CWE

Common Weakness Enumeration

A Community-Developed Dictionary of Software Weakness Types

Common Weakness Scoring System
Common Weakness Risk Analysis Framework
Home > CWE List > VIEW GRAPH: CWE-1000: Research Concepts (Version 2.8)  

Mapping-Friendly:

CWE-1000: Research Concepts

 
Research Concepts
Definition in a New Window Definition in a New Window
View ID: 1000 (View: Graph)Status: Draft
+ View Data

View Objective

This view is intended to facilitate research into weaknesses, including their inter-dependencies and their role in vulnerabilities. It classifies weaknesses in a way that largely ignores how they can be detected, where they appear in code, and when they are introduced in the software development life-cycle. Instead, it is mainly organized according to abstractions of software behaviors. It uses a deep hierarchical organization, with more levels of abstraction than other classification schemes. The top-level entries are called Pillars.

Where possible, this view uses abstractions that do not consider particular languages, frameworks, technologies, life-cycle development phases, frequency of occurrence, or types of resources. It explicitly identifies relationships that form chains and composites, which have not been a formal part of past classification efforts. Chains and composites might help explain why mutual exclusivity is difficult to achieve within security error taxonomies.

This view is roughly aligned with MITRE's research into vulnerability theory, especially with respect to behaviors and resources. Ideally, this view will only cover weakness-to-weakness relationships, with minimal overlap and very few categories. This view could be useful for academic research, CWE maintenance, and mapping. It can be leveraged to systematically identify theoretical gaps within CWE and, by extension, the general security community.

+ View Metrics
CWEs in this viewTotal CWEs
Total723out of1003
Views0out of32
Categories9out of244
Weaknesses706out of719
Compound_Elements8out of8
+ View Audience
StakeholderDescription
Academic_Researchers

This view provides an organizational structure for weaknesses that is different than the approaches undertaken by taxonomies such as Seven Pernicious Kingdoms.

Applied_Researchers

Applied researchers could use the higher-level classes and bases to identify potential areas for future research.

Developers

Developers who have fully integrated security into their SDLC might find this view useful in identifying general patterns of issues within code, instead of relying heavily on "badness lists" that only cover the most severe issues.

+ Relationships
NatureTypeIDNameView(s) this relationship pertains toView(s)
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class118Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')
Research Concepts (primary)1000
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class330Use of Insufficiently Random Values
Research Concepts (primary)1000
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class435Interaction Error
Research Concepts (primary)1000
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class664Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime
Research Concepts (primary)1000
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class682Incorrect Calculation
Research Concepts (primary)1000
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class691Insufficient Control Flow Management
Research Concepts (primary)1000
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class693Protection Mechanism Failure
Research Concepts (primary)1000
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class697Insufficient Comparison
Research Concepts (primary)1000
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class703Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions
Research Concepts (primary)1000
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class707Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure
Research Concepts (primary)1000
HasMemberWeakness ClassWeakness Class710Coding Standards Violation
Research Concepts (primary)1000
+ Content History
Modifications
Modification DateModifierOrganizationSource
2008-09-08CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Description, Name, Relationships, View_Audience, View_Structure
2010-02-16CWE Content TeamMITREInternal
updated Relationships
Previous Entry Names
Change DatePrevious Entry Name
2008-09-09Natural Hierarchy
1000 - Research Concepts
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassCoding Standards Violation - (710)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation)
The software does not follow certain coding rules for development, which can lead to resultant weaknesses or increase the severity of the associated vulnerabilities.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassHidden Functionality - (912)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality)
The software contains functionality that is not documented, not part of the specification, and not accessible through an interface or command sequence that is obvious to the software's users or administrators.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassEmbedded Malicious Code - (506)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality) > 506 (Embedded Malicious Code)
The application contains code that appears to be malicious in nature.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseLogic/Time Bomb - (511)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality) > 506 (Embedded Malicious Code) > 511 (Logic/Time Bomb)
The software contains code that is designed to disrupt the legitimate operation of the software (or its environment) when a certain time passes, or when a certain logical condition is met.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseSpyware - (512)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality) > 506 (Embedded Malicious Code) > 512 (Spyware)
The software collects personally identifiable information about a human user or the user's activities, but the software accesses this information using other resources besides itself, and it does not require that user's explicit approval or direct input into the software.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseTrapdoor - (510)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality) > 506 (Embedded Malicious Code) > 510 (Trapdoor)
A trapdoor is a hidden piece of code that responds to a special input, allowing its user access to resources without passing through the normal security enforcement mechanism.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseTrojan Horse - (507)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality) > 506 (Embedded Malicious Code) > 507 (Trojan Horse)
The software appears to contain benign or useful functionality, but it also contains code that is hidden from normal operation that violates the intended security policy of the user or the system administrator.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseNon-Replicating Malicious Code - (508)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality) > 506 (Embedded Malicious Code) > 507 (Trojan Horse) > 508 (Non-Replicating Malicious Code)
Non-replicating malicious code only resides on the target system or software that is attacked; it does not attempt to spread to other systems.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReplicating Malicious Code (Virus or Worm) - (509)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality) > 506 (Embedded Malicious Code) > 507 (Trojan Horse) > 509 (Replicating Malicious Code (Virus or Worm))
Replicating malicious code, including viruses and worms, will attempt to attack other systems once it has successfully compromised the target system or software.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassCovert Channel - (514)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality) > 514 (Covert Channel)
A covert channel is a path that can be used to transfer information in a way not intended by the system's designers.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCovert Storage Channel - (515)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality) > 514 (Covert Channel) > 515 (Covert Storage Channel)
A covert storage channel transfers information through the setting of bits by one program and the reading of those bits by another. What distinguishes this case from that of ordinary operation is that the bits are used to convey encoded information.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCovert Timing Channel - (385)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 912 (Hidden Functionality) > 514 (Covert Channel) > 385 (Covert Timing Channel)
Covert timing channels convey information by modulating some aspect of system behavior over time, so that the program receiving the information can observe system behavior and infer protected information.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse') - (227)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse'))
The software uses an API in a manner contrary to its intended use.API Abuse
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExplicit Call to Finalize() - (586)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 586 (Explicit Call to Finalize())
The software makes an explicit call to the finalize() method from outside the finalizer.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Following of Specification by Caller - (573)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller)
The software does not follow or incorrectly follows the specifications as required by the implementation language, environment, framework, protocol, or platform.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassDuplicate Operations on Resource - (675)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 675 (Duplicate Operations on Resource)
The product performs the same operation on a resource two or more times, when the operation should only be applied once.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDouble Decoding of the Same Data - (174)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 675 (Duplicate Operations on Resource) > 174 (Double Decoding of the Same Data)
The software decodes the same input twice, which can limit the effectiveness of any protection mechanism that occurs in between the decoding operations.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMultiple Binds to the Same Port - (605)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 675 (Duplicate Operations on Resource) > 605 (Multiple Binds to the Same Port)
When multiple sockets are allowed to bind to the same port, other services on that port may be stolen or spoofed.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDouble Free - (415)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 675 (Duplicate Operations on Resource) > 415 (Double Free)
The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.Double-free
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMultiple Locks of a Critical Resource - (764)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 675 (Duplicate Operations on Resource) > 764 (Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource)
The software locks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMultiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource - (765)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 675 (Duplicate Operations on Resource) > 765 (Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource)
The software unlocks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Class Loader - (578)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 578 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Class Loader)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using the class loader.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Sockets - (577)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 577 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Sockets)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using sockets.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseFunction Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments - (628)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments)
The product calls a function, procedure, or routine with arguments that are not correctly specified, leading to always-incorrect behavior and resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFunction Call With Incorrect Argument Type - (686)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 686 (Function Call With Incorrect Argument Type)
The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies an argument that is the wrong data type, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFunction Call With Incorrect Number of Arguments - (685)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 685 (Function Call With Incorrect Number of Arguments)
The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies too many arguments, or too few arguments, which may lead to undefined behavior and resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFunction Call With Incorrect Order of Arguments - (683)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 683 (Function Call With Incorrect Order of Arguments)
The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies the arguments in an incorrect order, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFunction Call With Incorrect Variable or Reference as Argument - (688)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 688 (Function Call With Incorrect Variable or Reference as Argument)
The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies the wrong variable or reference as one of the arguments, which may lead to undefined behavior and resultant weaknesses.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFunction Call With Incorrectly Specified Argument Value - (687)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 687 (Function Call With Incorrectly Specified Argument Value)
The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies an argument that contains the wrong value, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of umask() with chmod-style Argument - (560)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments) > 687 (Function Call With Incorrectly Specified Argument Value) > 560 (Use of umask() with chmod-style Argument)
The product calls umask() with an incorrect argument that is specified as if it is an argument to chmod().
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproperly Implemented Security Check for Standard - (358)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 358 (Improperly Implemented Security Check for Standard)
The software does not implement or incorrectly implements one or more security-relevant checks as specified by the design of a standardized algorithm, protocol, or technique.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Check of Function Return Value - (253)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 253 (Incorrect Check of Function Return Value)
The software incorrectly checks a return value from a function, which prevents the software from detecting errors or exceptional conditions.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Non-serializable Object Stored in Session - (579)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 579 (J2EE Bad Practices: Non-serializable Object Stored in Session)
The application stores a non-serializable object as an HttpSession attribute, which can hurt reliability.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Critical Step in Authentication - (304)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 304 (Missing Critical Step in Authentication)
The software implements an authentication technique, but it skips a step that weakens the technique.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Required Cryptographic Step - (325)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 325 (Missing Required Cryptographic Step)
The software does not implement a required step in a cryptographic algorithm, resulting in weaker encryption than advertised by that algorithm.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseObject Model Violation: Just One of Equals and Hashcode Defined - (581)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 581 (Object Model Violation: Just One of Equals and Hashcode Defined)
The software does not maintain equal hashcodes for equal objects.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Form Bean Does Not Extend Validation Class - (104)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 104 (Struts: Form Bean Does Not Extend Validation Class)
If a form bean does not extend an ActionForm subclass of the Validator framework, it can expose the application to other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Incomplete validate() Method Definition - (103)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 103 (Struts: Incomplete validate() Method Definition)
The application has a validator form that either does not define a validate() method, or defines a validate() method but does not call super.validate().
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUndefined Behavior for Input to API - (475)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 475 (Undefined Behavior for Input to API)
The behavior of this function is undefined unless its control parameter is set to a specific value.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Low-Level Functionality - (695)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality)
The software uses low-level functionality that is explicitly prohibited by the framework or specification under which the software is supposed to operate.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDirect Use of Unsafe JNI - (111)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality) > 111 (Direct Use of Unsafe JNI)
When a Java application uses the Java Native Interface (JNI) to call code written in another programming language, it can expose the application to weaknesses in that code, even if those weaknesses cannot occur in Java.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of AWT Swing - (575)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality) > 575 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of AWT Swing)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using AWT/Swing.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Java I/O - (576)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality) > 576 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Java I/O)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using the java.io package.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Direct Management of Connections - (245)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality) > 245 (J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Management of Connections)
The J2EE application directly manages connections, instead of using the container's connection management facilities.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Sockets - (246)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality) > 246 (J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Sockets)
The J2EE application directly uses sockets instead of using framework method calls.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Threads - (383)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality) > 383 (J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Threads)
Thread management in a Web application is forbidden in some circumstances and is always highly error prone.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives - (574)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality) > 574 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using thread synchronization primitives.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCreation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory - (243)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 243 (Creation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory)
The program uses the chroot() system call to create a jail, but does not change the working directory afterward. This does not prevent access to files outside of the jail.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust - (296)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 296 (Improper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust)
The software does not follow, or incorrectly follows, the chain of trust for a certificate back to a trusted root certificate, resulting in incorrect trust of any resource that is associated with that certificate.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantNot Using a Random IV with CBC Mode - (329)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 329 (Not Using a Random IV with CBC Mode)
Not using a random initialization Vector (IV) with Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode causes algorithms to be susceptible to dictionary attacks.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier - (694)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 694 (Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier)
The software uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDuplicate Key in Associative List (Alist) - (462)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 694 (Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier) > 462 (Duplicate Key in Associative List (Alist))
Duplicate keys in associative lists can lead to non-unique keys being mistaken for an error.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Duplicate Validation Forms - (102)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 694 (Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier) > 102 (Struts: Duplicate Validation Forms)
The application uses multiple validation forms with the same name, which might cause the Struts Validator to validate a form that the programmer does not expect.
*Weakness VariantWeakness Variantclone() Method Without super.clone() - (580)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 580 (clone() Method Without super.clone())
The software contains a clone() method that does not call super.clone() to obtain the new object.
*Weakness VariantWeakness Variantfinalize() Method Without super.finalize() - (568)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller) > 568 (finalize() Method Without super.finalize())
The software contains a finalize() method that does not call super.finalize().
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Provision of Specified Functionality - (684)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality)
The code does not function according to its published specifications, potentially leading to incorrect usage.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExpected Behavior Violation - (440)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality) > 440 (Expected Behavior Violation)
A feature, API, or function being used by a product behaves differently than the product expects.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Report of Error Condition - (392)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality) > 392 (Missing Report of Error Condition)
The software encounters an error but does not provide a status code or return value to indicate that an error has occurred.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReturn of Wrong Status Code - (393)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality) > 393 (Return of Wrong Status Code)
A function or operation returns an incorrect return value or status code that does not indicate an error, but causes the product to modify its behavior based on the incorrect result.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUI Discrepancy for Security Feature - (446)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality) > 446 (UI Discrepancy for Security Feature)
The user interface does not correctly enable or configure a security feature, but the interface provides feedback that causes the user to believe that the feature is in a secure state.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseObsolete Feature in UI - (448)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality) > 446 (UI Discrepancy for Security Feature) > 448 (Obsolete Feature in UI)
A UI function is obsolete and the product does not warn the user.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseThe UI Performs the Wrong Action - (449)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality) > 446 (UI Discrepancy for Security Feature) > 449 (The UI Performs the Wrong Action)
The UI performs the wrong action with respect to the user's request.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnimplemented or Unsupported Feature in UI - (447)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality) > 446 (UI Discrepancy for Security Feature) > 447 (Unimplemented or Unsupported Feature in UI)
A UI function for a security feature appears to be supported and gives feedback to the user that suggests that it is supported, but the underlying functionality is not implemented.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUser Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information - (451)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality) > 451 (User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information)
The user interface (UI) does not properly represent critical information to the user, allowing the information - or its source - to be obscured or spoofed. This is often a component in phishing attacks.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Use of Privileged APIs - (648)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 648 (Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs)
The application does not conform to the API requirements for a function call that requires extra privileges. This could allow attackers to gain privileges by causing the function to be called incorrectly.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantTrusting HTTP Permission Methods on the Server Side - (650)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 227 (Improper Fulfillment of API Contract ('API Abuse')) > 650 (Trusting HTTP Permission Methods on the Server Side)
The server contains a protection mechanism that assumes that any URI that is accessed using HTTP GET will not cause a state change to the associated resource. This might allow attackers to bypass intended access restrictions and conduct resource modification and deletion attacks, since some applications allow GET to modify state.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIndicator of Poor Code Quality - (398)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality)
The code has features that do not directly introduce a weakness or vulnerability, but indicate that the product has not been carefully developed or maintained.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAssignment to Variable without Use ('Unused Variable') - (563)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 563 (Assignment to Variable without Use ('Unused Variable'))
The variable's value is assigned but never used, making it a dead store.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDead Code - (561)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 561 (Dead Code)
The software contains dead code, which can never be executed.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExpression is Always False - (570)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 561 (Dead Code) > 570 (Expression is Always False)
The software contains an expression that will always evaluate to false.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExpression is Always True - (571)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 561 (Dead Code) > 571 (Expression is Always True)
The software contains an expression that will always evaluate to true.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEmpty Synchronized Block - (585)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 585 (Empty Synchronized Block)
The software contains an empty synchronized block.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseNULL Pointer Dereference - (476)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 476 (NULL Pointer Dereference)
A NULL pointer dereference occurs when the application dereferences a pointer that it expects to be valid, but is NULL, typically causing a crash or exit.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOmitted Break Statement in Switch - (484)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 484 (Omitted Break Statement in Switch)
The program omits a break statement within a switch or similar construct, causing code associated with multiple conditions to execute. This can cause problems when the programmer only intended to execute code associated with one condition.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReturn of Stack Variable Address - (562)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 562 (Return of Stack Variable Address)
A function returns the address of a stack variable, which will cause unintended program behavior, typically in the form of a crash.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Unused Validation Form - (107)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 107 (Struts: Unused Validation Form)
An unused validation form indicates that validation logic is not up-to-date.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Validator Without Form Field - (110)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 110 (Struts: Validator Without Form Field)
Validation fields that do not appear in forms they are associated with indicate that the validation logic is out of date.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSuspicious Comment - (546)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 546 (Suspicious Comment)
The code contains comments that suggest the presence of bugs, incomplete functionality, or weaknesses.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Function with Inconsistent Implementations - (474)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 474 (Use of Function with Inconsistent Implementations)
The code uses a function that has inconsistent implementations across operating systems and versions.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCall to Non-ubiquitous API - (589)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 474 (Use of Function with Inconsistent Implementations) > 589 (Call to Non-ubiquitous API)
The software uses an API function that does not exist on all versions of the target platform. This could cause portability problems or inconsistencies that allow denial of service or other consequences.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Hard-coded, Security-relevant Constants - (547)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 547 (Use of Hard-coded, Security-relevant Constants)
The program uses hard-coded constants instead of symbolic names for security-critical values, which increases the likelihood of mistakes during code maintenance or security policy change.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Obsolete Functions - (477)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 477 (Use of Obsolete Functions)
The code uses deprecated or obsolete functions, which suggests that the code has not been actively reviewed or maintained.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Potentially Dangerous Function - (676)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 676 (Use of Potentially Dangerous Function)
The program invokes a potentially dangerous function that could introduce a vulnerability if it is used incorrectly, but the function can also be used safely.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer - (785)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 398 (Indicator of Poor Code Quality) > 676 (Use of Potentially Dangerous Function) > 785 (Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer)
The software invokes a function for normalizing paths or file names, but it provides an output buffer that is smaller than the maximum possible size, such as PATH_MAX.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassReliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior - (758)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 758 (Reliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior)
The software uses an API function, data structure, or other entity in a way that relies on properties that are not always guaranteed to hold for that entity.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReliance on Data/Memory Layout - (188)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 758 (Reliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior) > 188 (Reliance on Data/Memory Layout)
The software makes invalid assumptions about how protocol data or memory is organized at a lower level, resulting in unintended program behavior.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Incorrect Byte Ordering - (198)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 758 (Reliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior) > 188 (Reliance on Data/Memory Layout) > 198 (Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not account for byte ordering (e.g. big-endian and little-endian) when processing the input, causing an incorrect number or value to be used.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAssignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer - (587)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 758 (Reliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior) > 587 (Assignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer)
The software sets a pointer to a specific address other than NULL or 0.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAttempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer - (588)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 758 (Reliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior) > 588 (Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer)
Casting a non-structure type to a structure type and accessing a field can lead to memory access errors or data corruption.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCompiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code - (733)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 758 (Reliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior) > 733 (Compiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code)
The developer builds a security-critical protection mechanism into the software but the compiler optimizes the program such that the mechanism is removed or modified.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCompiler Removal of Code to Clear Buffers - (14)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 758 (Reliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior) > 733 (Compiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code) > 14 (Compiler Removal of Code to Clear Buffers)
Sensitive memory is cleared according to the source code, but compiler optimizations leave the memory untouched when it is not read from again, aka "dead store removal."
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Inherently Dangerous Function - (242)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 242 (Use of Inherently Dangerous Function)
The program calls a function that can never be guaranteed to work safely.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassViolation of Secure Design Principles - (657)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles)
The product violates well-established principles for secure design.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExecution with Unnecessary Privileges - (250)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 250 (Execution with Unnecessary Privileges)
The software performs an operation at a privilege level that is higher than the minimum level required, which creates new weaknesses or amplifies the consequences of other weaknesses.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficient Compartmentalization - (653)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 653 (Insufficient Compartmentalization)
The product does not sufficiently compartmentalize functionality or processes that require different privilege levels, rights, or permissions.Separation of Privilege
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficient Psychological Acceptability - (655)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 655 (Insufficient Psychological Acceptability)
The software has a protection mechanism that is too difficult or inconvenient to use, encouraging non-malicious users to disable or bypass the mechanism, whether by accident or on purpose.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassLack of Administrator Control over Security - (671)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 671 (Lack of Administrator Control over Security)
The product uses security features in a way that prevents the product's administrator from tailoring security settings to reflect the environment in which the product is being used. This introduces resultant weaknesses or prevents it from operating at a level of security that is desired by the administrator.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnimplemented or Unsupported Feature in UI - (447)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 671 (Lack of Administrator Control over Security) > 447 (Unimplemented or Unsupported Feature in UI)
A UI function for a security feature appears to be supported and gives feedback to the user that suggests that it is supported, but the underlying functionality is not implemented.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Hard-coded Credentials - (798)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 671 (Lack of Administrator Control over Security) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials)
The software contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to external components, or encryption of internal data.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key - (321)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 671 (Lack of Administrator Control over Security) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 321 (Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key)
The use of a hard-coded cryptographic key significantly increases the possibility that encrypted data may be recovered.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Hard-coded Password - (259)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 671 (Lack of Administrator Control over Security) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 259 (Use of Hard-coded Password)
The software contains a hard-coded password, which it uses for its own inbound authentication or for outbound communication to external components.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassNot Failing Securely ('Failing Open') - (636)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 636 (Not Failing Securely ('Failing Open'))
When the product encounters an error condition or failure, its design requires it to fall back to a state that is less secure than other options that are available, such as selecting the weakest encryption algorithm or using the most permissive access control restrictions.Failing Open
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseNon-exit on Failed Initialization - (455)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 636 (Not Failing Securely ('Failing Open')) > 455 (Non-exit on Failed Initialization)
The software does not exit or otherwise modify its operation when security-relevant errors occur during initialization, such as when a configuration file has a format error, which can cause the software to execute in a less secure fashion than intended by the administrator.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassNot Using Complete Mediation - (638)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation)
The software does not perform access checks on a resource every time the resource is accessed by an entity, which can create resultant weaknesses if that entity's rights or privileges change over time.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Protection of Alternate Path - (424)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path)
The product does not sufficiently protect all possible paths that a user can take to access restricted functionality or resources.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReliance on Security Through Obscurity - (656)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 656 (Reliance on Security Through Obscurity)
The software uses a protection mechanism whose strength depends heavily on its obscurity, such that knowledge of its algorithms or key data is sufficient to defeat the mechanism.Never Assuming your secrets are safe
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReliance on a Single Factor in a Security Decision - (654)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 654 (Reliance on a Single Factor in a Security Decision)
A protection mechanism relies exclusively, or to a large extent, on the evaluation of a single condition or the integrity of a single object or entity in order to make a decision about granting access to restricted resources or functionality.Separation of Privilege
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Password System for Primary Authentication - (309)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 654 (Reliance on a Single Factor in a Security Decision) > 309 (Use of Password System for Primary Authentication)
The use of password systems as the primary means of authentication may be subject to several flaws or shortcomings, each reducing the effectiveness of the mechanism.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Single-factor Authentication - (308)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 654 (Reliance on a Single Factor in a Security Decision) > 308 (Use of Single-factor Authentication)
The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassUnnecessary Complexity in Protection Mechanism (Not Using 'Economy of Mechanism') - (637)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 710 (Coding Standards Violation) > 657 (Violation of Secure Design Principles) > 637 (Unnecessary Complexity in Protection Mechanism (Not Using 'Economy of Mechanism'))
The software uses a more complex mechanism than necessary, which could lead to resultant weaknesses when the mechanism is not correctly understood, modeled, configured, implemented, or used.Unnecessary Complexity
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error') - (118)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error'))
The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts operations within the boundaries of a resource that is accessed using an index or pointer, such as memory or files.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer - (119)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer)
The software performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.Memory Corruption
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAccess of Memory Location After End of Buffer - (788)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location after the end of the buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Over-read - (126)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantHeap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAccess of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer - (786)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Under-read - (127)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer. buffer underrun
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAccess of Uninitialized Pointer - (824)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 824 (Access of Uninitialized Pointer)
The program accesses or uses a pointer that has not been initialized.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Access with Incorrect Length Value - (805)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value)
The software uses a sequential operation to read or write a buffer, but it uses an incorrect length value that causes it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer - (806)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value) > 806 (Buffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer)
The software uses the size of a source buffer when reading from or writing to a destination buffer, which may cause it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow') - (120)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow'))
The program copies an input buffer to an output buffer without verifying that the size of the input buffer is less than the size of the output buffer, leading to a buffer overflow.buffer overrunUnbounded Transfer
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer - (785)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow')) > 785 (Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer)
The software invokes a function for normalizing paths or file names, but it provides an output buffer that is smaller than the maximum possible size, such as PATH_MAX.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExpired Pointer Dereference - (825)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference)
The program dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.Dangling pointer
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDouble Free - (415)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference) > 415 (Double Free)
The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.Double-free
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse After Free - (416)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference) > 416 (Use After Free)
Referencing memory after it has been freed can cause a program to crash, use unexpected values, or execute code.Dangling pointerUse-After-Free
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOut-of-bounds Read - (125)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read)
The software reads data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Over-read - (126)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantBuffer Under-read - (127)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOut-of-bounds Write - (787)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write)
The software writes data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseBuffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer. buffer underrun
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantHeap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReturn of Pointer Value Outside of Expected Range - (466)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 466 (Return of Pointer Value Outside of Expected Range)
A function can return a pointer to memory that is outside of the buffer that the pointer is expected to reference.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUntrusted Pointer Dereference - (822)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 822 (Untrusted Pointer Dereference)
The program obtains a value from an untrusted source, converts this value to a pointer, and dereferences the resulting pointer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Out-of-range Pointer Offset - (823)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 823 (Use of Out-of-range Pointer Offset)
The program performs pointer arithmetic on a valid pointer, but it uses an offset that can point outside of the intended range of valid memory locations for the resulting pointer. Untrusted pointer offset
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseWrite-what-where Condition - (123)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Improper Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 123 (Write-what-where Condition)
Any condition where the attacker has the ability to write an arbitrary value to an arbitrary location, often as the result of a buffer overflow.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions - (703)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions)
The software does not properly anticipate or handle exceptional conditions that rarely occur during normal operation of the software.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions - (754)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions)
The software does not check or improperly checks for unusual or exceptional conditions that are not expected to occur frequently during day to day operation of the software.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Check for Dropped Privileges - (273)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions) > 273 (Improper Check for Dropped Privileges)
The software attempts to drop privileges but does not check or incorrectly checks to see if the drop succeeded.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnchecked Return Value - (252)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions) > 252 (Unchecked Return Value)
The software does not check the return value from a method or function, which can prevent it from detecting unexpected states and conditions.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnexpected Status Code or Return Value - (394)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions) > 394 (Unexpected Status Code or Return Value)
The software does not properly check when a function or operation returns a value that is legitimate for the function, but is not expected by the software.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Validation of Integrity Check Value - (354)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions) > 354 (Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value)
The software does not validate or incorrectly validates the integrity check values or "checksums" of a message. This may prevent it from detecting if the data has been modified or corrupted in transmission.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Check of Function Return Value - (253)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions) > 253 (Incorrect Check of Function Return Value)
The software incorrectly checks a return value from a function, which prevents the software from detecting errors or exceptional conditions.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Handling of Exceptional Conditions - (755)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles an exceptional condition.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassDetection of Error Condition Without Action - (390)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 390 (Detection of Error Condition Without Action)
The software detects a specific error, but takes no actions to handle the error.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassMissing Custom Error Page - (756)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 756 (Missing Custom Error Page)
The software does not return custom error pages to the user, possibly exposing sensitive information.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page - (12)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 756 (Missing Custom Error Page) > 12 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page)
An ASP .NET application must enable custom error pages in order to prevent attackers from mining information from the framework's built-in responses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page - (7)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 756 (Missing Custom Error Page) > 7 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page)
The default error page of a web application should not display sensitive information about the software system.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism - (544)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 544 (Missing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism)
The software does not use a standardized method for handling errors throughout the code, which might introduce inconsistent error handling and resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDeclaration of Catch for Generic Exception - (396)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 396 (Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception)
Catching overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Cleanup on Thrown Exception - (460)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 460 (Improper Cleanup on Thrown Exception)
The product does not clean up its state or incorrectly cleans up its state when an exception is thrown, leading to unexpected state or control flow.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through an Error Message - (209)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message)
The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Externally-generated Error Message - (211)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 211 (Information Exposure Through Externally-generated Error Message)
The software performs an operation that triggers an external diagnostic or error message that is not directly generated by the software, such as an error generated by the programming language interpreter that the software uses. The error can contain sensitive system information.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message - (210)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message)
The software identifies an error condition and creates its own diagnostic or error messages that contain sensitive information.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message - (537)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 537 (Information Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message)
In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause unhandled exception errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message - (536)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 536 (Information Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message)
A servlet error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in your web application code and may provide useful information to an attacker.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Shell Error Message - (535)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 535 (Information Exposure Through Shell Error Message)
A command shell error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in the web application code. In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause these errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Server Error Message - (550)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 550 (Information Exposure Through Server Error Message)
Certain conditions, such as network failure, will cause a server error message to be displayed.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassNot Failing Securely ('Failing Open') - (636)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 636 (Not Failing Securely ('Failing Open'))
When the product encounters an error condition or failure, its design requires it to fall back to a state that is less secure than other options that are available, such as selecting the weakest encryption algorithm or using the most permissive access control restrictions.Failing Open
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseNon-exit on Failed Initialization - (455)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 636 (Not Failing Securely ('Failing Open')) > 455 (Non-exit on Failed Initialization)
The software does not exit or otherwise modify its operation when security-relevant errors occur during initialization, such as when a configuration file has a format error, which can cause the software to execute in a less secure fashion than intended by the administrator.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference - (395)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 395 (Use of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference)
Catching NullPointerException should not be used as an alternative to programmatic checks to prevent dereferencing a null pointer.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges - (280)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 280 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges )
The application does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to access resources or functionality as specified by their permissions. This may cause it to follow unexpected code paths that may leave the application in an invalid state.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Insufficient Privileges - (274)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 274 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to perform an operation, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnchecked Error Condition - (391)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 391 (Unchecked Error Condition)
Ignoring exceptions and other error conditions may allow an attacker to induce unexpected behavior unnoticed.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDeclaration of Throws for Generic Exception - (397)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 397 (Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception)
Throwing overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Additional Special Element - (167)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 167 (Improper Handling of Additional Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is missing.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements - (168)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 168 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements)
The software does not handle when an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Insufficient Entropy in TRNG - (333)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 333 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Entropy in TRNG)
True random number generators (TRNG) generally have a limited source of entropy and therefore can fail or block.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Missing Special Element - (166)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 166 (Improper Handling of Missing Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure - (228)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles input that is not syntactically well-formed with respect to the associated specification.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Parameters - (233)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those parameters are undefined.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Handle Missing Parameter - (234)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 234 (Failure to Handle Missing Parameter)
If too few arguments are sent to a function, the function will still pop the expected number of arguments from the stack. Potentially, a variable number of arguments could be exhausted in a function as well.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Extra Parameters - (235)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 235 (Improper Handling of Extra Parameters)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when the number of parameters, fields, or arguments with the same name exceeds the expected amount.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Undefined Parameters - (236)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 236 (Improper Handling of Undefined Parameters)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular parameter, field, or argument name is not defined or supported by the product.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Structural Elements - (237)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles inputs that are related to complex structures.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Handle Incomplete Element - (239)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 239 (Failure to Handle Incomplete Element)
The software does not properly handle when a particular element is not completely specified.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements - (238)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 238 (Improper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular structural element is not completely specified.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements - (240)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 240 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when two or more structural elements should be consistent, but are not.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency - (130)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 240 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements) > 130 (Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency )
The software parses a formatted message or structure, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a length field that is inconsistent with the actual length of the associated data.length manipulationlength tampering
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Unexpected Data Type - (241)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 241 (Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular element is not the expected type, e.g. it expects a digit (0-9) but is provided with a letter (A-Z).
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Values - (229)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of values for parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those values are undefined.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Extra Values - (231)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 231 (Improper Handling of Extra Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when more values are provided than expected.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Missing Values - (230)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 230 (Improper Handling of Missing Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a parameter, field, or argument name is specified, but the associated value is missing, i.e. it is empty, blank, or null.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Undefined Values - (232)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 232 (Improper Handling of Undefined Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a value is not defined or supported for the associated parameter, field, or argument name.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Report of Error Condition - (392)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 392 (Missing Report of Error Condition)
The software encounters an error but does not provide a status code or return value to indicate that an error has occurred.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReturn of Wrong Status Code - (393)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 393 (Return of Wrong Status Code)
A function or operation returns an incorrect return value or status code that does not indicate an error, but causes the product to modify its behavior based on the incorrect result.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUncaught Exception - (248)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 248 (Uncaught Exception)
An exception is thrown from a function, but it is not caught.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUncaught Exception in Servlet - (600)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 248 (Uncaught Exception) > 600 (Uncaught Exception in Servlet )
The Servlet does not catch all exceptions, which may reveal sensitive debugging information.Missing Catch Block
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime - (664)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime)
The software does not maintain or incorrectly maintains control over a resource throughout its lifetime of creation, use, and release.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassAsymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification) - (405)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification))
Software that does not appropriately monitor or control resource consumption can lead to adverse system performance.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAlgorithmic Complexity - (407)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 407 (Algorithmic Complexity)
An algorithm in a product has an inefficient worst-case computational complexity that may be detrimental to system performance and can be triggered by an attacker, typically using crafted manipulations that ensure that the worst case is being reached.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification) - (409)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 409 (Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification))
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles a compressed input with a very high compression ratio that produces a large output.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion') - (776)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 409 (Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification)) > 776 (Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion'))
The software uses XML documents and allows their structure to be defined with a Document Type Definition (DTD), but it does not properly control the number of recursive definitions of entities.XEEBillion Laughs AttackXML Bomb
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification - (408)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 408 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification)
The software allows an entity to perform a legitimate but expensive operation before authentication or authorization has taken place.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficient Control of Network Message Volume (Network Amplification) - (406)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 406 (Insufficient Control of Network Message Volume (Network Amplification))
The software does not sufficiently monitor or control transmitted network traffic volume, so that an actor can cause the software to transmit more traffic than should be allowed for that actor.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere - (668)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere)
The product exposes a resource to the wrong control sphere, providing unintended actors with inappropriate access to the resource.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAccess to Critical Private Variable via Public Method - (767)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 767 (Access to Critical Private Variable via Public Method)
The software defines a public method that reads or modifies a private variable.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantArray Declared Public, Final, and Static - (582)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 582 (Array Declared Public, Final, and Static)
The program declares an array public, final, and static, which is not sufficient to prevent the array's contents from being modified.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassCovert Channel - (514)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 514 (Covert Channel)
A covert channel is a path that can be used to transfer information in a way not intended by the system's designers.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCovert Storage Channel - (515)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 514 (Covert Channel) > 515 (Covert Storage Channel)
A covert storage channel transfers information through the setting of bits by one program and the reading of those bits by another. What distinguishes this case from that of ordinary operation is that the bits are used to convey encoded information.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCovert Timing Channel - (385)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 514 (Covert Channel) > 385 (Covert Timing Channel)
Covert timing channels convey information by modulating some aspect of system behavior over time, so that the program receiving the information can observe system behavior and infer protected information.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCritical Public Variable Without Final Modifier - (493)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier)
The product has a critical public variable that is not final, which allows the variable to be modified to contain unexpected values.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPublic Static Field Not Marked Final - (500)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier) > 500 (Public Static Field Not Marked Final)
An object contains a public static field that is not marked final, which might allow it to be modified in unexpected ways.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCritical Variable Declared Public - (766)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 766 (Critical Variable Declared Public)
The software declares a critical variable or field to be public when intended security policy requires it to be private.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExternal Control of Critical State Data - (642)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data)
The software stores security-critical state information about its users, or the software itself, in a location that is accessible to unauthorized actors.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExternal Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter - (472)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 472 (External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter)
The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.Assumed-Immutable Parameter Tampering
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExternal Control of File Name or Path - (73)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 73 (External Control of File Name or Path)
The software allows user input to control or influence paths or file names that are used in filesystem operations.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExternal Control of System or Configuration Setting - (15)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 15 (External Control of System or Configuration Setting)
One or more system settings or configuration elements can be externally controlled by a user.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking - (565)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking)
The application relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid for the associated user.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision - (784)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking) > 784 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision)
The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of a cookie, but it does not properly ensure that the cookie is valid for the associated user.
+Compound Element: CompositeCompound Element: CompositeUntrusted Search Path - (426)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path)
The application searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the application's direct control.Untrusted Path
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassContainment Errors (Container Errors) - (216)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors))
This tries to cover various problems in which improper data are included within a "container."
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseModification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID) - (471)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID))
The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.
*CategoryCategoryPermission Issues - (275)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path) > 275 (Permission Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper assignment or handling of permissions.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseFiles or Directories Accessible to External Parties - (552)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties)
Files or directories are accessible in the environment that should not be.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCommand Shell in Externally Accessible Directory - (553)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 553 (Command Shell in Externally Accessible Directory)
A possible shell file exists in /cgi-bin/ or other accessible directories. This is extremely dangerous and can be used by an attacker to execute commands on the web server.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (529)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 529 (Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores access control list files in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (530)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 530 (Exposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
A backup file is stored in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (527)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 527 (Exposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores a CVS repository in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (528)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 528 (Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product generates a core dump file in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Directory Listing - (548)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 548 (Information Exposure Through Directory Listing)
A directory listing is inappropriately exposed, yielding potentially sensitive information to attackers.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Log Files - (532)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files - (542)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 542 (Information Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files)
The application does not properly protect or delete a log file related to cleanup.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Log Files - (534)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 534 (Information Exposure Through Debug Log Files)
The application does not sufficiently restrict access to a log file that is used for debugging.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Server Log Files - (533)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 533 (Information Exposure Through Server Log Files)
A server.log file was found. This can give information on whatever application left the file. Usually this can give full path names and system information, and sometimes usernames and passwords.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Source Code - (540)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code)
Source code on a web server often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Comments - (615)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 615 (Information Exposure Through Comments)
While adding general comments is very useful, some programmers tend to leave important data, such as: filenames related to the web application, old links or links which were not meant to be browsed by users, old code fragments, etc.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Include Source Code - (541)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 541 (Information Exposure Through Include Source Code)
If an include file source is accessible, the file can contain usernames and passwords, as well as sensitive information pertaining to the application and system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Test Code - (531)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 531 (Information Exposure Through Test Code)
Accessible test applications can pose a variety of security risks. Since developers or administrators rarely consider that someone besides themselves would even know about the existence of these applications, it is common for them to contain sensitive information or functions.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInformation Exposure - (200)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure)
An information exposure is the intentional or unintentional disclosure of information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have access to that information.Information LeakInformation Disclosure
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExposure of Private Information ('Privacy Violation') - (359)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 359 (Exposure of Private Information ('Privacy Violation'))
The software does not properly prevent private data (such as credit card numbers) from being accessed by actors who either (1) are not explicitly authorized to access the data or (2) do not have the implicit consent of the people to which the data is related. Privacy leakPrivacy leakage
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Sensitive Data Through Data Queries - (202)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 359 (Exposure of Private Information ('Privacy Violation')) > 202 (Exposure of Sensitive Data Through Data Queries)
When trying to keep information confidential, an attacker can often infer some of the information by using statistics.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of System Data to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (497)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 497 (Exposure of System Data to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
Exposing system data or debugging information helps an adversary learn about the system and form an attack plan.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseFile and Directory Information Exposure - (538)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure)
The product stores sensitive information in files or directories that are accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (529)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 529 (Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores access control list files in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (530)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 530 (Exposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
A backup file is stored in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (527)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 527 (Exposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores a CVS repository in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (528)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 528 (Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product generates a core dump file in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Directory Listing - (548)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 548 (Information Exposure Through Directory Listing)
A directory listing is inappropriately exposed, yielding potentially sensitive information to attackers.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Log Files - (532)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files - (542)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 542 (Information Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files)
The application does not properly protect or delete a log file related to cleanup.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Log Files - (534)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 534 (Information Exposure Through Debug Log Files)
The application does not sufficiently restrict access to a log file that is used for debugging.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Server Log Files - (533)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 533 (Information Exposure Through Server Log Files)
A server.log file was found. This can give information on whatever application left the file. Usually this can give full path names and system information, and sometimes usernames and passwords.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Persistent Cookies - (539)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 539 (Information Exposure Through Persistent Cookies)
Persistent cookies are cookies that are stored on the browser's hard drive. This can cause security and privacy issues depending on the information stored in the cookie and how it is accessed.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Source Code - (540)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code)
Source code on a web server often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Comments - (615)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 615 (Information Exposure Through Comments)
While adding general comments is very useful, some programmers tend to leave important data, such as: filenames related to the web application, old links or links which were not meant to be browsed by users, old code fragments, etc.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Include Source Code - (541)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 541 (Information Exposure Through Include Source Code)
If an include file source is accessible, the file can contain usernames and passwords, as well as sensitive information pertaining to the application and system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Test Code - (531)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 531 (Information Exposure Through Test Code)
Accessible test applications can pose a variety of security risks. Since developers or administrators rarely consider that someone besides themselves would even know about the existence of these applications, it is common for them to contain sensitive information or functions.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through WSDL File - (651)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 651 (Information Exposure Through WSDL File)
The Web services architecture may require exposing a WSDL file that contains information on the publicly accessible services and how callers of these services should interact with them (e.g. what parameters they expect and what types they return).
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data - (212)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 212 (Improper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data)
The software uses a resource that contains sensitive data, but it does not properly remove that data before it stores, transfers, or shares the resource with actors in another control sphere.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Caching - (524)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 524 (Information Exposure Through Caching)
The application uses a cache to maintain a pool of objects, threads, connections, pages, or passwords to minimize the time it takes to access them or the resources to which they connect. If implemented improperly, these caches can allow access to unauthorized information or cause a denial of service vulnerability.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Browser Caching - (525)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 524 (Information Exposure Through Caching) > 525 (Information Exposure Through Browser Caching)
For each web page, the application should have an appropriate caching policy specifying the extent to which the page and its form fields should be cached.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Information - (215)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 215 (Information Exposure Through Debug Information)
The application contains debugging code that can expose sensitive information to untrusted parties.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Creating Debug Binary - (11)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 215 (Information Exposure Through Debug Information) > 11 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Creating Debug Binary)
Debugging messages help attackers learn about the system and plan a form of attack.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInformation Exposure Through Discrepancy - (203)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy)
The product behaves differently or sends different responses in a way that exposes security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy - (205)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy)
The product's actions indicate important differences based on (1) the internal state of the product or (2) differences from other products in the same class.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through an External Behavioral Inconsistency - (207)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy) > 207 (Information Exposure Through an External Behavioral Inconsistency)
The product behaves differently than other products like it, in a way that is observable to an attacker and exposes security-relevant information about which product is being used.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure of Internal State Through Behavioral Inconsistency - (206)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy) > 206 (Information Exposure of Internal State Through Behavioral Inconsistency)
Two separate operations in a product cause the product to behave differently in a way that is observable to an attacker and reveals security-relevant information about the internal state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Timing Discrepancy - (208)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 208 (Information Exposure Through Timing Discrepancy)
Two separate operations in a product require different amounts of time to complete, in a way that is observable to an actor and reveals security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseResponse Discrepancy Information Exposure - (204)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 204 (Response Discrepancy Information Exposure)
The software provides different responses to incoming requests in a way that allows an actor to determine system state information that is outside of that actor's control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Environmental Variables - (526)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 526 (Information Exposure Through Environmental Variables)
Environmental variables may contain sensitive information about a remote server.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Indexing of Private Data - (612)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 612 (Information Exposure Through Indexing of Private Data)
The product performs an indexing routine against private documents, but does not sufficiently verify that the actors who can access the index also have the privileges to access the private documents.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Process Environment - (214)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 214 (Information Exposure Through Process Environment)
A process is invoked with sensitive arguments, environment variables, or other elements that can be seen by other processes on the operating system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Query Strings in GET Request - (598)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 598 (Information Exposure Through Query Strings in GET Request)
The web application uses the GET method to process requests that contain sensitive information, which can expose that information through the browser's history, Referers, web logs, and other sources.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Sent Data - (201)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 201 (Information Exposure Through Sent Data)
The accidental exposure of sensitive information through sent data refers to the transmission of data which are either sensitive in and of itself or useful in the further exploitation of the system through standard data channels.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through an Error Message - (209)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message)
The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Externally-generated Error Message - (211)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 211 (Information Exposure Through Externally-generated Error Message)
The software performs an operation that triggers an external diagnostic or error message that is not directly generated by the software, such as an error generated by the programming language interpreter that the software uses. The error can contain sensitive system information.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInformation Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message - (210)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message)
The software identifies an error condition and creates its own diagnostic or error messages that contain sensitive information.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message - (537)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 537 (Information Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message)
In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause unhandled exception errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message - (536)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 536 (Information Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message)
A servlet error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in your web application code and may provide useful information to an attacker.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Shell Error Message - (535)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 535 (Information Exposure Through Shell Error Message)
A command shell error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in the web application code. In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause these errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInformation Exposure Through Server Error Message - (550)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 550 (Information Exposure Through Server Error Message)
Certain conditions, such as network failure, will cause a server error message to be displayed.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIntentional Information Exposure - (213)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 213 (Intentional Information Exposure)
A product's design or configuration explicitly requires the publication of information that could be regarded as sensitive by an administrator.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseSensitive Information Uncleared Before Release - (226)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release)
The software does not fully clear previously used information in a data structure, file, or other resource, before making that resource available to a party in another control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection') - (244)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release) > 244 (Improper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection'))
Using realloc() to resize buffers that store sensitive information can leave the sensitive information exposed to attack, because it is not removed from memory.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsecure Temporary File - (377)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 377 (Insecure Temporary File)
Creating and using insecure temporary files can leave application and system data vulnerable to attack.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCreation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions - (378)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 377 (Insecure Temporary File) > 378 (Creation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions)
Opening temporary files without appropriate measures or controls can leave the file, its contents and any function that it impacts vulnerable to attack.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCreation of Temporary File in Directory with Incorrect Permissions - (379)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 377 (Insecure Temporary File) > 379 (Creation of Temporary File in Directory with Incorrect Permissions)
The software creates a temporary file in a directory whose permissions allow unintended actors to determine the file's existence or otherwise access that file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Entity Bean Declared Remote - (8)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 8 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Entity Bean Declared Remote)
When an application exposes a remote interface for an entity bean, it might also expose methods that get or set the bean's data. These methods could be leveraged to read sensitive information, or to change data in ways that violate the application's expectations, potentially leading to other vulnerabilities.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BasePassing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method - (374)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 374 (Passing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method)
The program sends non-cloned mutable data as an argument to a method or function.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPublic cloneable() Method Without Final ('Object Hijack') - (491)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 491 (Public cloneable() Method Without Final ('Object Hijack'))
A class has a cloneable() method that is not declared final, which allows an object to be created without calling the constructor. This can cause the object to be in an unexpected state.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReturning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller - (375)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 375 (Returning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller)
Sending non-cloned mutable data as a return value may result in that data being altered or deleted by the calling function.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSensitive Data Under FTP Root - (220)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 220 (Sensitive Data Under FTP Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the FTP document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantStruts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class - (608)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 608 (Struts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class)
An ActionForm class contains a field that has not been declared private, which can be accessed without using a setter or getter.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassTransmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak') - (402)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 402 (Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak'))
The software makes resources available to untrusted parties when those resources are only intended to be accessed by the software.Resource Leak
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExposure of File Descriptor to Unintended Control Sphere ('File Descriptor Leak') - (403)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 402 (Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak')) > 403 (Exposure of File Descriptor to Unintended Control Sphere ('File Descriptor Leak'))
A process does not close sensitive file descriptors before invoking a child process, which allows the child to perform unauthorized I/O operations using those descriptors.File descriptor leak
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection') - (619)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 402 (Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak')) > 619 (Dangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection'))
If a database cursor is not closed properly, then it could become accessible to other users while retaining the same privileges that were originally assigned, leaving the cursor "dangling."
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUncontrolled Search Path Element - (427)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 427 (Uncontrolled Search Path Element)
The product uses a fixed or controlled search path to find resources, but one or more locations in that path can be under the control of unintended actors.DLL preloadingBinary plantingInsecure library loading
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnquoted Search Path or Element - (428)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 428 (Unquoted Search Path or Element)
The product uses a search path that contains an unquoted element, in which the element contains whitespace or other separators. This can cause the product to access resources in a parent path.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Inner Class Containing Sensitive Data - (492)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 492 (Use of Inner Class Containing Sensitive Data)
Inner classes are translated into classes that are accessible at package scope and may expose code that the programmer intended to keep private to attackers.
*Weakness VariantWeakness Variantfinalize() Method Declared Public - (583)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 583 (finalize() Method Declared Public)
The program violates secure coding principles for mobile code by declaring a finalize() method public.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal') - (22)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal'))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that is intended to identify a file or directory that is located underneath a restricted parent directory, but the software does not properly neutralize special elements within the pathname that can cause the pathname to resolve to a location that is outside of the restricted directory.Directory traversalPath traversal
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAbsolute Path Traversal - (36)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize absolute path sequences such as "/abs/path" that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here' - (37)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 37 (Path Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a slash absolute path ('/absolute/pathname/here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: 'C:dirname' - (39)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 39 (Path Traversal: 'C:dirname')
An attacker can inject a drive letter or Windows volume letter ('C:dirname') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share) - (40)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 40 (Path Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share))
An attacker can inject a Windows UNC share ('\\UNC\share\name') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here' - (38)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 38 (Path Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a backslash absolute path ('\absolute\pathname\here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseRelative Path Traversal - (23)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize sequences such as ".." that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot) - (32)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 32 (Path Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '...' (triple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot) - (33)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 33 (Path Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....' (multiple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '....//' - (34)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 34 (Path Traversal: '....//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....//' (doubled dot dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '.../...//' - (35)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 35 (Path Traversal: '.../...//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '.../...//' (doubled triple dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '../filedir' - (24)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 24 (Path Traversal: '../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '..\filedir' - (28)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 28 (Path Traversal: '..\filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "..\" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '/../filedir' - (25)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 25 (Path Traversal: '/../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '/dir/../filename' - (26)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 26 (Path Traversal: '/dir/../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/dir/../filename" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\..\filename' - (29)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 29 (Path Traversal: '\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\dir\..\filename' - (30)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 30 (Path Traversal: '\dir\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\dir\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: 'dir/../../filename' - (27)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 27 (Path Traversal: 'dir/../../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize multiple internal "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename' - (31)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 31 (Path Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize 'dir\..\..\filename' (multiple internal backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The software specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Preservation of Permissions - (281)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 281 (Improper Preservation of Permissions)
The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrictive permissions than intended.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantIncorrect Default Permissions - (276)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 276 (Incorrect Default Permissions)
The software, upon installation, sets incorrect permissions for an object that exposes it to an unintended actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantIncorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions - (279)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 279 (Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions)
While it is executing, the software sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInsecure Inherited Permissions - (277)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 277 (Insecure Inherited Permissions)
A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInsecure Preserved Inherited Permissions - (278)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 278 (Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions)
A product inherits a set of insecure permissions for an object, e.g. when copying from an archive file, without user awareness or involvement.
+Compound Element: CompositeCompound Element: CompositePermission Race Condition During Resource Copy - (689)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 689 (Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy)
The product, while copying or cloning a resource, does not set the resource's permissions or access control until the copy is complete, leaving the resource exposed to other spheres while the copy is taking place.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassConcurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition') - (362)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 689 (Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition'))
The program contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a timing window exists in which the shared resource can be modified by another code sequence that is operating concurrently.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 689 (Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The software specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficiently Protected Credentials - (522)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials)
This weakness occurs when the application transmits or stores authentication credentials and uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File - (555)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 555 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File)
The J2EE application stores a plaintext password in a configuration file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMissing Password Field Masking - (549)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 549 (Missing Password Field Masking)
The software does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPassword in Configuration File - (260)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File)
The software stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File - (13)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 13 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File)
Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource making them an easy target for attackers.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEmpty Password in Configuration File - (258)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 258 (Empty Password in Configuration File)
Using an empty string as a password is insecure.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPlaintext Storage of a Password - (256)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 256 (Plaintext Storage of a Password)
Storing a password in plaintext may result in a system compromise.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseStoring Passwords in a Recoverable Format - (257)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 257 (Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format)
The storage of passwords in a recoverable format makes them subject to password reuse attacks by malicious users. In fact, it should be noted that recoverable encrypted passwords provide no significant benefit over plaintext passwords since they are subject not only to reuse by malicious attackers but also by malicious insiders. If a system administrator can recover a password directly, or use a brute force search on the available information, the administrator can use the password on other accounts.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnprotected Transport of Credentials - (523)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 523 (Unprotected Transport of Credentials)
Login pages not using adequate measures to protect the user name and password while they are in transit from the client to the server.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantOverly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist - (942)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 942 (Overly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist)
The software uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication - (927)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 927 (Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication)
The Android application uses an implicit intent for transmitting sensitive data to other applications.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExternal Influence of Sphere Definition - (673)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 673 (External Influence of Sphere Definition)
The product does not prevent the definition of control spheres from external actors.
+Compound Element: CompositeCompound Element: CompositeUntrusted Search Path - (426)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 673 (External Influence of Sphere Definition) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path)
The application searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the application's direct control.Untrusted Path
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassContainment Errors (Container Errors) - (216)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 673 (External Influence of Sphere Definition) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors))
This tries to cover various problems in which improper data are included within a "container."
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseModification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID) - (471)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 673 (External Influence of Sphere Definition) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID))
The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.
*CategoryCategoryPermission Issues - (275)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 673 (External Influence of Sphere Definition) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path) > 275 (Permission Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper assignment or handling of permissions.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExternally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere - (610)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere)
The product uses an externally controlled name or reference that resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference ('XXE') - (611)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 611 (Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference ('XXE'))
The software processes an XML document that can contain XML entities with URIs that resolve to documents outside of the intended sphere of control, causing the product to embed incorrect documents into its output.XXE
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantURL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect') - (601)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 601 (URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect'))
A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks.Open RedirectCross-site RedirectCross-domain Redirect
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassUnintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy') - (441)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 441 (Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy'))
The software receives a request, message, or directive from an upstream component, but the software does not sufficiently preserve the original source of the request before forwarding the request to an external actor that is outside of the software's control sphere. This causes the software to appear to be the source of the request, leading it to act as a proxy or other intermediary between the upstream component and the external actor.Confused Deputy
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseServer-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) - (918)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 441 (Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy')) > 918 (Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF))
The web server receives a URL or similar request from an upstream component and retrieves the contents of this URL, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the request is being sent to the expected destination.XSPA
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExternal Control of File Name or Path - (73)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 73 (External Control of File Name or Path)
The software allows user input to control or influence paths or file names that are used in filesystem operations.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExternal Control of System or Configuration Setting - (15)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 15 (External Control of System or Configuration Setting)
One or more system settings or configuration elements can be externally controlled by a user.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection') - (470)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 470 (Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection'))
The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper classes or code.Reflection Injection
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources - (913)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources)
The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-managed code resources such as variables, objects, classes, attributes, functions, or executable instructions or statements.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDeserialization of Untrusted Data - (502)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 502 (Deserialization of Untrusted Data)
The application deserializes untrusted data without sufficiently verifying that the resulting data will be valid.Marshaling, UnmarshalingPickling, Unpickling
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes - (915)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 915 (Improperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes)
The software receives input from an upstream component that specifies multiple attributes, properties, or fields that are to be initialized or updated in an object, but it does not properly control which attributes can be modified.Mass AssignmentAutoBindingObject injection
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection') - (470)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 470 (Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection'))
The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper classes or code.Reflection Injection
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables - (914)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables)
The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-identified variables.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDynamic Variable Evaluation - (627)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables) > 627 (Dynamic Variable Evaluation)
In a language where the user can influence the name of a variable at runtime, if the variable names are not controlled, an attacker can read or write to arbitrary variables, or access arbitrary functions.Dynamic evaluation
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseVariable Extraction Error - (621)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables) > 621 (Variable Extraction Error)
The product uses external input to determine the names of variables into which information is extracted, without verifying that the names of the specified variables are valid. This could cause the program to overwrite unintended variables.Variable overwrite
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection') - (94)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the syntax or behavior of the intended code segment.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection') - (95)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 95 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before using the input in a dynamic evaluation call (e.g. "eval").
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection') - (96)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable resource, such as a library, configuration file, or template.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page - (97)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection')) > 97 (Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page)
The software generates a web page, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input that could be interpreted as a server-side include (SSI) directive.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Initialization - (665)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization)
The software does not initialize or incorrectly initializes a resource, which might leave the resource in an unexpected state when it is accessed or used.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAllocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling - (770)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many resources can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAllocation of File Descriptors or Handles Without Limits or Throttling - (774)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling) > 774 (Allocation of File Descriptors or Handles Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates file descriptors or handles on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many descriptors can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUncontrolled Memory Allocation - (789)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling) > 789 (Uncontrolled Memory Allocation)
The product allocates memory based on an untrusted size value, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the size, allowing arbitrary amounts of memory to be allocated.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExternal Initialization of Trusted Variables or Data Stores - (454)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 454 (External Initialization of Trusted Variables or Data Stores)
The software initializes critical internal variables or data stores using inputs that can be modified by untrusted actors.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsecure Default Variable Initialization - (453)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 453 (Insecure Default Variable Initialization)
The software, by default, initializes an internal variable with an insecure or less secure value than is possible.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Initialization of Resource - (909)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 909 (Missing Initialization of Resource)
The software does not initialize a critical resource.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Initialization of a Variable - (456)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 909 (Missing Initialization of Resource) > 456 (Missing Initialization of a Variable)
The software does not initialize critical variables, which causes the execution environment to use unexpected values.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Uninitialized Variable - (457)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 457 (Use of Uninitialized Variable)
The code uses a variable that has not been initialized, leading to unpredictable or unintended results.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseNon-exit on Failed Initialization - (455)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 455 (Non-exit on Failed Initialization)
The software does not exit or otherwise modify its operation when security-relevant errors occur during initialization, such as when a configuration file has a format error, which can cause the software to execute in a less secure fashion than intended by the administrator.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Resource Shutdown or Release - (404)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release)
The program does not release or incorrectly releases a resource before it is made available for re-use.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection') - (619)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 619 (Dangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection'))
If a database cursor is not closed properly, then it could become accessible to other users while retaining the same privileges that were originally assigned, leaving the cursor "dangling."
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncomplete Cleanup - (459)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup)
The software does not properly "clean up" and remove temporary or supporting resources after they have been used.Insufficient Cleanup
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Cleanup on Thrown Exception - (460)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup) > 460 (Improper Cleanup on Thrown Exception)
The product does not clean up its state or incorrectly cleans up its state when an exception is thrown, leading to unexpected state or control flow.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseSensitive Information Uncleared Before Release - (226)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release)
The software does not fully clear previously used information in a data structure, file, or other resource, before making that resource available to a party in another control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection') - (244)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release) > 244 (Improper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection'))
Using realloc() to resize buffers that store sensitive information can leave the sensitive information exposed to attack, because it is not removed from memory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness Variantfinalize() Method Without super.finalize() - (568)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup) > 568 (finalize() Method Without super.finalize())
The software contains a finalize() method that does not call super.finalize().
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime - (772)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime)
The software does not release a resource after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the resource is no longer needed.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference ('Memory Leak') - (401)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime) > 401 (Improper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference ('Memory Leak'))
The software does not sufficiently track and release allocated memory after it has been used, which slowly consumes remaining memory.Memory Leak
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMissing Release of File Descriptor or Handle after Effective Lifetime - (775)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime) > 775 (Missing Release of File Descriptor or Handle after Effective Lifetime)
The software does not release a file descriptor or handle after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the file descriptor/handle is no longer needed.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseRelease of Invalid Pointer or Reference - (763)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference)
The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but calls the wrong release function or calls the appropriate release function incorrectly.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFree of Pointer not at Start of Buffer - (761)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference) > 761 (Free of Pointer not at Start of Buffer)
The application calls free() on a pointer to a memory resource that was allocated on the heap, but the pointer is not at the start of the buffer.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMismatched Memory Management Routines - (762)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference) > 762 (Mismatched Memory Management Routines)
The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but it calls a release function that is not compatible with the function that was originally used to allocate that resource.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFree of Memory not on the Heap - (590)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference) > 762 (Mismatched Memory Management Routines) > 590 (Free of Memory not on the Heap)
The application calls free() on a pointer to memory that was not allocated using associated heap allocation functions such as malloc(), calloc(), or realloc().
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Check for Certificate Revocation - (299)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 299 (Improper Check for Certificate Revocation)
The software does not check or incorrectly checks the revocation status of a certificate, which may cause it to use a certificate that has been compromised.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check - (370)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 299 (Improper Check for Certificate Revocation) > 370 (Missing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check)
The software does not check the revocation status of a certificate after its initial revocation check, which can cause the software to perform privileged actions even after the certificate is revoked at a later time.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantNot Using Password Aging - (262)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 262 (Not Using Password Aging)
If no mechanism is in place for managing password aging, users will have no incentive to update passwords in a timely manner.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BasePassword Aging with Long Expiration - (263)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 263 (Password Aging with Long Expiration)
Allowing password aging to occur unchecked can result in the possibility of diminished password integrity.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Synchronization - (662)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization)
The software attempts to use a shared resource in an exclusive manner, but does not prevent or incorrectly prevents use of the resource by another thread or process.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Locking - (667)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking)
The software does not properly acquire a lock on a resource, or it does not properly release a lock on a resource, leading to unexpected resource state changes and behaviors.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDeadlock - (833)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 833 (Deadlock)
The software contains multiple threads or executable segments that are waiting for each other to release a necessary lock, resulting in deadlock.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDouble-Checked Locking - (609)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 609 (Double-Checked Locking)
The program uses double-checked locking to access a resource without the overhead of explicit synchronization, but the locking is insufficient.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Resource Locking - (413)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 413 (Improper Resource Locking)
The software does not lock or does not correctly lock a resource when the software must have exclusive access to the resource.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSensitive Data Storage in Improperly Locked Memory - (591)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 413 (Improper Resource Locking) > 591 (Sensitive Data Storage in Improperly Locked Memory)
The application stores sensitive data in memory that is not locked, or that has been incorrectly locked, which might cause the memory to be written to swap files on disk by the virtual memory manager. This can make the data more accessible to external actors.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Lock Check - (414)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 414 (Missing Lock Check)
A product does not check to see if a lock is present before performing sensitive operations on a resource.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMultiple Locks of a Critical Resource - (764)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 764 (Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource)
The software locks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMultiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource - (765)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 765 (Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource)
The software unlocks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnlock of a Resource that is not Locked - (832)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 832 (Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked)
The software attempts to unlock a resource that is not locked.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnrestricted Externally Accessible Lock - (412)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 412 (Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock)
The software properly checks for the existence of a lock, but the lock can be externally controlled or influenced by an actor that is outside of the intended sphere of control.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Synchronization - (821)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization)
The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but it does not correctly synchronize access to the resource.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCall to Thread run() instead of start() - (572)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization) > 572 (Call to Thread run() instead of start())
The program calls a thread's run() method instead of calling start(), which causes the code to run in the thread of the caller instead of the callee.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives - (574)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization) > 574 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using thread synchronization primitives.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Synchronization - (820)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization)
The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but does not attempt to synchronize access to the resource.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context - (567)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization) > 567 (Unsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context)
The product does not properly synchronize shared data, such as static variables across threads, which can lead to undefined behavior and unpredictable data changes.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context - (543)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization) > 543 (Use of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context)
The software uses the singleton pattern when creating a resource within a multithreaded environment.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context - (663)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context)
The software calls a non-reentrant function in a concurrent context in which a competing code sequence (e.g. thread or signal handler) may have an opportunity to call the same function or otherwise influence its state.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application - (558)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context) > 558 (Use of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application)
The application uses the getlogin() function in a multithreaded context, potentially causing it to return incorrect values.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSignal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function - (479)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context) > 479 (Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function)
The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Update of Reference Count - (911)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 911 (Improper Update of Reference Count)
The software uses a reference count to manage a resource, but it does not update or incorrectly updates the reference count.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres - (669)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres)
The product does not properly transfer a resource/behavior to another sphere, or improperly imports a resource/behavior from another sphere, in a manner that provides unintended control over that resource.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseClient-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security - (602)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 602 (Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security)
The software is composed of a server that relies on the client to implement a mechanism that is intended to protect the server.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Client-Side Authentication - (603)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 602 (Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security) > 603 (Use of Client-Side Authentication)
A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client that omits the authentication check.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking - (565)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 602 (Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking)
The application relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid for the associated user.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision - (784)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 602 (Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking) > 784 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision)
The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of a cookie, but it does not properly ensure that the cookie is valid for the associated user.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCreation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory - (243)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 243 (Creation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory)
The program uses the chroot() system call to create a jail, but does not change the working directory afterward. This does not prevent access to files outside of the jail.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDownload of Code Without Integrity Check - (494)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 494 (Download of Code Without Integrity Check)
The product downloads source code or an executable from a remote location and executes the code without sufficiently verifying the origin and integrity of the code.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere - (829)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere)
The software imports, requires, or includes executable functionality (such as a library) from a source that is outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion') - (98)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere) > 98 (Improper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion'))
The PHP application receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before its usage in "require," "include," or similar functions.Remote file includeRFILocal file inclusion
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInclusion of Web Functionality from an Untrusted Source - (830)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere) > 830 (Inclusion of Web Functionality from an Untrusted Source)
The software includes web functionality (such as a web widget) from another domain, which causes it to operate within the domain of the software, potentially granting total access and control of the software to the untrusted source.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Control of Document Type Definition - (827)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere) > 827 (Improper Control of Document Type Definition)
The software does not restrict a reference to a Document Type Definition (DTD) to the intended control sphere. This might allow attackers to reference arbitrary DTDs, possibly causing the software to expose files, consume excessive system resources, or execute arbitrary http requests on behalf of the attacker.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type - (434)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 434 (Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type)
The software allows the attacker to upload or transfer files of dangerous types that can be automatically processed within the product's environment.Unrestricted File Upload
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data - (212)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 212 (Improper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data)
The software uses a resource that contains sensitive data, but it does not properly remove that data before it stores, transfers, or shares the resource with actors in another control sphere.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Type Conversion or Cast - (704)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast)
The software does not correctly convert an object, resource or structure from one type to a different type.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAccess of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion') - (843)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 843 (Access of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion'))
The program allocates or initializes a resource such as a pointer, object, or variable using one type, but it later accesses that resource using a type that is incompatible with the original type.Object Type Confusion
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAttempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer - (588)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 588 (Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer)
Casting a non-structure type to a structure type and accessing a field can lead to memory access errors or data corruption.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Conversion between Numeric Types - (681)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types)
When converting from one data type to another, such as long to integer, data can be omitted or translated in a way that produces unexpected values. If the resulting values are used in a sensitive context, then dangerous behaviors may occur.
*CategoryCategoryInteger Coercion Error - (192)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 192 (Integer Coercion Error)
Integer coercion refers to a set of flaws pertaining to the type casting, extension, or truncation of primitive data types.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseNumeric Truncation Error - (197)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 197 (Numeric Truncation Error)
Truncation errors occur when a primitive is cast to a primitive of a smaller size and data is lost in the conversion.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSigned to Unsigned Conversion Error - (195)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 195 (Signed to Unsigned Conversion Error)
The software uses a signed primitive and performs a cast to an unsigned primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the signed primitive can not be represented using an unsigned primitive.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnexpected Sign Extension - (194)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 194 (Unexpected Sign Extension)
The software performs an operation on a number that causes it to be sign extended when it is transformed into a larger data type. When the original number is negative, this can produce unexpected values that lead to resultant weaknesses.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnsigned to Signed Conversion Error - (196)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 196 (Unsigned to Signed Conversion Error)
The software uses an unsigned primitive and performs a cast to a signed primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the unsigned primitive can not be represented using a signed primitive.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInformation Loss or Omission - (221)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission)
The software does not record, or improperly records, security-relevant information that leads to an incorrect decision or hampers later analysis.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseObscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name - (224)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 224 (Obscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name)
The software records security-relevant information according to an alternate name of the affected entity, instead of the canonical name.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOmission of Security-relevant Information - (223)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 223 (Omission of Security-relevant Information)
The application does not record or display information that would be important for identifying the source or nature of an attack, or determining if an action is safe.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficient Logging - (778)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 223 (Omission of Security-relevant Information) > 778 (Insufficient Logging)
When a security-critical event occurs, the software either does not record the event or omits important details about the event when logging it.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseProduct UI does not Warn User of Unsafe Actions - (356)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 356 (Product UI does not Warn User of Unsafe Actions)
The software's user interface does not warn the user before undertaking an unsafe action on behalf of that user. This makes it easier for attackers to trick users into inflicting damage to their system.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseTruncation of Security-relevant Information - (222)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 222 (Truncation of Security-relevant Information)
The application truncates the display, recording, or processing of security-relevant information in a way that can obscure the source or nature of an attack.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDeclaration of Catch for Generic Exception - (396)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 396 (Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception)
Catching overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDeclaration of Throws for Generic Exception - (397)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 397 (Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception)
Throwing overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUser Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information - (451)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 451 (User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information)
The user interface (UI) does not properly represent critical information to the user, allowing the information - or its source - to be obscured or spoofed. This is often a component in phishing attacks.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInsecure Storage of Sensitive Information - (922)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information)
The software stores sensitive information without properly limiting read or write access by unauthorized actors.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseStorage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control - (921)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 921 (Storage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control)
The software stores sensitive information in a file system or device that does not have built-in access control.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information - (312)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within a resource that might be accessible to another control sphere.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCleartext Storage in a File or on Disk - (313)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 313 (Cleartext Storage in a File or on Disk)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a file, or on disk.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCleartext Storage in the Registry - (314)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 314 (Cleartext Storage in the Registry)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in the registry.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable - (318)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 318 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in an executable.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI - (317)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 317 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within the GUI.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory - (316)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 316 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in memory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie - (315)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 315 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a cookie.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassInsufficient Encapsulation - (485)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation)
The product does not sufficiently encapsulate critical data or functionality.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAccess to Critical Private Variable via Public Method - (767)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 767 (Access to Critical Private Variable via Public Method)
The software defines a public method that reads or modifies a private variable.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCloneable Class Containing Sensitive Information - (498)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 498 (Cloneable Class Containing Sensitive Information)
The code contains a class with sensitive data, but the class is cloneable. The data can then be accessed by cloning the class.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantComparison of Classes by Name - (486)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 486 (Comparison of Classes by Name)
The program compares classes by name, which can cause it to use the wrong class when multiple classes can have the same name.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassContainment Errors (Container Errors) - (216)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors))
This tries to cover various problems in which improper data are included within a "container."
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSensitive Data Under Web Root - (219)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the web document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnparsed Raw Web Content Delivery - (433)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root) > 433 (Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery)
The software stores raw content or supporting code under the web document root with an extension that is not specifically handled by the server.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCritical Public Variable Without Final Modifier - (493)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier)
The product has a critical public variable that is not final, which allows the variable to be modified to contain unexpected values.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPublic Static Field Not Marked Final - (500)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier) > 500 (Public Static Field Not Marked Final)
An object contains a public static field that is not marked final, which might allow it to be modified in unexpected ways.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantCritical Variable Declared Public - (766)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 766 (Critical Variable Declared Public)
The software declares a critical variable or field to be public when intended security policy requires it to be private.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExposed Dangerous Method or Function - (749)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function)
The software provides an Applications Programming Interface (API) or similar interface for interaction with external actors, but the interface includes a dangerous method or function that is not properly restricted.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control - (782)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function) > 782 (Exposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control)
The software implements an IOCTL with functionality that should be restricted, but it does not properly enforce access control for the IOCTL.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExposed Unsafe ActiveX Method - (618)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function) > 618 (Exposed Unsafe ActiveX Method)
An ActiveX control is intended for use in a web browser, but it exposes dangerous methods that perform actions that are outside of the browser's security model (e.g. the zone or domain).
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantExposure of Data Element to Wrong Session - (488)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 488 (Exposure of Data Element to Wrong Session)
The product does not sufficiently enforce boundaries between the states of different sessions, causing data to be provided to, or used by, the wrong session.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Framework: Saving Unserializable Objects to Disk - (594)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 594 (J2EE Framework: Saving Unserializable Objects to Disk)
When the J2EE container attempts to write unserializable objects to disk there is no guarantee that the process will complete successfully.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseLeftover Debug Code - (489)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 489 (Leftover Debug Code)
The application can be deployed with active debugging code that can create unintended entry points.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPrivate Array-Typed Field Returned From A Public Method - (495)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 495 (Private Array-Typed Field Returned From A Public Method)
The product has a method that is declared public, but returns a reference to a private array, which could then be modified in unexpected ways.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPublic Data Assigned to Private Array-Typed Field - (496)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 496 (Public Data Assigned to Private Array-Typed Field)
Assigning public data to a private array is equivalent to giving public access to the array.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReliance on Package-level Scope - (487)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 487 (Reliance on Package-level Scope)
Java packages are not inherently closed; therefore, relying on them for code security is not a good practice.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSerializable Class Containing Sensitive Data - (499)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 499 (Serializable Class Containing Sensitive Data)
The code contains a class with sensitive data, but the class does not explicitly deny serialization. The data can be accessed by serializing the class through another class.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseTrust Boundary Violation - (501)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 501 (Trust Boundary Violation)
The product mixes trusted and untrusted data in the same data structure or structured message.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Dynamic Class Loading - (545)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 545 (Use of Dynamic Class Loading)
Dynamically loaded code has the potential to be malicious.
*Weakness VariantWeakness Variantclone() Method Without super.clone() - (580)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 485 (Insufficient Encapsulation) > 580 (clone() Method Without super.clone())
The software contains a clone() method that does not call super.clone() to obtain the new object.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficient Resource Pool - (410)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 410 (Insufficient Resource Pool)
The software's resource pool is not large enough to handle peak demand, which allows an attacker to prevent others from accessing the resource by using a (relatively) large number of requests for resources.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseModification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID) - (471)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID))
The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExternal Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter - (472)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 472 (External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter)
The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.Assumed-Immutable Parameter Tampering
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPHP External Variable Modification - (473)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 473 (PHP External Variable Modification)
A PHP application does not properly protect against the modification of variables from external sources, such as query parameters or cookies. This can expose the application to numerous weaknesses that would not exist otherwise.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPublic Static Final Field References Mutable Object - (607)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 607 (Public Static Final Field References Mutable Object)
A public or protected static final field references a mutable object, which allows the object to be changed by malicious code, or accidentally from another package.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReliance on IP Address for Authentication - (291)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 291 (Reliance on IP Address for Authentication)
The software uses an IP address for authentication.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOperation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime - (666)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime)
The software performs an operation on a resource at the wrong phase of the resource's lifecycle, which can lead to unexpected behaviors.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAuthentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created - (593)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 593 (Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created)
The software modifies the SSL context after connection creation has begun.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOperation on a Resource after Expiration or Release - (672)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release)
The software uses, accesses, or otherwise operates on a resource after that resource has been expired, released, or revoked.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficient Session Expiration - (613)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 613 (Insufficient Session Expiration)
According to WASC, "Insufficient Session Expiration is when a web site permits an attacker to reuse old session credentials or session IDs for authorization."
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseReturn of Stack Variable Address - (562)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 562 (Return of Stack Variable Address)
A function returns the address of a stack variable, which will cause unintended program behavior, typically in the form of a crash.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Expired File Descriptor - (910)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 910 (Use of Expired File Descriptor)
The software uses or accesses a file descriptor after it has been closed.Stale file descriptor
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of a Key Past its Expiration Date - (324)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 324 (Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date)
The product uses a cryptographic key or password past its expiration date, which diminishes its safety significantly by increasing the timing window for cracking attacks against that key.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExpired Pointer Dereference - (825)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference)
The program dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.Dangling pointer
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDouble Free - (415)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference) > 415 (Double Free)
The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.Double-free
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse After Free - (416)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference) > 416 (Use After Free)
Referencing memory after it has been freed can cause a program to crash, use unexpected values, or execute code.Dangling pointerUse-After-Free
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Validation of Certificate Expiration - (298)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 298 (Improper Validation of Certificate Expiration)
A certificate expiration is not validated or is incorrectly validated, so trust may be assigned to certificates that have been abandoned due to age.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BasePremature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime - (826)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 826 (Premature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime)
The program releases a resource that is still intended to be used by the program itself or another actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDouble Free - (415)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 415 (Double Free)
The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.Double-free
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMultiple Binds to the Same Port - (605)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 605 (Multiple Binds to the Same Port)
When multiple sockets are allowed to bind to the same port, other services on that port may be stolen or spoofed.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion') - (400)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion'))
The software does not properly restrict the size or amount of resources that are requested or influenced by an actor, which can be used to consume more resources than intended.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAllocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling - (770)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many resources can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAllocation of File Descriptors or Handles Without Limits or Throttling - (774)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling) > 774 (Allocation of File Descriptors or Handles Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates file descriptors or handles on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many descriptors can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUncontrolled Memory Allocation - (789)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling) > 789 (Uncontrolled Memory Allocation)
The product allocates memory based on an untrusted size value, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the size, allowing arbitrary amounts of memory to be allocated.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Restriction of Power Consumption - (920)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 920 (Improper Restriction of Power Consumption)
The software operates in an environment in which power is a limited resource that cannot be automatically replenished, but the software does not properly restrict the amount of power that its operation consumes.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseLogging of Excessive Data - (779)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 779 (Logging of Excessive Data)
The software logs too much information, making log files hard to process and possibly hindering recovery efforts or forensic analysis after an attack.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Reference to Active Allocated Resource - (771)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 771 (Missing Reference to Active Allocated Resource)
The software does not properly maintain a reference to a resource that has been allocated, which prevents the resource from being reclaimed.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMissing Reference to Active File Descriptor or Handle - (773)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 771 (Missing Reference to Active Allocated Resource) > 773 (Missing Reference to Active File Descriptor or Handle)
The software does not properly maintain references to a file descriptor or handle, which prevents that file descriptor/handle from being reclaimed.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseMissing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime - (772)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime)
The software does not release a resource after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the resource is no longer needed.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference ('Memory Leak') - (401)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime) > 401 (Improper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference ('Memory Leak'))
The software does not sufficiently track and release allocated memory after it has been used, which slowly consumes remaining memory.Memory Leak
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMissing Release of File Descriptor or Handle after Effective Lifetime - (775)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime) > 775 (Missing Release of File Descriptor or Handle after Effective Lifetime)
The software does not release a file descriptor or handle after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the file descriptor/handle is no longer needed.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassUse of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference - (706)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference)
The software uses a name or reference to access a resource, but the name/reference resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Control of Document Type Definition - (827)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 827 (Improper Control of Document Type Definition)
The software does not restrict a reference to a Document Type Definition (DTD) to the intended control sphere. This might allow attackers to reference arbitrary DTDs, possibly causing the software to expose files, consume excessive system resources, or execute arbitrary http requests on behalf of the attacker.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Case Sensitivity - (178)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 178 (Improper Handling of Case Sensitivity)
The software does not properly account for differences in case sensitivity when accessing or determining the properties of a resource, leading to inconsistent results.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources - (66)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles a file name that identifies a "virtual" resource that is not directly specified within the directory that is associated with the file name, causing the product to perform file-based operations on a resource that is not a file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantApple '.DS_Store' - (71)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 71 (Apple '.DS_Store')
Software operating in a MAC OS environment, where .DS_Store is in effect, must carefully manage hard links, otherwise an attacker may be able to leverage a hard link from .DS_Store to overwrite arbitrary files and gain privileges.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path - (72)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 72 (Improper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path)
The software does not properly handle special paths that may identify the data or resource fork of a file on the HFS+ file system.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream - (69)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 69 (Improper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream)
The software does not properly prevent access to, or detect usage of, alternate data streams (ADS).
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Windows Device Names - (67)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 67 (Improper Handling of Windows Device Names)
The software constructs pathnames from user input, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a pathname containing a Windows device name such as AUX or CON. This typically leads to denial of service or an information exposure when the application attempts to process the pathname as a regular file.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal') - (22)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal'))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that is intended to identify a file or directory that is located underneath a restricted parent directory, but the software does not properly neutralize special elements within the pathname that can cause the pathname to resolve to a location that is outside of the restricted directory.Directory traversalPath traversal
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAbsolute Path Traversal - (36)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize absolute path sequences such as "/abs/path" that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here' - (37)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 37 (Path Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a slash absolute path ('/absolute/pathname/here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: 'C:dirname' - (39)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 39 (Path Traversal: 'C:dirname')
An attacker can inject a drive letter or Windows volume letter ('C:dirname') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share) - (40)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 40 (Path Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share))
An attacker can inject a Windows UNC share ('\\UNC\share\name') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here' - (38)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 38 (Path Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a backslash absolute path ('\absolute\pathname\here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseRelative Path Traversal - (23)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize sequences such as ".." that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot) - (32)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 32 (Path Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '...' (triple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot) - (33)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 33 (Path Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....' (multiple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '....//' - (34)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 34 (Path Traversal: '....//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....//' (doubled dot dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '.../...//' - (35)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 35 (Path Traversal: '.../...//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '.../...//' (doubled triple dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '../filedir' - (24)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 24 (Path Traversal: '../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '..\filedir' - (28)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 28 (Path Traversal: '..\filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "..\" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '/../filedir' - (25)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 25 (Path Traversal: '/../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '/dir/../filename' - (26)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 26 (Path Traversal: '/dir/../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/dir/../filename" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\..\filename' - (29)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 29 (Path Traversal: '\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '\dir\..\filename' - (30)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 30 (Path Traversal: '\dir\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\dir\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: 'dir/../../filename' - (27)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 27 (Path Traversal: 'dir/../../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize multiple internal "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename' - (31)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 31 (Path Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize 'dir\..\..\filename' (multiple internal backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following') - (59)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following'))
The software attempts to access a file based on the filename, but it does not properly prevent that filename from identifying a link or shortcut that resolves to an unintended resource.insecure temporary file
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUNIX Hard Link - (62)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 62 (UNIX Hard Link)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.
+Compound Element: CompositeCompound Element: CompositeUNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following - (61)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the file is a symbolic link that resolves to a target outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.Symlink followingsymlink vulnerability
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassConcurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition') - (362)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition'))
The program contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a timing window exists in which the shared resource can be modified by another code sequence that is operating concurrently.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassContainment Errors (Container Errors) - (216)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors))
This tries to cover various problems in which improper data are included within a "container."
*CategoryCategoryPermission Issues - (275)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following) > 275 (Permission Issues)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper assignment or handling of permissions.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassPredictability Problems - (340)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following) > 340 (Predictability Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to schemes that generate numbers or identifiers that are more predictable than required by the application.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseSymbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object - (386)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following) > 386 (Symbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object)
A constant symbolic reference to an object is used, even though the reference can resolve to a different object over time.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantWindows Hard Link - (65)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 65 (Windows Hard Link)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantWindows Shortcut Following (.LNK) - (64)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 64 (Windows Shortcut Following (.LNK))
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the file is a Windows shortcut (.LNK) whose target is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.Windows symbolic link followingsymlink
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Resolution of Path Equivalence - (41)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence)
The system or application is vulnerable to file system contents disclosure through path equivalence. Path equivalence involves the use of special characters in file and directory names. The associated manipulations are intended to generate multiple names for the same object.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space) - (47)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 47 (Path Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of leading space (' filedir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory) - (55)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 55 (Path Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of single dot directory exploit ('/./') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash' - (50)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 50 (Path Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple leading slash ('//multiple/leading/slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash' - (51)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 51 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal slash ('/multiple//internal/slash/') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//' - (52)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 52 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing slash ('/multiple/trailing/slash//') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash' - (53)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 53 (Path Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal backslash ('\multiple\trailing\\slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename' - (57)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 57 (Path Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename')
The software contains protection mechanisms to restrict access to 'realdir/filename', but it constructs pathnames using external input in the form of 'fakedir/../realdir/filename' that are not handled by those mechanisms. This allows attackers to perform unauthorized actions against the targeted file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace) - (48)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 48 (Path Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of internal space ('file(SPACE)name') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot) - (44)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 44 (Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of internal dot ('file.ordir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot) - (45)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 44 (Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot)) > 45 (Path Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal dot ('file...dir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard) - (56)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 56 (Path Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of asterisk wildcard ('filedir*') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash) - (54)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 54 (Path Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing backslash ('filedir\') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space) - (46)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 46 (Path Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing space ('filedir ') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot) - (42)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 42 (Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing dot ('filedir.') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot) - (43)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 42 (Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot)) > 43 (Path Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing dot ('filedir....') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash) - (49)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 49 (Path Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing slash ('filedir/') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename - (58)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 58 (Path Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename)
The software contains a protection mechanism that restricts access to a long filename on a Windows operating system, but the software does not properly restrict access to the equivalent short "8.3" filename.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseSymbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object - (386)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 386 (Symbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object)
A constant symbolic reference to an object is used, even though the reference can resolve to a different object over time.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion') - (98)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 98 (Improper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion'))
The PHP application receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before its usage in "require," "include," or similar functions.Remote file includeRFILocal file inclusion
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Uninitialized Resource - (908)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 908 (Use of Uninitialized Resource)
The software uses a resource that has not been properly initialized.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Access Control - (284)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control)
The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts access to a resource from an unauthorized actor.Authorization
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Authentication - (287)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication)
When an actor claims to have a given identity, the software does not prove or insufficiently proves that the claim is correct.authentificationAuthC
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassAuthentication Bypass Issues - (592)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues)
The software does not properly perform authentication, allowing it to be bypassed through various methods.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAuthentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel - (288)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel)
A product requires authentication, but the product has an alternate path or channel that does not require authentication.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAuthentication Bypass by Alternate Name - (289)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 289 (Authentication Bypass by Alternate Name)
The software performs authentication based on the name of a resource being accessed, or the name of the actor performing the access, but it does not properly check all possible names for that resource or actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAuthentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data - (302)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 302 (Authentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data)
The authentication scheme or implementation uses key data elements that are assumed to be immutable, but can be controlled or modified by the attacker.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAuthentication Bypass by Capture-replay - (294)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 294 (Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay)
A capture-replay flaw exists when the design of the software makes it possible for a malicious user to sniff network traffic and bypass authentication by replaying it to the server in question to the same effect as the original message (or with minor changes).
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAuthentication Bypass by Primary Weakness - (305)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 305 (Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness)
The authentication algorithm is sound, but the implemented mechanism can be bypassed as the result of a separate weakness that is primary to the authentication error.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAuthentication Bypass by Spoofing - (290)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing)
This attack-focused weakness is caused by improperly implemented authentication schemes that are subject to spoofing attacks.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReliance on IP Address for Authentication - (291)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 291 (Reliance on IP Address for Authentication)
The software uses an IP address for authentication.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action - (350)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 350 (Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action)
The software performs reverse DNS resolution on an IP address to obtain the hostname and make a security decision, but it does not properly ensure that the IP address is truly associated with the hostname.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUsing Referer Field for Authentication - (293)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 293 (Using Referer Field for Authentication)
The referer field in HTTP requests can be easily modified and, as such, is not a valid means of message integrity checking.referrer
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAuthentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created - (593)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 592 (Authentication Bypass Issues) > 593 (Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created)
The software modifies the SSL context after connection creation has begun.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts - (307)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 307 (Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts)
The software does not implement sufficient measures to prevent multiple failed authentication attempts within in a short time frame, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm - (303)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 303 (Incorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm)
The requirements for the software dictate the use of an established authentication algorithm, but the implementation of the algorithm is incorrect.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInsufficiently Protected Credentials - (522)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials)
This weakness occurs when the application transmits or stores authentication credentials and uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File - (555)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 555 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File)
The J2EE application stores a plaintext password in a configuration file.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMissing Password Field Masking - (549)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 549 (Missing Password Field Masking)
The software does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPassword in Configuration File - (260)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File)
The software stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File - (13)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 13 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File)
Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource making them an easy target for attackers.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEmpty Password in Configuration File - (258)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 258 (Empty Password in Configuration File)
Using an empty string as a password is insecure.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPlaintext Storage of a Password - (256)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 256 (Plaintext Storage of a Password)
Storing a password in plaintext may result in a system compromise.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseStoring Passwords in a Recoverable Format - (257)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 257 (Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format)
The storage of passwords in a recoverable format makes them subject to password reuse attacks by malicious users. In fact, it should be noted that recoverable encrypted passwords provide no significant benefit over plaintext passwords since they are subject not only to reuse by malicious attackers but also by malicious insiders. If a system administrator can recover a password directly, or use a brute force search on the available information, the administrator can use the password on other accounts.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnprotected Transport of Credentials - (523)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 523 (Unprotected Transport of Credentials)
Login pages not using adequate measures to protect the user name and password while they are in transit from the client to the server.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantMissing Authentication for Critical Function - (306)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 306 (Missing Authentication for Critical Function)
The software does not perform any authentication for functionality that requires a provable user identity or consumes a significant amount of resources.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantNot Using Password Aging - (262)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 262 (Not Using Password Aging)
If no mechanism is in place for managing password aging, users will have no incentive to update passwords in a timely manner.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOverly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism - (645)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 645 (Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism)
The software contains an account lockout protection mechanism, but the mechanism is too restrictive and can be triggered too easily. This allows attackers to deny service to legitimate users by causing their accounts to be locked out.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BasePassword Aging with Long Expiration - (263)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 263 (Password Aging with Long Expiration)
Allowing password aging to occur unchecked can result in the possibility of diminished password integrity.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol - (301)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 301 (Reflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol)
Simple authentication protocols are subject to reflection attacks if a malicious user can use the target machine to impersonate a trusted user.
+Compound Element: CompositeCompound Element: CompositeSession Fixation - (384)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 384 (Session Fixation)
Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal authenticated sessions.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseExternal Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter - (472)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 384 (Session Fixation) > 472 (External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter)
The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.Assumed-Immutable Parameter Tampering
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOrigin Validation Error - (346)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 384 (Session Fixation) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassUnintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy') - (441)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 384 (Session Fixation) > 441 (Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy'))
The software receives a request, message, or directive from an upstream component, but the software does not sufficiently preserve the original source of the request before forwarding the request to an external actor that is outside of the software's control sphere. This causes the software to appear to be the source of the request, leading it to act as a proxy or other intermediary between the upstream component and the external actor.Confused Deputy
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnverified Password Change - (620)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 620 (Unverified Password Change)
When setting a new password for a user, the product does not require knowledge of the original password, or using another form of authentication.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Client-Side Authentication - (603)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 603 (Use of Client-Side Authentication)
A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client that omits the authentication check.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Hard-coded Credentials - (798)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials)
The software contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to external components, or encryption of internal data.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key - (321)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 321 (Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key)
The use of a hard-coded cryptographic key significantly increases the possibility that encrypted data may be recovered.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Hard-coded Password - (259)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 259 (Use of Hard-coded Password)
The software contains a hard-coded password, which it uses for its own inbound authentication or for outbound communication to external components.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication - (836)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 836 (Use of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication)
The software records password hashes in a data store, receives a hash of a password from a client, and compares the supplied hash to the hash obtained from the data store.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Password System for Primary Authentication - (309)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 309 (Use of Password System for Primary Authentication)
The use of password systems as the primary means of authentication may be subject to several flaws or shortcomings, each reducing the effectiveness of the mechanism.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUse of Single-factor Authentication - (308)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 308 (Use of Single-factor Authentication)
The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantWeak Cryptography for Passwords - (261)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 261 (Weak Cryptography for Passwords)
Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseWeak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password - (640)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 640 (Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password)
The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseWeak Password Requirements - (521)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 521 (Weak Password Requirements)
The product does not require that users should have strong passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to compromise user accounts.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantEmpty Password in Configuration File - (258)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 521 (Weak Password Requirements) > 258 (Empty Password in Configuration File)
Using an empty string as a password is insecure.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Authorization - (285)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization)
The software does not perform or incorrectly performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Export of Android Application Components - (926)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 926 (Improper Export of Android Application Components)
The Android application exports a component for use by other applications, but does not properly restrict which applications can launch the component or access the data it contains.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Authorization - (863)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization)
The software performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action, but it does not correctly perform the check. This allows attackers to bypass intended access restrictions.AuthZ
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization - (551)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 551 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization)
If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions - (647)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 647 (Use of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions)
The software defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the assumption that a URL is canonical. This can allow a non-canonical URL to bypass the authorization.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The software specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Preservation of Permissions - (281)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 281 (Improper Preservation of Permissions)
The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrictive permissions than intended.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantIncorrect Default Permissions - (276)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 276 (Incorrect Default Permissions)
The software, upon installation, sets incorrect permissions for an object that exposes it to an unintended actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantIncorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions - (279)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 279 (Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions)
While it is executing, the software sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInsecure Inherited Permissions - (277)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 277 (Insecure Inherited Permissions)
A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantInsecure Preserved Inherited Permissions - (278)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 278 (Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions)
A product inherits a set of insecure permissions for an object, e.g. when copying from an archive file, without user awareness or involvement.
+Compound Element: CompositeCompound Element: CompositePermission Race Condition During Resource Copy - (689)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 689 (Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy)
The product, while copying or cloning a resource, does not set the resource's permissions or access control until the copy is complete, leaving the resource exposed to other spheres while the copy is taking place.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassConcurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition') - (362)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 689 (Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition'))
The program contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a timing window exists in which the shared resource can be modified by another code sequence that is operating concurrently.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 689 (Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The software specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassMissing Authorization - (862)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization)
The software does not perform an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key - (639)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key)
The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.Insecure Direct Object ReferenceHorizontal Authorization
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key - (566)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key) > 566 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key)
The software uses a database table that includes records that should not be accessible to an actor, but it executes a SQL statement with a primary key that can be controlled by that actor.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme - (939)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 939 (Improper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme)
The software uses a handler for a custom URL scheme, but it does not properly restrict which actors can invoke the handler using the scheme.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassNot Using Complete Mediation - (638)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation)
The software does not perform access checks on a resource every time the resource is accessed by an entity, which can create resultant weaknesses if that entity's rights or privileges change over time.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Protection of Alternate Path - (424)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path)
The product does not sufficiently protect all possible paths that a user can take to access restricted functionality or resources.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantSensitive Data Under Web Root - (219)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the web document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnparsed Raw Web Content Delivery - (433)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root) > 433 (Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery)
The software stores raw content or supporting code under the web document root with an extension that is not specifically handled by the server.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUse of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication - (927)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 927 (Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication)
The Android application uses an implicit intent for transmitting sensitive data to other applications.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Ownership Management - (282)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management)
The software assigns the wrong ownership, or does not properly verify the ownership, of an object or resource.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Ownership Assignment - (708)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management) > 708 (Incorrect Ownership Assignment)
The software assigns an owner to a resource, but the owner is outside of the intended control sphere.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnverified Ownership - (283)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management) > 283 (Unverified Ownership)
The software does not properly verify that a critical resource is owned by the proper entity.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Privilege Management - (269)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management)
The software does not properly assign, modify, track, or check privileges for an actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Privilege Assignment - (266)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment)
A product incorrectly assigns a privilege to a particular actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*Weakness VariantWeakness Variant.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation - (520)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 520 (.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation)
Allowing a .NET application to run at potentially escalated levels of access to the underlying operating and file systems can be dangerous and result in various forms of attacks.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation - (556)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 556 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation)
Configuring an ASP.NET application to run with impersonated credentials may give the application unnecessary privileges.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods - (9)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 9 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods)
If elevated access rights are assigned to EJB methods, then an attacker can take advantage of the permissions to exploit the software system.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrect Use of Privileged APIs - (648)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 648 (Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs)
The application does not conform to the API requirements for a function call that requires extra privileges. This could allow attackers to gain privileges by causing the function to be called incorrectly.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BasePrivilege Chaining - (268)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 268 (Privilege Chaining)
Two distinct privileges, roles, capabilities, or rights can be combined in a way that allows an entity to perform unsafe actions that would not be allowed without that combination.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BasePrivilege Context Switching Error - (270)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 270 (Privilege Context Switching Error)
The software does not properly manage privileges while it is switching between different contexts that have different privileges or spheres of control.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BasePrivilege Defined With Unsafe Actions - (267)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 267 (Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions)
A particular privilege, role, capability, or right can be used to perform unsafe actions that were not intended, even when it is assigned to the correct entity.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting - (623)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 267 (Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions) > 623 (Unsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting)
An ActiveX control is intended for restricted use, but it has been marked as safe-for-scripting.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassPrivilege Dropping / Lowering Errors - (271)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors)
The software does not drop privileges before passing control of a resource to an actor that does not have those privileges.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Check for Dropped Privileges - (273)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors) > 273 (Improper Check for Dropped Privileges)
The software attempts to drop privileges but does not check or incorrectly checks to see if the drop succeeded.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseLeast Privilege Violation - (272)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors) > 272 (Least Privilege Violation)
The elevated privilege level required to perform operations such as chroot() should be dropped immediately after the operation is performed.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassExecution with Unnecessary Privileges - (250)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 250 (Execution with Unnecessary Privileges)
The software performs an operation at a privilege level that is higher than the minimum level required, which creates new weaknesses or amplifies the consequences of other weaknesses.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Insufficient Privileges - (274)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 274 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to perform an operation, leading to resultant weaknesses.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints - (923)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints)
The software establishes a communication channel to (or from) an endpoint for privileged or protected operations, but it does not properly ensure that it is communicating with the correct endpoint.
*Weakness ClassWeakness ClassChannel Accessible by Non-Endpoint ('Man-in-the-Middle') - (300)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 300 (Channel Accessible by Non-Endpoint ('Man-in-the-Middle'))
The product does not adequately verify the identity of actors at both ends of a communication channel, or does not adequately ensure the integrity of the channel, in a way that allows the channel to be accessed or influenced by an actor that is not an endpoint.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch - (297)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 297 (Improper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch)
The software communicates with a host that provides a certificate, but the software does not properly ensure that the certificate is actually associated with that host.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver - (925)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 925 (Improper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver)
The Android application uses a Broadcast Receiver that receives an Intent but does not properly verify that the Intent came from an authorized source.Intent Spoofing
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel - (940)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 940 (Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel)
The software establishes a communication channel to handle an incoming request that has been initiated by an actor, but it does not properly verify that the request is coming from the expected origin.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseIncorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel - (941)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 941 (Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel)
The software creates a communication channel to initiate an outgoing request to an actor, but it does not correctly specify the intended destination for that actor.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseKey Exchange without Entity Authentication - (322)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 322 (Key Exchange without Entity Authentication)
The software performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnprotected Alternate Channel - (420)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel)
The software protects a primary channel, but it does not use the same level of protection for an alternate channel.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseRace Condition During Access to Alternate Channel - (421)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel) > 421 (Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel)
The product opens an alternate channel to communicate with an authorized user, but the channel is accessible to other actors.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantUnprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter') - (422)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel) > 422 (Unprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter'))
The software does not properly verify the source of a message in the Windows Messaging System while running at elevated privileges, creating an alternate channel through which an attacker can directly send a message to the product.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseUnprotected Primary Channel - (419)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 419 (Unprotected Primary Channel)
The software uses a primary channel for administration or restricted functionality, but it does not properly protect the channel.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReliance on IP Address for Authentication - (291)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 291 (Reliance on IP Address for Authentication)
The software uses an IP address for authentication.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantReliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action - (350)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 350 (Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action)
The software performs reverse DNS resolution on an IP address to obtain the hostname and make a security decision, but it does not properly ensure that the IP address is truly associated with the hostname.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassIncorrect User Management - (286)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 286 (Incorrect User Management)
The software does not properly manage a user within its environment.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BasePlacement of User into Incorrect Group - (842)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 286 (Incorrect User Management) > 842 (Placement of User into Incorrect Group)
The software or the administrator places a user into an incorrect group.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantOverly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist - (942)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 942 (Overly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist)
The software uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseOrigin Validation Error - (346)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure - (707)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure)
The software does not enforce or incorrectly enforces that structured messages or data are well-formed before being read from an upstream component or sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseDeletion of Data Structure Sentinel - (463)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 463 (Deletion of Data Structure Sentinel)
The accidental deletion of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassEncoding Error - (172)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 172 (Encoding Error)
The software does not properly encode or decode the data, resulting in unexpected values.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantDouble Decoding of the Same Data - (174)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 174 (Double Decoding of the Same Data)
The software decodes the same input twice, which can limit the effectiveness of any protection mechanism that occurs in between the decoding operations.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Alternate Encoding - (173)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 173 (Improper Handling of Alternate Encoding)
The software does not properly handle when an input uses an alternate encoding that is valid for the control sphere to which the input is being sent.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Mixed Encoding - (175)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 175 (Improper Handling of Mixed Encoding)
The software does not properly handle when the same input uses several different (mixed) encodings.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of URL Encoding (Hex Encoding) - (177)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 177 (Improper Handling of URL Encoding (Hex Encoding))
The software does not properly handle when all or part of an input has been URL encoded.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Unicode Encoding - (176)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 172 (Encoding Error) > 176 (Improper Handling of Unicode Encoding)
The software does not properly handle when an input contains Unicode encoding.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Encoding or Escaping of Output - (116)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output)
The software prepares a structured message for communication with another component, but encoding or escaping of the data is either missing or done incorrectly. As a result, the intended structure of the message is not preserved.Output SanitizationOutput ValidationOutput Encoding
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of HTTP Headers for Scripting Syntax - (644)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 644 (Improper Neutralization of HTTP Headers for Scripting Syntax)
The application does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes web scripting syntax in HTTP headers that can be used by web browser components that can process raw headers, such as Flash.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Output Neutralization for Logs - (117)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 117 (Improper Output Neutralization for Logs)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes output that is written to logs.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseInappropriate Encoding for Output Context - (838)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output) > 838 (Inappropriate Encoding for Output Context)
The software uses or specifies an encoding when generating output to a downstream component, but the specified encoding is not the same as the encoding that is expected by the downstream component.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure - (228)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles input that is not syntactically well-formed with respect to the associated specification.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Parameters - (233)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those parameters are undefined.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Handle Missing Parameter - (234)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 234 (Failure to Handle Missing Parameter)
If too few arguments are sent to a function, the function will still pop the expected number of arguments from the stack. Potentially, a variable number of arguments could be exhausted in a function as well.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Extra Parameters - (235)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 235 (Improper Handling of Extra Parameters)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when the number of parameters, fields, or arguments with the same name exceeds the expected amount.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Undefined Parameters - (236)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters) > 236 (Improper Handling of Undefined Parameters)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular parameter, field, or argument name is not defined or supported by the product.
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Structural Elements - (237)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles inputs that are related to complex structures.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Handle Incomplete Element - (239)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 239 (Failure to Handle Incomplete Element)
The software does not properly handle when a particular element is not completely specified.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements - (238)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 238 (Improper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular structural element is not completely specified.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements - (240)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 240 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when two or more structural elements should be consistent, but are not.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency - (130)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements) > 240 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements) > 130 (Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency )
The software parses a formatted message or structure, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a length field that is inconsistent with the actual length of the associated data.length manipulationlength tampering
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Unexpected Data Type - (241)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 241 (Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular element is not the expected type, e.g. it expects a digit (0-9) but is provided with a letter (A-Z).
+Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Values - (229)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values)
The software does not properly handle when the expected number of values for parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those values are undefined.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Extra Values - (231)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 231 (Improper Handling of Extra Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when more values are provided than expected.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Missing Values - (230)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 230 (Improper Handling of Missing Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a parameter, field, or argument name is specified, but the associated value is missing, i.e. it is empty, blank, or null.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Handling of Undefined Values - (232)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values) > 232 (Improper Handling of Undefined Values)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a value is not defined or supported for the associated parameter, field, or argument name.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassImproper Neutralization of Special Elements - (138)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as control elements or syntactic markers when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseAddition of Data Structure Sentinel - (464)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 464 (Addition of Data Structure Sentinel)
The accidental addition of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantFailure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters - (157)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 157 (Failure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters)
The software does not properly handle the characters that are used to mark the beginning and ending of a group of entities, such as parentheses, brackets, and braces.
+Weakness ClassWeakness ClassFailure to Sanitize Special Element - (159)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element)
Weaknesses in this attack-focused category do not properly filter and interpret special elements in user-controlled input which could cause adverse effect on the software behavior and integrity.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Additional Special Element - (167)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 167 (Improper Handling of Additional Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is missing.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements - (168)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 168 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements)
The software does not handle when an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.
*Weakness BaseWeakness BaseImproper Handling of Missing Special Element - (166)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 166 (Improper Handling of Missing Special Element)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements - (164)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements - (165)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements) > 165 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash' - (53)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements) > 165 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements) > 53 (Path Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal backslash ('\multiple\trailing\\slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot) - (45)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements) > 165 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements) > 45 (Path Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal dot ('file...dir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements - (160)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements - (161)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements) > 161 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash' - (50)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements) > 161 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements) > 50 (Path Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple leading slash ('//multiple/leading/slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here' - (37)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements) > 37 (Path Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a slash absolute path ('/absolute/pathname/here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements - (162)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
+Weakness VariantWeakness VariantImproper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements - (163)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements) > 163 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//' - (52)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Improper Enforcement of Message or Data Structure) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements) > 159 (Failure to Sanitize Special Element) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements) > 163 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements) > 52 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing slash ('/multiple/trailing/slash//') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*Weakness VariantWeakness VariantPath Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot) - (43)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 707 (Im