software establishes a communication channel to (or from) an endpoint for privileged or protected operations, but it does not properly ensure that it is communicating with the correct endpoint.
*ClassClassChannel Accessible by Non-Endpoint ('Man-in-the-Middle') - (300)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 300 (Channel Accessible by Non-Endpoint ('Man-in-the-Middle'))
The product does not adequately verify the identity of actors at both ends of a communication channel, or does not adequately ensure the integrity of the channel, in a way that allows the channel to be accessed or influenced by an actor that is not an endpoint.
*VariantVariantImproper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver - (925)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 925 (Improper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver)
The Android application uses a Broadcast Receiver that receives an Intent but does not properly verify that the Intent came from an authorized source.Intent Spoofing
*BaseBaseImproper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel - (940)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 940 (Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel)
The software establishes a communication channel to handle an incoming request that has been initiated by an actor, but it does not properly verify that the request is coming from the expected origin.
*BaseBaseIncorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel - (941)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 941 (Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel)
The software creates a communication channel to initiate an outgoing request to an actor, but it does not correctly specify the intended destination for that actor.
*VariantVariantOverly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist - (942)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 942 (Overly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist)
The software uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.
+BaseBaseExposed Dangerous Method or Function - (749)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function)
The software provides an Applications Programming Interface (API) or similar interface for interaction with external actors, but the interface includes a dangerous method or function that is not properly restricted.
*VariantVariantExposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control - (782)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 264 (Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function) > 782 (Exposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control)
The software implements an IOCTL with functionality that should be restricted, but it does not properly enforce access control for the IOCTL.
+CategoryCategoryCryptographic Issues - (310)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the use of cryptography.
+BaseBaseImproper Certificate Validation - (295)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation)
The software does not validate, or incorrectly validates, a certificate.
*BaseBaseImproper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust - (296)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 296 (Improper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust)
The software does not follow, or incorrectly follows, the chain of trust for a certificate back to a trusted root certificate, resulting in incorrect trust of any resource that is associated with that certificate.
*VariantVariantImproper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch - (297)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 297 (Improper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch)
The software communicates with a host that provides a certificate, but the software does not properly ensure that the certificate is actually associated with that host.
*VariantVariantImproper Validation of Certificate Expiration - (298)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 298 (Improper Validation of Certificate Expiration)
A certificate expiration is not validated or is incorrectly validated, so trust may be assigned to certificates that have been abandoned due to age.
+BaseBaseImproper Check for Certificate Revocation - (299)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 299 (Improper Check for Certificate Revocation)
The software does not check or incorrectly checks the revocation status of a certificate, which may cause it to use a certificate that has been compromised.
*VariantVariantMissing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check - (370)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 299 (Improper Check for Certificate Revocation) > 370 (Missing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check)
The software does not check the revocation status of a certificate after its initial revocation check, which can cause the software to perform privileged actions even after the certificate is revoked at a later time.
*VariantVariantMissing Validation of OpenSSL Certificate - (599)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 599 (Missing Validation of OpenSSL Certificate)
The software uses OpenSSL and trusts or uses a certificate without using the SSL_get_verify_result() function to ensure that the certificate satisfies all necessary security requirements.
+BaseBaseMissing Encryption of Sensitive Data - (311)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data)
The software does not encrypt sensitive or critical information before storage or transmission.
+BaseBaseCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information - (312)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within a resource that might be accessible to another control sphere.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage in a File or on Disk - (313)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 313 (Cleartext Storage in a File or on Disk)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a file, or on disk.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage in the Registry - (314)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 314 (Cleartext Storage in the Registry)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in the registry.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie - (315)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 315 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a cookie.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory - (316)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 316 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in memory.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI - (317)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 317 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within the GUI.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable - (318)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 318 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in an executable.
*BaseBaseCleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information - (319)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 319 (Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information)
The software transmits sensitive or security-critical data in cleartext in a communication channel that can be sniffed by unauthorized actors.
*VariantVariantSensitive Cookie in HTTPS Session Without 'Secure' Attribute - (614)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 614 (Sensitive Cookie in HTTPS Session Without 'Secure' Attribute)
The Secure attribute for sensitive cookies in HTTPS sessions is not set, which could cause the user agent to send those cookies in plaintext over an HTTP session.
+CategoryCategoryKey Management Errors - (320)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 320 (Key Management Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to errors in the management of cryptographic keys.
*BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key - (321)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 320 (Key Management Errors) > 321 (Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key)
The use of a hard-coded cryptographic key significantly increases the possibility that encrypted data may be recovered.
*BaseBaseKey Exchange without Entity Authentication - (322)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 320 (Key Management Errors) > 322 (Key Exchange without Entity Authentication)
The software performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.
*BaseBaseReusing a Nonce, Key Pair in Encryption - (323)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 320 (Key Management Errors) > 323 (Reusing a Nonce, Key Pair in Encryption)
Nonces should be used for the present occasion and only once.
*BaseBaseUse of a Key Past its Expiration Date - (324)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 320 (Key Management Errors) > 324 (Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date)
The product uses a cryptographic key or password past its expiration date, which diminishes its safety significantly by increasing the timing window for cracking attacks against that key.
*BaseBaseMissing Required Cryptographic Step - (325)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 325 (Missing Required Cryptographic Step)
The software does not implement a required step in a cryptographic algorithm, resulting in weaker encryption than advertised by that algorithm.
+ClassClassInadequate Encryption Strength - (326)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 326 (Inadequate Encryption Strength)
The software stores or transmits sensitive data using an encryption scheme that is theoretically sound, but is not strong enough for the level of protection required.
*VariantVariantWeak Cryptography for Passwords - (261)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 326 (Inadequate Encryption Strength) > 261 (Weak Cryptography for Passwords)
Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.
+BaseBaseUse of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm - (327)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm)
The use of a broken or risky cryptographic algorithm is an unnecessary risk that may result in the exposure of sensitive information.
+BaseBaseUse of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort - (916)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm) > 916 (Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort)
The software generates a hash for a password, but it uses a scheme that does not provide a sufficient level of computational effort that would make password cracking attacks infeasible or expensive.
*BaseBaseUse of a One-Way Hash without a Salt - (759)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm) > 916 (Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort) > 759 (Use of a One-Way Hash without a Salt)
The software uses a one-way cryptographic hash against an input that should not be reversible, such as a password, but the software does not also use a salt as part of the input.
*BaseBaseUse of a One-Way Hash with a Predictable Salt - (760)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm) > 916 (Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort) > 760 (Use of a One-Way Hash with a Predictable Salt)
The software uses a one-way cryptographic hash against an input that should not be reversible, such as a password, but the software uses a predictable salt as part of the input.
*BaseBaseReversible One-Way Hash - (328)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 328 (Reversible One-Way Hash)
The product uses a hashing algorithm that produces a hash value that can be used to determine the original input, or to find an input that can produce the same hash, more efficiently than brute force techniques.
*VariantVariantNot Using a Random IV with CBC Mode - (329)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 329 (Not Using a Random IV with CBC Mode)
Not using a random initialization Vector (IV) with Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode causes algorithms to be susceptible to dictionary attacks.
*BaseBaseImproper Verification of Cryptographic Signature - (347)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 347 (Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature)
The software does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.
*VariantVariantUse of RSA Algorithm without OAEP - (780)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 310 (Cryptographic Issues) > 780 (Use of RSA Algorithm without OAEP)
The software uses the RSA algorithm but does not incorporate Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP), which might weaken the encryption.
+ClassClassUse of Insufficiently Random Values - (330)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values)
The software may use insufficiently random numbers or values in a security context that depends on unpredictable numbers.
+BaseBaseInsufficient Entropy - (331)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 331 (Insufficient Entropy)
The software uses an algorithm or scheme that produces insufficient entropy, leaving patterns or clusters of values that are more likely to occur than others.
*VariantVariantInsufficient Entropy in PRNG - (332)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 331 (Insufficient Entropy) > 332 (Insufficient Entropy in PRNG)
The lack of entropy available for, or used by, a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) can be a stability and security threat.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Insufficient Entropy in TRNG - (333)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 331 (Insufficient Entropy) > 333 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Entropy in TRNG)
True random number generators (TRNG) generally have a limited source of entropy and therefore can fail or block.
*BaseBaseSmall Space of Random Values - (334)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 334 (Small Space of Random Values)
The number of possible random values is smaller than needed by the product, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
+BaseBaseIncorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (335)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
The software uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) that does not correctly manage seeds.
*BaseBaseSame Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (336)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)) > 336 (Same Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) uses the same seed each time the product is initialized.
*BaseBasePredictable Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (337)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)) > 337 (Predictable Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) is initialized from a predictable seed, such as the process ID or system time.
*BaseBaseSmall Seed Space in PRNG - (339)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)) > 339 (Small Seed Space in PRNG)
A PRNG uses a relatively small space of seeds.
*BaseBaseUse of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (338)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 338 (Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
The product uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) in a security context, but the PRNG's algorithm is not cryptographically strong.
*ClassClassPredictability Problems - (340)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 340 (Predictability Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to schemes that generate numbers or identifiers that are more predictable than required by the application.
*BaseBasePredictable from Observable State - (341)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 341 (Predictable from Observable State)
A number or object is predictable based on observations that the attacker can make about the state of the system or network, such as time, process ID, etc.
*BaseBasePredictable Exact Value from Previous Values - (342)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 342 (Predictable Exact Value from Previous Values)
An exact value or random number can be precisely predicted by observing previous values.
*BaseBasePredictable Value Range from Previous Values - (343)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 343 (Predictable Value Range from Previous Values)
The software's random number generator produces a series of values which, when observed, can be used to infer a relatively small range of possibilities for the next value that could be generated.
*BaseBaseUse of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context - (344)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 344 (Use of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context)
The product uses a constant value, name, or reference, but this value can (or should) vary across different environments.
*BaseBaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
+ClassClassInsufficient Verification of Data Authenticity - (345)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity)
The software does not sufficiently verify the origin or authenticity of data, in a way that causes it to accept invalid data.
*BaseBaseOrigin Validation Error - (346)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
*BaseBaseImproper Verification of Cryptographic Signature - (347)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 347 (Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature)
The software does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.
*BaseBaseUse of Less Trusted Source - (348)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 348 (Use of Less Trusted Source)
The software has two different sources of the same data or information, but it uses the source that has less support for verification, is less trusted, or is less resistant to attack.
*BaseBaseAcceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data - (349)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 349 (Acceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data)
The software, when processing trusted data, accepts any untrusted data that is also included with the trusted data, treating the untrusted data as if it were trusted.
*BaseBaseInsufficient Type Distinction - (351)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 351 (Insufficient Type Distinction)
The software does not properly distinguish between different types of elements in a way that leads to insecure behavior.
*CompositeCompositeCross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) - (352)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 352 (Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF))
The web application does not, or can not, sufficiently verify whether a well-formed, valid, consistent request was intentionally provided by the user who submitted the request.Session RidingCross Site Reference ForgeryXSRF
*BaseBaseMissing Support for Integrity Check - (353)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 353 (Missing Support for Integrity Check)
The software uses a transmission protocol that does not include a mechanism for verifying the integrity of the data during transmission, such as a checksum.
*BaseBaseImproper Validation of Integrity Check Value - (354)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 354 (Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value)
The software does not validate or incorrectly validates the integrity check values or "checksums" of a message. This may prevent it from detecting if the data has been modified or corrupted in transmission.
*BaseBaseTrust of System Event Data - (360)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 360 (Trust of System Event Data)
Security based on event locations are insecure and can be spoofed.
*VariantVariantReliance on File Name or Extension of Externally-Supplied File - (646)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 646 (Reliance on File Name or Extension of Externally-Supplied File)
The software allows a file to be uploaded, but it relies on the file name or extension of the file to determine the appropriate behaviors. This could be used by attackers to cause the file to be misclassified and processed in a dangerous fashion.
*BaseBaseReliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking - (649)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 649 (Reliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking)
The software uses obfuscation or encryption of inputs that should not be mutable by an external actor, but the software does not use integrity checks to detect if those inputs have been modified.
*ClassClassImproper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel - (924)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 924 (Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel)
The software establishes a communication channel with an endpoint and receives a message from that endpoint, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the message was not modified during transmission.
*BaseBaseImproperly Implemented Security Check for Standard - (358)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 358 (Improperly Implemented Security Check for Standard)
The software does not implement or incorrectly implements one or more security-relevant checks as specified by the design of a standardized algorithm, protocol, or technique.
*ClassClassExposure of Private Information ('Privacy Violation') - (359)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 359 (Exposure of Private Information ('Privacy Violation'))
The software does not properly prevent private data (such as credit card numbers) from being accessed by actors who either (1) are not explicitly authorized to access the data or (2) do not have the implicit consent of the people to which the data is related.Privacy leakPrivacy leakage
+BaseBaseReliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking - (565)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking)
The application relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid for the associated user.
*VariantVariantReliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision - (784)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking) > 784 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision)
The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of a cookie, but it does not properly ensure that the cookie is valid for the associated user.
*BaseBaseClient-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security - (602)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 602 (Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security)
The software is composed of a server that relies on the client to implement a mechanism that is intended to protect the server.
*BaseBaseInsufficient Compartmentalization - (653)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 653 (Insufficient Compartmentalization)
The product does not sufficiently compartmentalize functionality or processes that require different privilege levels, rights, or permissions.Separation of Privilege
*BaseBaseReliance on a Single Factor in a Security Decision - (654)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 654 (Reliance on a Single Factor in a Security Decision)
A protection mechanism relies exclusively, or to a large extent, on the evaluation of a single condition or the integrity of a single object or entity in order to make a decision about granting access to restricted resources or functionality.Separation of Privilege
*BaseBaseInsufficient Psychological Acceptability - (655)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 655 (Insufficient Psychological Acceptability)
The software has a protection mechanism that is too difficult or inconvenient to use, encouraging non-malicious users to disable or bypass the mechanism, whether by accident or on purpose.
*BaseBaseReliance on Security Through Obscurity - (656)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 656 (Reliance on Security Through Obscurity)
The software uses a protection mechanism whose strength depends heavily on its obscurity, such that knowledge of its algorithms or key data is sufficient to defeat the mechanism.Never Assuming your secrets are safe
+ClassClassProtection Mechanism Failure - (693)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure)
The product does not use or incorrectly uses a protection mechanism that provides sufficient defense against directed attacks against the product.
*ClassClassSelection of Less-Secure Algorithm During Negotiation ('Algorithm Downgrade') - (757)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 757 (Selection of Less-Secure Algorithm During Negotiation ('Algorithm Downgrade'))
A protocol or its implementation supports interaction between multiple actors and allows those actors to negotiate which algorithm should be used as a protection mechanism such as encryption or authentication, but it does not select the strongest algorithm that is available to both parties.
*BaseBaseInsufficient Logging - (778)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 778 (Insufficient Logging)
When a security-critical event occurs, the software either does not record the event or omits important details about the event when logging it.
*BaseBaseLogging of Excessive Data - (779)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 779 (Logging of Excessive Data)
The software logs too much information, making log files hard to process and possibly hindering recovery efforts or forensic analysis after an attack.
*BaseBaseReliance on Untrusted Inputs in a Security Decision - (807)
699 (Development Concepts) > 254 (7PK - Security Features) > 807 (Reliance on Untrusted Inputs in a Security Decision)
The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of an input, but the input can be modified by an untrusted actor in a way that bypasses the protection mechanism.
+CategoryCategory7PK - Time and State - (361)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State)
This category represents one of the phyla in the Seven Pernicious Kingdoms vulnerability classification. It includes weaknesses related to the improper management of time and state in an environment that supports simultaneous or near-simultaneous computation by multiple systems, processes, or threads. According to the authors of the Seven Pernicious Kingdoms, "Distributed computation is about time and state. That is, in order for more than one component to communicate, state must be shared, and all that takes time. Most programmers anthropomorphize their work. They think about one thread of control carrying out the entire program in the same way they would if they had to do the job themselves. Modern computers, however, switch between tasks very quickly, and in multi-core, multi-CPU, or distributed systems, two events may take place at exactly the same time. Defects rush to fill the gap between the programmer's model of how a program executes and what happens in reality. These defects are related to unexpected interactions between threads, processes, time, and information. These interactions happen through shared state: semaphores, variables, the file system, and, basically, anything that can store information."
+ClassClassConcurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition') - (362)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition'))
The program contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a timing window exists in which the shared resource can be modified by another code sequence that is operating concurrently.
+BaseBaseSignal Handler Race Condition - (364)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition)
The software uses a signal handler that introduces a race condition.
*BaseBaseDangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations - (432)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 432 (Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations)
The application uses a signal handler that shares state with other signal handlers, but it does not properly mask or prevent those signal handlers from being invoked while the original signal handler is still running.
+BaseBaseSignal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe - (828)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 828 (Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe)
The software defines a signal handler that contains code sequences that are not asynchronous-safe, i.e., the functionality is not reentrant, or it can be interrupted.
*VariantVariantSignal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function - (479)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 828 (Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe) > 479 (Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function)
The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.
*BaseBaseSignal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals - (831)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 831 (Signal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals)
The software defines a function that is used as a handler for more than one signal.
*BaseBaseRace Condition within a Thread - (366)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 366 (Race Condition within a Thread)
If two threads of execution use a resource simultaneously, there exists the possibility that resources may be used while invalid, in turn making the state of execution undefined.
+BaseBaseTime-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition - (367)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 367 (Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition)
The software checks the state of a resource before using that resource, but the resource's state can change between the check and the use in a way that invalidates the results of the check. This can cause the software to perform invalid actions when the resource is in an unexpected state.TOCTTOUTOCCTOU
*BaseBaseRace Condition Enabling Link Following - (363)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 367 (Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition) > 363 (Race Condition Enabling Link Following)
The software checks the status of a file or directory before accessing it, which produces a race condition in which the file can be replaced with a link before the access is performed, causing the software to access the wrong file.
*BaseBaseRace Condition in Switch - (365)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 367 (Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition) > 365 (Race Condition in Switch)
The code contains a switch statement in which the switched variable can be modified while the switch is still executing, resulting in unexpected behavior.
*BaseBaseContext Switching Race Condition - (368)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 368 (Context Switching Race Condition)
A product performs a series of non-atomic actions to switch between contexts that cross privilege or other security boundaries, but a race condition allows an attacker to modify or misrepresent the product's behavior during the switch.
*BaseBaseRace Condition During Access to Alternate Channel - (421)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 421 (Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel)
The product opens an alternate channel to communicate with an authorized user, but the channel is accessible to other actors.
+CategoryCategoryState Issues - (371)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 371 (State Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper management of system state.
*BaseBaseIncomplete Internal State Distinction - (372)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 371 (State Issues) > 372 (Incomplete Internal State Distinction)
The software does not properly determine which state it is in, causing it to assume it is in state X when in fact it is in state Y, causing it to perform incorrect operations in a security-relevant manner.
*BaseBasePassing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method - (374)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 371 (State Issues) > 374 (Passing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method)
The program sends non-cloned mutable data as an argument to a method or function.
*BaseBaseReturning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller - (375)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 371 (State Issues) > 375 (Returning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller)
Sending non-cloned mutable data as a return value may result in that data being altered or deleted by the calling function.
*VariantVariantEmpty Synchronized Block - (585)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 371 (State Issues) > 585 (Empty Synchronized Block)
The software contains an empty synchronized block.
+ClassClassExternal Control of Critical State Data - (642)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 371 (State Issues) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data)
The software stores security-critical state information about its users, or the software itself, in a location that is accessible to unauthorized actors.
*BaseBaseExternal Control of System or Configuration Setting - (15)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 371 (State Issues) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 15 (External Control of System or Configuration Setting)
One or more system settings or configuration elements can be externally controlled by a user.
+CategoryCategoryTemporary File Issues - (376)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 376 (Temporary File Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of temporary files.
*BaseBaseInsecure Temporary File - (377)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 376 (Temporary File Issues) > 377 (Insecure Temporary File)
Creating and using insecure temporary files can leave application and system data vulnerable to attack.
*BaseBaseCreation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions - (378)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 376 (Temporary File Issues) > 378 (Creation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions)
Opening temporary files without appropriate measures or controls can leave the file, its contents and any function that it impacts vulnerable to attack.
*BaseBaseCreation of Temporary File in Directory with Incorrect Permissions - (379)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 376 (Temporary File Issues) > 379 (Creation of Temporary File in Directory with Incorrect Permissions)
The software creates a temporary file in a directory whose permissions allow unintended actors to determine the file's existence or otherwise access that file.
+CategoryCategoryTechnology-Specific Time and State Issues - (380)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 380 (Technology-Specific Time and State Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of time or state within particular technologies.
+CategoryCategoryJ2EE Time and State Issues - (381)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 380 (Technology-Specific Time and State Issues) > 381 (J2EE Time and State Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of time or state within J2EE.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Use of System.exit() - (382)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 380 (Technology-Specific Time and State Issues) > 381 (J2EE Time and State Issues) > 382 (J2EE Bad Practices: Use of System.exit())
A J2EE application uses System.exit(), which also shuts down its container.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Threads - (383)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 380 (Technology-Specific Time and State Issues) > 381 (J2EE Time and State Issues) > 383 (J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Threads)
Thread management in a Web application is forbidden in some circumstances and is always highly error prone.
*VariantVariantUse of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context - (543)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 380 (Technology-Specific Time and State Issues) > 381 (J2EE Time and State Issues) > 543 (Use of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context)
The software uses the singleton pattern when creating a resource within a multithreaded environment.
*CompositeCompositeSession Fixation - (384)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 384 (Session Fixation)
Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal authenticated sessions.
*BaseBaseCovert Timing Channel - (385)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 385 (Covert Timing Channel)
Covert timing channels convey information by modulating some aspect of system behavior over time, so that the program receiving the information can observe system behavior and infer protected information.
*BaseBaseSymbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object - (386)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 386 (Symbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object)
A constant symbolic reference to an object is used, even though the reference can resolve to a different object over time.
+CategoryCategorySignal Errors - (387)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 387 (Signal Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to the improper handling of signals.
+BaseBaseSignal Handler Race Condition - (364)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 387 (Signal Errors) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition)
The software uses a signal handler that introduces a race condition.
*BaseBaseDangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations - (432)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 387 (Signal Errors) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 432 (Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations)
The application uses a signal handler that shares state with other signal handlers, but it does not properly mask or prevent those signal handlers from being invoked while the original signal handler is still running.
+BaseBaseSignal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe - (828)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 387 (Signal Errors) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 828 (Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe)
The software defines a signal handler that contains code sequences that are not asynchronous-safe, i.e., the functionality is not reentrant, or it can be interrupted.
*VariantVariantSignal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function - (479)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 387 (Signal Errors) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 828 (Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe) > 479 (Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function)
The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.
*BaseBaseSignal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals - (831)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 387 (Signal Errors) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 831 (Signal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals)
The software defines a function that is used as a handler for more than one signal.
*BaseBaseUnrestricted Externally Accessible Lock - (412)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 412 (Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock)
The software properly checks for the existence of a lock, but the lock can be externally controlled or influenced by an actor that is outside of the intended sphere of control.
+CategoryCategoryConcurrency Issues - (557)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 557 (Concurrency Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to concurrent use of shared resources.
*BaseBaseRace Condition within a Thread - (366)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 366 (Race Condition within a Thread)
If two threads of execution use a resource simultaneously, there exists the possibility that resources may be used while invalid, in turn making the state of execution undefined.
*VariantVariantUse of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application - (558)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 558 (Use of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application)
The application uses the getlogin() function in a multithreaded context, potentially causing it to return incorrect values.
*BaseBaseUnsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context - (567)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 567 (Unsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context)
The product does not properly synchronize shared data, such as static variables across threads, which can lead to undefined behavior and unpredictable data changes.
*VariantVariantCall to Thread run() instead of start() - (572)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 557 (Concurrency Issues) > 572 (Call to Thread run() instead of start())
The program calls a thread's run() method instead of calling start(), which causes the code to run in the thread of the caller instead of the callee.
*BaseBaseDouble-Checked Locking - (609)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 609 (Double-Checked Locking)
The program uses double-checked locking to access a resource without the overhead of explicit synchronization, but the locking is insufficient.
*BaseBaseInsufficient Session Expiration - (613)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 613 (Insufficient Session Expiration)
According to WASC, "Insufficient Session Expiration is when a web site permits an attacker to reuse old session credentials or session IDs for authorization."
+BaseBaseImproper Synchronization - (662)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization)
The software attempts to use a shared resource in an exclusive manner, but does not prevent or incorrectly prevents use of the resource by another thread or process.
+BaseBaseImproper Locking - (667)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking)
The software does not properly acquire a lock on a resource, or it does not properly release a lock on a resource, leading to unexpected resource state changes and behaviors.
*VariantVariantMultiple Locks of a Critical Resource - (764)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 764 (Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource)
The software locks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*VariantVariantMultiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource - (765)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 765 (Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource)
The software unlocks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*BaseBaseUnlock of a Resource that is not Locked - (832)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 832 (Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked)
The software attempts to unlock a resource that is not locked.
*BaseBaseDeadlock - (833)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 833 (Deadlock)
The software contains multiple threads or executable segments that are waiting for each other to release a necessary lock, resulting in deadlock.
+BaseBaseMissing Synchronization - (820)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization)
The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but does not attempt to synchronize access to the resource.
*VariantVariantUse of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context - (543)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization) > 543 (Use of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context)
The software uses the singleton pattern when creating a resource within a multithreaded environment.
+BaseBaseIncorrect Synchronization - (821)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization)
The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but it does not correctly synchronize access to the resource.
*VariantVariantCall to Thread run() instead of start() - (572)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization) > 572 (Call to Thread run() instead of start())
The program calls a thread's run() method instead of calling start(), which causes the code to run in the thread of the caller instead of the callee.
*VariantVariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives - (574)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization) > 574 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using thread synchronization primitives.
+BaseBaseUse of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context - (663)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context)
The software calls a non-reentrant function in a concurrent context in which a competing code sequence (e.g. thread or signal handler) may have an opportunity to call the same function or otherwise influence its state.
*VariantVariantSignal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function - (479)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context) > 479 (Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function)
The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.
+ClassClassImproper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime - (664)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime)
The software does not maintain or incorrectly maintains control over a resource throughout its lifetime of creation, use, and release.
+ClassClassIncorrect Type Conversion or Cast - (704)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast)
The software does not correctly convert an object, resource or structure from one type to a different type.
*BaseBaseAccess of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion') - (843)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 843 (Access of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion'))
The program allocates or initializes a resource such as a pointer, object, or variable using one type, but it later accesses that resource using a type that is incompatible with the original type.Object Type Confusion
*ClassClassUse of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference - (706)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference)
The software uses a name or reference to access a resource, but the name/reference resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.
+ClassClassInsecure Storage of Sensitive Information - (922)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information)
The software stores sensitive information without properly limiting read or write access by unauthorized actors.
+BaseBaseCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information - (312)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within a resource that might be accessible to another control sphere.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage in a File or on Disk - (313)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 313 (Cleartext Storage in a File or on Disk)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a file, or on disk.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage in the Registry - (314)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 314 (Cleartext Storage in the Registry)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in the registry.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie - (315)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 315 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a cookie.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory - (316)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 316 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in memory.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI - (317)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 317 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within the GUI.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable - (318)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 318 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in an executable.
*BaseBaseStorage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control - (921)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 921 (Storage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control)
The software stores sensitive information in a file system or device that does not have built-in access control.
+ClassClassExposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere - (668)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere)
The product exposes a resource to the wrong control sphere, providing unintended actors with inappropriate access to the resource.
+BaseBaseFiles or Directories Accessible to External Parties - (552)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties)
Files or directories are accessible in the environment that should not be.
*VariantVariantExposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (527)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 527 (Exposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores a CVS repository in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (528)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 528 (Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product generates a core dump file in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (529)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 529 (Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores access control list files in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Log Files - (532)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Server Log Files - (533)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 533 (Information Exposure Through Server Log Files)
A server.log file was found. This can give information on whatever application left the file. Usually this can give full path names and system information, and sometimes usernames and passwords.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Log Files - (534)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 534 (Information Exposure Through Debug Log Files)
The application does not sufficiently restrict access to a log file that is used for debugging.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files - (542)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 542 (Information Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files)
The application does not properly protect or delete a log file related to cleanup.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Source Code - (540)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code)
Source code on a web server often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Test Code - (531)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 531 (Information Exposure Through Test Code)
Accessible test applications can pose a variety of security risks. Since developers or administrators rarely consider that someone besides themselves would even know about the existence of these applications, it is common for them to contain sensitive information or functions.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Include Source Code - (541)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 541 (Information Exposure Through Include Source Code)
If an include file source is accessible, the file can contain usernames and passwords, as well as sensitive information pertaining to the application and system.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Comments - (615)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 615 (Information Exposure Through Comments)
While adding general comments is very useful, some programmers tend to leave important data, such as: filenames related to the web application, old links or links which were not meant to be browsed by users, old code fragments, etc.
*VariantVariantCommand Shell in Externally Accessible Directory - (553)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 553 (Command Shell in Externally Accessible Directory)
A possible shell file exists in /cgi-bin/ or other accessible directories. This is extremely dangerous and can be used by an attacker to execute commands on the web server.
+ClassClassIncorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres - (669)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres)
The product does not properly transfer a resource/behavior to another sphere, or improperly imports a resource/behavior from another sphere, in a manner that provides unintended control over that resource.
+ClassClassInclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere - (829)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere)
The software imports, requires, or includes executable functionality (such as a library) from a source that is outside of the intended control sphere.
*BaseBaseInclusion of Web Functionality from an Untrusted Source - (830)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere) > 830 (Inclusion of Web Functionality from an Untrusted Source)
The software includes web functionality (such as a web widget) from another domain, which causes it to operate within the domain of the software, potentially granting total access and control of the software to the untrusted source.
*BaseBaseImproper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion') - (98)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere) > 98 (Improper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion'))
The PHP application receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before its usage in "require," "include," or similar functions.Remote file includeRFILocal file inclusion
+BaseBaseOperation on a Resource after Expiration or Release - (672)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release)
The software uses, accesses, or otherwise operates on a resource after that resource has been expired, released, or revoked.
*BaseBaseExpired Pointer Dereference - (825)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference)
The program dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.Dangling pointer
*ClassClassExternal Influence of Sphere Definition - (673)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 673 (External Influence of Sphere Definition)
The product does not prevent the definition of control spheres from external actors.
+BaseBaseUncontrolled Recursion - (674)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 674 (Uncontrolled Recursion)
The product does not properly control the amount of recursion that takes place, which consumes excessive resources, such as allocated memory or the program stack.Stack Exhaustion
*VariantVariantImproper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion') - (776)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 674 (Uncontrolled Recursion) > 776 (Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion'))
The software uses XML documents and allows their structure to be defined with a Document Type Definition (DTD), but it does not properly control the number of recursive definitions of entities.XEEBillion Laughs AttackXML Bomb
*BaseBaseExecution After Redirect (EAR) - (698)
699 (Development Concepts) > 361 (7PK - Time and State) > 698 (Execution After Redirect (EAR))
The web application sends a redirect to another location, but instead of exiting, it executes additional code.Redirect Without Exit
+CategoryCategoryError Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes - (389)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes)
This category includes weaknesses that occur if a function does not generate the correct return/status code, or if the application does not handle all possible return/status codes that could be generated by a function. This type of problem is most often found in conditions that are rarely encountered during the normal operation of the product. Presumably, most bugs related to common conditions are found and eliminated during development and testing. In some cases, the attacker can directly control or influence the environment to trigger the rare conditions.
*BaseBaseUncaught Exception - (248)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 248 (Uncaught Exception)
An exception is thrown from a function, but it is not caught.
*BaseBaseUnchecked Return Value - (252)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 252 (Unchecked Return Value)
The software does not check the return value from a method or function, which can prevent it from detecting unexpected states and conditions.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Check of Function Return Value - (253)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 253 (Incorrect Check of Function Return Value)
The software incorrectly checks a return value from a function, which prevents the software from detecting errors or exceptional conditions.
*ClassClassDetection of Error Condition Without Action - (390)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 390 (Detection of Error Condition Without Action)
The software detects a specific error, but takes no actions to handle the error.
*BaseBaseUnchecked Error Condition - (391)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 391 (Unchecked Error Condition)
Ignoring exceptions and other error conditions may allow an attacker to induce unexpected behavior unnoticed.
*BaseBaseMissing Report of Error Condition - (392)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 392 (Missing Report of Error Condition)
The software encounters an error but does not provide a status code or return value to indicate that an error has occurred.
*BaseBaseReturn of Wrong Status Code - (393)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 393 (Return of Wrong Status Code)
A function or operation returns an incorrect return value or status code that does not indicate an error, but causes the product to modify its behavior based on the incorrect result.
*BaseBaseUnexpected Status Code or Return Value - (394)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 394 (Unexpected Status Code or Return Value)
The software does not properly check when a function or operation returns a value that is legitimate for the function, but is not expected by the software.
*BaseBaseUse of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference - (395)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 395 (Use of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference)
Catching NullPointerException should not be used as an alternative to programmatic checks to prevent dereferencing a null pointer.
*BaseBaseDeclaration of Catch for Generic Exception - (396)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 396 (Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception)
Catching overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*BaseBaseDeclaration of Throws for Generic Exception - (397)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 397 (Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception)
Throwing overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*BaseBaseMissing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism - (544)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 544 (Missing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism)
The software does not use a standardized method for handling errors throughout the code, which might introduce inconsistent error handling and resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBaseReturn Inside Finally Block - (584)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 584 (Return Inside Finally Block)
The code has a return statement inside a finally block, which will cause any thrown exception in the try block to be discarded.
*BaseBaseUncaught Exception in Servlet - (600)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 600 (Uncaught Exception in Servlet )
The Servlet does not catch all exceptions, which may reveal sensitive debugging information.Missing Catch Block
*VariantVariantReachable Assertion - (617)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 617 (Reachable Assertion)
The product contains an assert() or similar statement that can be triggered by an attacker, which leads to an application exit or other behavior that is more severe than necessary.
*ClassClassNot Failing Securely ('Failing Open') - (636)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 636 (Not Failing Securely ('Failing Open'))
When the product encounters an error condition or failure, its design requires it to fall back to a state that is less secure than other options that are available, such as selecting the weakest encryption algorithm or using the most permissive access control restrictions.Failing Open
+ClassClassImproper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions - (703)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions)
The software does not properly anticipate or handle exceptional conditions that rarely occur during normal operation of the software.
*ClassClassImproper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions - (754)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions)
The software does not check or improperly checks for unusual or exceptional conditions that are not expected to occur frequently during day to day operation of the software.
*ClassClassImproper Handling of Exceptional Conditions - (755)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles an exceptional condition.
+ClassClassMissing Custom Error Page - (756)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 756 (Missing Custom Error Page)
The software does not return custom error pages to the user, possibly exposing sensitive information.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page - (7)
699 (Development Concepts) > 389 (Error Conditions, Return Values, Status Codes) > 756 (Missing Custom Error Page) > 7 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page)
The default error page of a web application should not display sensitive information about the software system.
+CategoryCategoryResource Management Errors - (399)
699 (Development Concepts) > 399 (Resource Management Errors)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper management of system resources.
+BaseBaseUncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion') - (400)
699 (Development Concepts) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion'))
The software does not properly restrict the size or amount of resources that are requested or influenced by an actor, which can be used to consume more resources than intended.
+BaseBaseUncontrolled File Descriptor Consumption - (769)
699 (Development Concepts) > 399 (Resource Management Errors) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 769 (Uncontrolled File Descriptor Consumption)
The software does not properly limit the number of open file descriptors that it uses.File descriptor exhaustion