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1000 - Research Concepts
+ClassClassIncorrect Calculation - (682)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation)
The software performs a calculation that generates incorrect or unintended results that are later used in security-critical decisions or resource management.
*BaseBaseWrap-around Error - (128)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 128 (Wrap-around Error)
Wrap around errors occur whenever a value is incremented past the maximum value for its type and therefore "wraps around" to a very small, negative, or undefined value.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Calculation of Buffer Size - (131)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 131 (Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size)
The software does not correctly calculate the size to be used when allocating a buffer, which could lead to a buffer overflow.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length - (135)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 135 (Incorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length)
The software does not correctly calculate the length of strings that can contain wide or multi-byte characters.
*BaseBaseInteger Overflow or Wraparound - (190)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 190 (Integer Overflow or Wraparound)
The software performs a calculation that can produce an integer overflow or wraparound, when the logic assumes that the resulting value will always be larger than the original value. This can introduce other weaknesses when the calculation is used for resource management or execution control.
*BaseBaseInteger Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound) - (191)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 191 (Integer Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound))
The product subtracts one value from another, such that the result is less than the minimum allowable integer value, which produces a value that is not equal to the correct result.Integer underflow
*BaseBaseOff-by-one Error - (193)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 193 (Off-by-one Error)
A product calculates or uses an incorrect maximum or minimum value that is 1 more, or 1 less, than the correct value.off-by-five
*BaseBaseDivide By Zero - (369)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 369 (Divide By Zero)
The product divides a value by zero.
*VariantVariantUse of sizeof() on a Pointer Type - (467)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 467 (Use of sizeof() on a Pointer Type)
The code calls sizeof() on a malloced pointer type, which always returns the wordsize/8. This can produce an unexpected result if the programmer intended to determine how much memory has been allocated.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Pointer Scaling - (468)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 468 (Incorrect Pointer Scaling)
In C and C++, one may often accidentally refer to the wrong memory due to the semantics of when math operations are implicitly scaled.
*BaseBaseUse of Pointer Subtraction to Determine Size - (469)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation) > 469 (Use of Pointer Subtraction to Determine Size)
The application subtracts one pointer from another in order to determine size, but this calculation can be incorrect if the pointers do not exist in the same memory chunk.
+ClassClassIncorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error') - (118)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error'))
The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts operations within the boundaries of a resource that is accessed using an index or pointer, such as memory or files.
+ClassClassImproper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer - (119)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer)
The software performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.Memory Corruption
+BaseBaseBuffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow') - (120)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow'))
The program copies an input buffer to an output buffer without verifying that the size of the input buffer is less than the size of the output buffer, leading to a buffer overflow.buffer overrunUnbounded Transfer
*VariantVariantUse of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer - (785)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow')) > 785 (Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer)
The software invokes a function for normalizing paths or file names, but it provides an output buffer that is smaller than the maximum possible size, such as PATH_MAX.
*BaseBaseWrite-what-where Condition - (123)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 123 (Write-what-where Condition)
Any condition where the attacker has the ability to write an arbitrary value to an arbitrary location, often as the result of a buffer overflow.
+BaseBaseOut-of-bounds Read - (125)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read)
The software reads data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*VariantVariantBuffer Over-read - (126)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
*VariantVariantBuffer Under-read - (127)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
*BaseBaseReturn of Pointer Value Outside of Expected Range - (466)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 466 (Return of Pointer Value Outside of Expected Range)
A function can return a pointer to memory that is outside of the buffer that the pointer is expected to reference.
*ChainChainInteger Overflow to Buffer Overflow - (680)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 680 (Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow)
The product performs a calculation to determine how much memory to allocate, but an integer overflow can occur that causes less memory to be allocated than expected, leading to a buffer overflow.
+BaseBaseAccess of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer - (786)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.
*BaseBaseBuffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.buffer underrun
*VariantVariantBuffer Under-read - (127)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
+BaseBaseOut-of-bounds Write - (787)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write)
The software writes data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*VariantVariantStack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
*VariantVariantHeap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*BaseBaseBuffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.buffer underrun
+BaseBaseAccess of Memory Location After End of Buffer - (788)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer)
The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location after the end of the buffer.
*VariantVariantStack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
*VariantVariantHeap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*VariantVariantBuffer Over-read - (126)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
+BaseBaseBuffer Access with Incorrect Length Value - (805)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value)
The software uses a sequential operation to read or write a buffer, but it uses an incorrect length value that causes it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
*VariantVariantBuffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer - (806)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value) > 806 (Buffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer)
The software uses the size of a source buffer when reading from or writing to a destination buffer, which may cause it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
*BaseBaseUntrusted Pointer Dereference - (822)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 822 (Untrusted Pointer Dereference)
The program obtains a value from an untrusted source, converts this value to a pointer, and dereferences the resulting pointer.
*BaseBaseUse of Out-of-range Pointer Offset - (823)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 823 (Use of Out-of-range Pointer Offset)
The program performs pointer arithmetic on a valid pointer, but it uses an offset that can point outside of the intended range of valid memory locations for the resulting pointer.Untrusted pointer offset
*BaseBaseAccess of Uninitialized Pointer - (824)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 824 (Access of Uninitialized Pointer)
The program accesses or uses a pointer that has not been initialized.
+BaseBaseExpired Pointer Dereference - (825)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference)
The program dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.Dangling pointer
*VariantVariantDouble Free - (415)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference) > 415 (Double Free)
The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.Double-free
*BaseBaseUse After Free - (416)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 118 (Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference) > 416 (Use After Free)
Referencing memory after it has been freed can cause a program to crash, use unexpected values, or execute code.Dangling pointerUse-After-Free
+ClassClassUse of Insufficiently Random Values - (330)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values)
The software may use insufficiently random numbers or values in a security context that depends on unpredictable numbers.
*VariantVariantNot Using a Random IV with CBC Mode - (329)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 329 (Not Using a Random IV with CBC Mode)
Not using a random initialization Vector (IV) with Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode causes algorithms to be susceptible to dictionary attacks.
+BaseBaseInsufficient Entropy - (331)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 331 (Insufficient Entropy)
The software uses an algorithm or scheme that produces insufficient entropy, leaving patterns or clusters of values that are more likely to occur than others.
*VariantVariantInsufficient Entropy in PRNG - (332)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 331 (Insufficient Entropy) > 332 (Insufficient Entropy in PRNG)
The lack of entropy available for, or used by, a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) can be a stability and security threat.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Insufficient Entropy in TRNG - (333)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 331 (Insufficient Entropy) > 333 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Entropy in TRNG)
True random number generators (TRNG) generally have a limited source of entropy and therefore can fail or block.
+BaseBaseSmall Space of Random Values - (334)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 334 (Small Space of Random Values)
The number of possible random values is smaller than needed by the product, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Insufficient Session-ID Length - (6)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 334 (Small Space of Random Values) > 6 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Insufficient Session-ID Length)
The J2EE application is configured to use an insufficient session ID length.
+BaseBaseIncorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (335)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
The software uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) that does not correctly manage seeds.
*BaseBaseSame Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (336)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)) > 336 (Same Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) uses the same seed each time the product is initialized.
*BaseBasePredictable Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (337)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)) > 337 (Predictable Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) is initialized from a predictable seed, such as the process ID or system time.
*BaseBaseSmall Seed Space in PRNG - (339)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 335 (Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)) > 339 (Small Seed Space in PRNG)
A PRNG uses a relatively small space of seeds.
*BaseBaseUse of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) - (338)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 338 (Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG))
The product uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) in a security context, but the PRNG's algorithm is not cryptographically strong.
*ClassClassPredictability Problems - (340)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 340 (Predictability Problems)
Weaknesses in this category are related to schemes that generate numbers or identifiers that are more predictable than required by the application.
*BaseBasePredictable from Observable State - (341)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 341 (Predictable from Observable State)
A number or object is predictable based on observations that the attacker can make about the state of the system or network, such as time, process ID, etc.
*BaseBasePredictable Exact Value from Previous Values - (342)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 342 (Predictable Exact Value from Previous Values)
An exact value or random number can be precisely predicted by observing previous values.
*BaseBasePredictable Value Range from Previous Values - (343)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 343 (Predictable Value Range from Previous Values)
The software's random number generator produces a series of values which, when observed, can be used to infer a relatively small range of possibilities for the next value that could be generated.
+BaseBaseUse of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context - (344)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 344 (Use of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context)
The product uses a constant value, name, or reference, but this value can (or should) vary across different environments.
*BaseBaseReusing a Nonce, Key Pair in Encryption - (323)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 344 (Use of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context) > 323 (Reusing a Nonce, Key Pair in Encryption)
Nonces should be used for the present occasion and only once.
*BaseBaseAssignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer - (587)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 344 (Use of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context) > 587 (Assignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer)
The software sets a pointer to a specific address other than NULL or 0.
+BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Credentials - (798)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 344 (Use of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials)
The software contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to external components, or encryption of internal data.
*BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Password - (259)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 344 (Use of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 259 (Use of Hard-coded Password)
The software contains a hard-coded password, which it uses for its own inbound authentication or for outbound communication to external components.
*BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key - (321)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 344 (Use of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 321 (Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key)
The use of a hard-coded cryptographic key significantly increases the possibility that encrypted data may be recovered.
*BaseBaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 330 (Use of Insufficiently Random Values) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
+ClassClassImproper Interaction Between Multiple Entities - (435)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities)
An interaction error occurs when two entities work correctly when running independently, but they interact in unexpected ways when they are run together.
+BaseBaseReliance on Data/Memory Layout - (188)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 188 (Reliance on Data/Memory Layout)
The software makes invalid assumptions about how protocol data or memory is organized at a lower level, resulting in unintended program behavior.
*BaseBaseUse of Incorrect Byte Ordering - (198)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 188 (Reliance on Data/Memory Layout) > 198 (Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering)
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not account for byte ordering (e.g. big-endian and little-endian) when processing the input, causing an incorrect number or value to be used.
+BaseBaseInterpretation Conflict - (436)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 436 (Interpretation Conflict)
Product A handles inputs or steps differently than Product B, which causes A to perform incorrect actions based on its perception of B's state.
*BaseBaseMisinterpretation of Input - (115)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 436 (Interpretation Conflict) > 115 (Misinterpretation of Input)
The software misinterprets an input, whether from an attacker or another product, in a security-relevant fashion.
*BaseBaseIncomplete Model of Endpoint Features - (437)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 436 (Interpretation Conflict) > 437 (Incomplete Model of Endpoint Features)
A product acts as an intermediary or monitor between two or more endpoints, but it does not have a complete model of an endpoint's features, behaviors, or state, potentially causing the product to perform incorrect actions based on this incomplete model.
*BaseBaseInconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request Smuggling') - (444)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 436 (Interpretation Conflict) > 444 (Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request Smuggling'))
When malformed or abnormal HTTP requests are interpreted by one or more entities in the data flow between the user and the web server, such as a proxy or firewall, they can be interpreted inconsistently, allowing the attacker to "smuggle" a request to one device without the other device being aware of it.
*VariantVariantNull Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte) - (626)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 436 (Interpretation Conflict) > 626 (Null Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte))
The product does not properly handle null bytes or NUL characters when passing data between different representations or components.
*VariantVariantTrusting HTTP Permission Methods on the Server Side - (650)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 436 (Interpretation Conflict) > 650 (Trusting HTTP Permission Methods on the Server Side)
The server contains a protection mechanism that assumes that any URI that is accessed using HTTP GET will not cause a state change to the associated resource. This might allow attackers to bypass intended access restrictions and conduct resource modification and deletion attacks, since some applications allow GET to modify state.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages - (86)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 436 (Interpretation Conflict) > 86 (Improper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages)
The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes invalid characters or byte sequences in the middle of tag names, URI schemes, and other identifiers.
*BaseBaseBehavioral Change in New Version or Environment - (439)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 439 (Behavioral Change in New Version or Environment)
A's behavior or functionality changes with a new version of A, or a new environment, which is not known (or manageable) by B.Functional change
+BaseBaseCompiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code - (733)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 733 (Compiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code)
The developer builds a security-critical protection mechanism into the software but the compiler optimizes the program such that the mechanism is removed or modified.
*BaseBaseCompiler Removal of Code to Clear Buffers - (14)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Entities) > 733 (Compiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code) > 14 (Compiler Removal of Code to Clear Buffers)
Sensitive memory is cleared according to the source code, but compiler optimizations leave the memory untouched when it is not read from again, aka "dead store removal."
+ClassClassImproper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime - (664)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime)
The software does not maintain or incorrectly maintains control over a resource throughout its lifetime of creation, use, and release.
+ClassClassContainment Errors (Container Errors) - (216)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors))
This tries to cover various problems in which improper data are included within a "container."
+VariantVariantSensitive Data Under Web Root - (219)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the web document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*VariantVariantUnparsed Raw Web Content Delivery - (433)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root) > 433 (Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery)
The software stores raw content or supporting code under the web document root with an extension that is not specifically handled by the server.
+VariantVariantCritical Public Variable Without Final Modifier - (493)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier)
The product has a critical public variable that is not final, which allows the variable to be modified to contain unexpected values.
*VariantVariantPublic Static Field Not Marked Final - (500)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 216 (Containment Errors (Container Errors)) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier) > 500 (Public Static Field Not Marked Final)
An object contains a public static field that is not marked final, which might allow it to be modified in unexpected ways.
+ClassClassInformation Loss or Omission - (221)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission)
The software does not record, or improperly records, security-relevant information that leads to an incorrect decision or hampers later analysis.
*BaseBaseTruncation of Security-relevant Information - (222)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 222 (Truncation of Security-relevant Information)
The application truncates the display, recording, or processing of security-relevant information in a way that can obscure the source or nature of an attack.
+BaseBaseOmission of Security-relevant Information - (223)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 223 (Omission of Security-relevant Information)
The application does not record or display information that would be important for identifying the source or nature of an attack, or determining if an action is safe.
*BaseBaseInsufficient Logging - (778)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 223 (Omission of Security-relevant Information) > 778 (Insufficient Logging)
When a security-critical event occurs, the software either does not record the event or omits important details about the event when logging it.
*BaseBaseObscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name - (224)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 224 (Obscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name)
The software records security-relevant information according to an alternate name of the affected entity, instead of the canonical name.
*BaseBaseProduct UI does not Warn User of Unsafe Actions - (356)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 356 (Product UI does not Warn User of Unsafe Actions)
The software's user interface does not warn the user before undertaking an unsafe action on behalf of that user. This makes it easier for attackers to trick users into inflicting damage to their system.
*BaseBaseDeclaration of Catch for Generic Exception - (396)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 396 (Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception)
Catching overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*BaseBaseDeclaration of Throws for Generic Exception - (397)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 397 (Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception)
Throwing overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
+ClassClassUser Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information - (451)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 451 (User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information)
The user interface (UI) does not properly represent critical information to the user, allowing the information - or its source - to be obscured or spoofed. This is often a component in phishing attacks.
*BaseBaseInsufficient Visual Distinction of Homoglyphs Presented to User - (1007)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 451 (User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information) > 1007 (Insufficient Visual Distinction of Homoglyphs Presented to User)
The software displays information or identifiers to a user, but the display mechanism does not make it easy for the user to distinguish between visually similar or identical glyphs (homoglyphs), which may cause the user to misinterpret a glyph and perform an unintended, insecure action.Homograph Attack
*BaseBaseImproper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames - (1021)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 221 (Information Loss or Omission) > 451 (User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information) > 1021 (Improper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames)
The web application does not restrict or incorrectly restricts frame objects or UI layers that belong to another application or domain, which can lead to user confusion about which interface the user is interacting with.ClickjackingUI Redress AttackTapjacking
+ClassClassImproper Access Control - (284)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control)
The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts access to a resource from an unauthorized actor.Authorization
+ClassClassImproper Privilege Management - (269)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management)
The software does not properly assign, modify, track, or check privileges for an actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*ClassClassExecution with Unnecessary Privileges - (250)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 250 (Execution with Unnecessary Privileges)
The software performs an operation at a privilege level that is higher than the minimum level required, which creates new weaknesses or amplifies the consequences of other weaknesses.
+BaseBaseIncorrect Privilege Assignment - (266)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment)
A product incorrectly assigns a privilege to a particular actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*VariantVariantImproper Restriction of Cross-Origin Permission to window.opener.location - (1022)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 1022 (Improper Restriction of Cross-Origin Permission to window.opener.location)
The web application does not restrict or incorrectly restricts modification of its window opener object's location property by an external application from a different origin.
*VariantVariant.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation - (520)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 520 (.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation)
Allowing a .NET application to run at potentially escalated levels of access to the underlying operating and file systems can be dangerous and result in various forms of attacks.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation - (556)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 556 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation)
Configuring an ASP.NET application to run with impersonated credentials may give the application unnecessary privileges.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods - (9)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 9 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods)
If elevated access rights are assigned to EJB methods, then an attacker can take advantage of the permissions to exploit the software system.
+BaseBasePrivilege Defined With Unsafe Actions - (267)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 267 (Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions)
A particular privilege, role, capability, or right can be used to perform unsafe actions that were not intended, even when it is assigned to the correct entity.
*VariantVariantUnsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting - (623)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 267 (Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions) > 623 (Unsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting)
An ActiveX control is intended for restricted use, but it has been marked as safe-for-scripting.
*BaseBasePrivilege Chaining - (268)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 268 (Privilege Chaining)
Two distinct privileges, roles, capabilities, or rights can be combined in a way that allows an entity to perform unsafe actions that would not be allowed without that combination.
*BaseBasePrivilege Context Switching Error - (270)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 270 (Privilege Context Switching Error)
The software does not properly manage privileges while it is switching between different contexts that have different privileges or spheres of control.
+ClassClassPrivilege Dropping / Lowering Errors - (271)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors)
The software does not drop privileges before passing control of a resource to an actor that does not have those privileges.
*BaseBaseLeast Privilege Violation - (272)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors) > 272 (Least Privilege Violation)
The elevated privilege level required to perform operations such as chroot() should be dropped immediately after the operation is performed.
*BaseBaseImproper Check for Dropped Privileges - (273)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors) > 273 (Improper Check for Dropped Privileges)
The software attempts to drop privileges but does not check or incorrectly checks to see if the drop succeeded.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Insufficient Privileges - (274)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 274 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to perform an operation, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Use of Privileged APIs - (648)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 648 (Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs)
The application does not conform to the API requirements for a function call that requires extra privileges. This could allow attackers to gain privileges by causing the function to be called incorrectly.
+ClassClassImproper Ownership Management - (282)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management)
The software assigns the wrong ownership, or does not properly verify the ownership, of an object or resource.
*BaseBaseUnverified Ownership - (283)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management) > 283 (Unverified Ownership)
The software does not properly verify that a critical resource is owned by the proper entity.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Ownership Assignment - (708)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management) > 708 (Incorrect Ownership Assignment)
The software assigns an owner to a resource, but the owner is outside of the intended control sphere.
+ClassClassImproper Authorization - (285)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization)
The software does not perform or incorrectly performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
+VariantVariantSensitive Data Under Web Root - (219)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the web document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*VariantVariantUnparsed Raw Web Content Delivery - (433)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root) > 433 (Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery)
The software stores raw content or supporting code under the web document root with an extension that is not specifically handled by the server.
+ClassClassIncorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The software specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
*VariantVariantSensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag - (1004)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 1004 (Sensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag)
The software uses a cookie to store sensitive information, but the cookie is not marked with the HttpOnly flag.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Default Permissions - (276)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 276 (Incorrect Default Permissions)
The software, upon installation, sets incorrect permissions for an object that exposes it to an unintended actor.
*VariantVariantInsecure Inherited Permissions - (277)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 277 (Insecure Inherited Permissions)
A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.
*VariantVariantInsecure Preserved Inherited Permissions - (278)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 278 (Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions)
A product inherits a set of insecure permissions for an object, e.g. when copying from an archive file, without user awareness or involvement.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions - (279)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 279 (Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions)
While it is executing, the software sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.
*BaseBaseImproper Preservation of Permissions - (281)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 281 (Improper Preservation of Permissions)
The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrictive permissions than intended.
*CompositeCompositePermission Race Condition During Resource Copy - (689)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 689 (Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy)
The product, while copying or cloning a resource, does not set the resource's permissions or access control until the copy is complete, leaving the resource exposed to other spheres while the copy is taking place.
+ClassClassMissing Authorization - (862)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization)
The software does not perform an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
*BaseBaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
+ClassClassNot Using Complete Mediation - (638)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation)
The software does not perform access checks on a resource every time the resource is accessed by an entity, which can create resultant weaknesses if that entity's rights or privileges change over time.
+ClassClassImproper Protection of Alternate Path - (424)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path)
The product does not sufficiently protect all possible paths that a user can take to access restricted functionality or resources.
*BaseBaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
+BaseBaseAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key - (639)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key)
The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.Insecure Direct Object ReferenceHorizontal Authorization
*VariantVariantAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key - (566)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key) > 566 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key)
The software uses a database table that includes records that should not be accessible to an actor, but it executes a SQL statement with a primary key that can be controlled by that actor.
*BaseBaseImproper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme - (939)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 939 (Improper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme)
The software uses a handler for a custom URL scheme, but it does not properly restrict which actors can invoke the handler using the scheme.
+ClassClassIncorrect Authorization - (863)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization)
The software performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action, but it does not correctly perform the check. This allows attackers to bypass intended access restrictions.AuthZ
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization - (551)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 551 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization)
If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.
*VariantVariantUse of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions - (647)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 647 (Use of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions)
The software defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the assumption that a URL is canonical. This can allow a non-canonical URL to bypass the authorization.
*BaseBaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
*VariantVariantImproper Export of Android Application Components - (926)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 926 (Improper Export of Android Application Components)
The Android application exports a component for use by other applications, but does not properly restrict which applications can launch the component or access the data it contains.
*VariantVariantUse of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication - (927)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 927 (Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication)
The Android application uses an implicit intent for transmitting sensitive data to other applications.
+ClassClassIncorrect User Management - (286)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 286 (Incorrect User Management)
The software does not properly manage a user within its environment.
*BaseBasePlacement of User into Incorrect Group - (842)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 286 (Incorrect User Management) > 842 (Placement of User into Incorrect Group)
The software or the administrator places a user into an incorrect group.
+ClassClassImproper Authentication - (287)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication)
When an actor claims to have a given identity, the software does not prove or insufficiently proves that the claim is correct.authentificationAuthC
*VariantVariantWeak Cryptography for Passwords - (261)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 261 (Weak Cryptography for Passwords)
Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.
*VariantVariantNot Using Password Aging - (262)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 262 (Not Using Password Aging)
If no mechanism is in place for managing password aging, users will have no incentive to update passwords in a timely manner.
*BaseBasePassword Aging with Long Expiration - (263)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 263 (Password Aging with Long Expiration)
Allowing password aging to occur unchecked can result in the possibility of diminished password integrity.
+BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel - (288)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel)
A product requires authentication, but the product has an alternate path or channel that does not require authentication.
*BaseBaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*VariantVariantAuthentication Bypass by Alternate Name - (289)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 289 (Authentication Bypass by Alternate Name)
The software performs authentication based on the name of a resource being accessed, or the name of the actor performing the access, but it does not properly check all possible names for that resource or actor.
+BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass by Spoofing - (290)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing)
This attack-focused weakness is caused by improperly implemented authentication schemes that are subject to spoofing attacks.
*VariantVariantReliance on IP Address for Authentication - (291)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 291 (Reliance on IP Address for Authentication)
The software uses an IP address for authentication.
*VariantVariantUsing Referer Field for Authentication - (293)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 293 (Using Referer Field for Authentication)
The referer field in HTTP requests can be easily modified and, as such, is not a valid means of message integrity checking.referrer
*VariantVariantReliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action - (350)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 350 (Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action)
The software performs reverse DNS resolution on an IP address to obtain the hostname and make a security decision, but it does not properly ensure that the IP address is truly associated with the hostname.
*BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass by Capture-replay - (294)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 294 (Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay)
A capture-replay flaw exists when the design of the software makes it possible for a malicious user to sniff network traffic and bypass authentication by replaying it to the server in question to the same effect as the original message (or with minor changes).
*VariantVariantReflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol - (301)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 301 (Reflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol)
Simple authentication protocols are subject to reflection attacks if a malicious user can use the target machine to impersonate a trusted user.
*VariantVariantAuthentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data - (302)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 302 (Authentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data)
The authentication scheme or implementation uses key data elements that are assumed to be immutable, but can be controlled or modified by the attacker.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm - (303)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 303 (Incorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm)
The requirements for the software dictate the use of an established authentication algorithm, but the implementation of the algorithm is incorrect.
*BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass by Primary Weakness - (305)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 305 (Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness)
The authentication algorithm is sound, but the implemented mechanism can be bypassed as the result of a separate weakness that is primary to the authentication error.
*VariantVariantMissing Authentication for Critical Function - (306)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 306 (Missing Authentication for Critical Function)
The software does not perform any authentication for functionality that requires a provable user identity or consumes a significant amount of resources.
*BaseBaseImproper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts - (307)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 307 (Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts)
The software does not implement sufficient measures to prevent multiple failed authentication attempts within in a short time frame, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*BaseBaseUse of Single-factor Authentication - (308)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 308 (Use of Single-factor Authentication)
The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.
*BaseBaseUse of Password System for Primary Authentication - (309)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 309 (Use of Password System for Primary Authentication)
The use of password systems as the primary means of authentication may be subject to several flaws or shortcomings, each reducing the effectiveness of the mechanism.
*CompositeCompositeSession Fixation - (384)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 384 (Session Fixation)
Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal authenticated sessions.
+BaseBaseWeak Password Requirements - (521)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 521 (Weak Password Requirements)
The product does not require that users should have strong passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to compromise user accounts.
*VariantVariantEmpty Password in Configuration File - (258)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 521 (Weak Password Requirements) > 258 (Empty Password in Configuration File)
Using an empty string as a password is insecure.
+BaseBaseInsufficiently Protected Credentials - (522)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials)
This weakness occurs when the application transmits or stores authentication credentials and uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.
*VariantVariantPlaintext Storage of a Password - (256)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 256 (Plaintext Storage of a Password)
Storing a password in plaintext may result in a system compromise.
*BaseBaseStoring Passwords in a Recoverable Format - (257)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 257 (Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format)
The storage of passwords in a recoverable format makes them subject to password reuse attacks by malicious users. In fact, it should be noted that recoverable encrypted passwords provide no significant benefit over plaintext passwords since they are subject not only to reuse by malicious attackers but also by malicious insiders. If a system administrator can recover a password directly, or use a brute force search on the available information, the administrator can use the password on other accounts.
+VariantVariantPassword in Configuration File - (260)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File)
The software stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File - (13)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 13 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File)
Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource making them an easy target for attackers.
*VariantVariantEmpty Password in Configuration File - (258)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 258 (Empty Password in Configuration File)
Using an empty string as a password is insecure.
*VariantVariantUnprotected Transport of Credentials - (523)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 523 (Unprotected Transport of Credentials)
Login pages not using adequate measures to protect the user name and password while they are in transit from the client to the server.
*VariantVariantMissing Password Field Masking - (549)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 549 (Missing Password Field Masking)
The software does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File - (555)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 555 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File)
The J2EE application stores a plaintext password in a configuration file.
*VariantVariantAuthentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created - (593)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 593 (Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created)
The software modifies the SSL context after connection creation has begun.
*BaseBaseUse of Client-Side Authentication - (603)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 603 (Use of Client-Side Authentication)
A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client that omits the authentication check.
*VariantVariantUnverified Password Change - (620)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 620 (Unverified Password Change)
When setting a new password for a user, the product does not require knowledge of the original password, or using another form of authentication.
*BaseBaseWeak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password - (640)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 640 (Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password)
The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.
*BaseBaseOverly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism - (645)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 645 (Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism)
The software contains an account lockout protection mechanism, but the mechanism is too restrictive and can be triggered too easily, which allows attackers to deny service to legitimate users by causing their accounts to be locked out.
+BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Credentials - (798)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials)
The software contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to external components, or encryption of internal data.
*BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Password - (259)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 259 (Use of Hard-coded Password)
The software contains a hard-coded password, which it uses for its own inbound authentication or for outbound communication to external components.
*BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key - (321)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 321 (Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key)
The use of a hard-coded cryptographic key significantly increases the possibility that encrypted data may be recovered.
*BaseBaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
*BaseBaseUse of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication - (836)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 836 (Use of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication)
The software records password hashes in a data store, receives a hash of a password from a client, and compares the supplied hash to the hash obtained from the data store.
*BaseBaseOrigin Validation Error - (346)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
+ClassClassImproper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints - (923)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints)
The software establishes a communication channel to (or from) an endpoint for privileged or protected operations, but it does not properly ensure that it is communicating with the correct endpoint.
*VariantVariantReliance on IP Address for Authentication - (291)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 291 (Reliance on IP Address for Authentication)
The software uses an IP address for authentication.
*VariantVariantImproper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch - (297)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 297 (Improper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch)
The software communicates with a host that provides a certificate, but the software does not properly ensure that the certificate is actually associated with that host.
*ClassClassChannel Accessible by Non-Endpoint ('Man-in-the-Middle') - (300)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 300 (Channel Accessible by Non-Endpoint ('Man-in-the-Middle'))
The product does not adequately verify the identity of actors at both ends of a communication channel, or does not adequately ensure the integrity of the channel, in a way that allows the channel to be accessed or influenced by an actor that is not an endpoint.
*BaseBaseKey Exchange without Entity Authentication - (322)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 322 (Key Exchange without Entity Authentication)
The software performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.
*VariantVariantReliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action - (350)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 350 (Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action)
The software performs reverse DNS resolution on an IP address to obtain the hostname and make a security decision, but it does not properly ensure that the IP address is truly associated with the hostname.
*BaseBaseUnprotected Primary Channel - (419)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 419 (Unprotected Primary Channel)
The software uses a primary channel for administration or restricted functionality, but it does not properly protect the channel.
+BaseBaseUnprotected Alternate Channel - (420)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel)
The software protects a primary channel, but it does not use the same level of protection for an alternate channel.
*BaseBaseRace Condition During Access to Alternate Channel - (421)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel) > 421 (Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel)
The product opens an alternate channel to communicate with an authorized user, but the channel is accessible to other actors.
*VariantVariantUnprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter') - (422)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel) > 422 (Unprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter'))
The software does not properly verify the source of a message in the Windows Messaging System while running at elevated privileges, creating an alternate channel through which an attacker can directly send a message to the product.
*VariantVariantImproper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver - (925)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 925 (Improper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver)
The Android application uses a Broadcast Receiver that receives an Intent but does not properly verify that the Intent came from an authorized source.Intent Spoofing
*BaseBaseImproper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel - (940)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 940 (Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel)
The software establishes a communication channel to handle an incoming request that has been initiated by an actor, but it does not properly verify that the request is coming from the expected origin.
*BaseBaseIncorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel - (941)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 941 (Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel)
The software creates a communication channel to initiate an outgoing request to an actor, but it does not correctly specify the intended destination for that actor.
*VariantVariantOverly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist - (942)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 942 (Overly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist)
The software uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.
+BaseBaseUncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion') - (400)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion'))
The software does not properly restrict the size or amount of resources that are requested or influenced by an actor, which can be used to consume more resources than intended.
*BaseBaseUncontrolled File Descriptor Consumption - (769)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 769 (Uncontrolled File Descriptor Consumption)
The software does not properly limit the number of open file descriptors that it uses.File descriptor exhaustion
+BaseBaseAllocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling - (770)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many resources can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*VariantVariantAllocation of File Descriptors or Handles Without Limits or Throttling - (774)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling) > 774 (Allocation of File Descriptors or Handles Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates file descriptors or handles on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many descriptors can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*VariantVariantUncontrolled Memory Allocation - (789)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling) > 789 (Uncontrolled Memory Allocation)
The product allocates memory based on an untrusted size value, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the size, allowing arbitrary amounts of memory to be allocated.
+BaseBaseMissing Reference to Active Allocated Resource - (771)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 771 (Missing Reference to Active Allocated Resource)
The software does not properly maintain a reference to a resource that has been allocated, which prevents the resource from being reclaimed.
*VariantVariantMissing Reference to Active File Descriptor or Handle - (773)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 771 (Missing Reference to Active Allocated Resource) > 773 (Missing Reference to Active File Descriptor or Handle)
The software does not properly maintain references to a file descriptor or handle, which prevents that file descriptor/handle from being reclaimed.
+BaseBaseMissing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime - (772)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime)
The software does not release a resource after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the resource is no longer needed.
*BaseBaseImproper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference ('Memory Leak') - (401)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime) > 401 (Improper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference ('Memory Leak'))
The software does not sufficiently track and release allocated memory after it has been used, which slowly consumes remaining memory.Memory Leak
*VariantVariantMissing Release of File Descriptor or Handle after Effective Lifetime - (775)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime) > 775 (Missing Release of File Descriptor or Handle after Effective Lifetime)
The software does not release a file descriptor or handle after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the file descriptor/handle is no longer needed.
*BaseBaseLogging of Excessive Data - (779)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 779 (Logging of Excessive Data)
The software logs too much information, making log files hard to process and possibly hindering recovery efforts or forensic analysis after an attack.
*BaseBaseImproper Restriction of Power Consumption - (920)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 400 (Uncontrolled Resource Consumption ('Resource Exhaustion')) > 920 (Improper Restriction of Power Consumption)
The software operates in an environment in which power is a limited resource that cannot be automatically replenished, but the software does not properly restrict the amount of power that its operation consumes.
+BaseBaseImproper Resource Shutdown or Release - (404)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release)
The program does not release or incorrectly releases a resource before it is made available for re-use.
*VariantVariantNot Using Password Aging - (262)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 262 (Not Using Password Aging)
If no mechanism is in place for managing password aging, users will have no incentive to update passwords in a timely manner.
*BaseBasePassword Aging with Long Expiration - (263)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 263 (Password Aging with Long Expiration)
Allowing password aging to occur unchecked can result in the possibility of diminished password integrity.
+BaseBaseImproper Check for Certificate Revocation - (299)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 299 (Improper Check for Certificate Revocation)
The software does not check or incorrectly checks the revocation status of a certificate, which may cause it to use a certificate that has been compromised.
*VariantVariantMissing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check - (370)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 299 (Improper Check for Certificate Revocation) > 370 (Missing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check)
The software does not check the revocation status of a certificate after its initial revocation check, which can cause the software to perform privileged actions even after the certificate is revoked at a later time.
+BaseBaseIncomplete Cleanup - (459)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup)
The software does not properly "clean up" and remove temporary or supporting resources after they have been used.Insufficient Cleanup
+BaseBaseSensitive Information Uncleared Before Release - (226)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release)
The software does not fully clear previously used information in a data structure, file, or other resource, before making that resource available to a party in another control sphere.
*VariantVariantImproper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection') - (244)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release) > 244 (Improper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection'))
Using realloc() to resize buffers that store sensitive information can leave the sensitive information exposed to attack, because it is not removed from memory.
*VariantVariantImproper Cleanup on Thrown Exception - (460)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup) > 460 (Improper Cleanup on Thrown Exception)
The product does not clean up its state or incorrectly cleans up its state when an exception is thrown, leading to unexpected state or control flow.
*VariantVariantfinalize() Method Without super.finalize() - (568)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 459 (Incomplete Cleanup) > 568 (finalize() Method Without super.finalize())
The software contains a finalize() method that does not call super.finalize().
+BaseBaseRelease of Invalid Pointer or Reference - (763)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference)
The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but calls the wrong release function or calls the appropriate release function incorrectly.
*VariantVariantFree of Pointer not at Start of Buffer - (761)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference) > 761 (Free of Pointer not at Start of Buffer)
The application calls free() on a pointer to a memory resource that was allocated on the heap, but the pointer is not at the start of the buffer.
+VariantVariantMismatched Memory Management Routines - (762)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference) > 762 (Mismatched Memory Management Routines)
The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but it calls a release function that is not compatible with the function that was originally used to allocate that resource.
*VariantVariantFree of Memory not on the Heap - (590)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference) > 762 (Mismatched Memory Management Routines) > 590 (Free of Memory not on the Heap)
The application calls free() on a pointer to memory that was not allocated using associated heap allocation functions such as malloc(), calloc(), or realloc().
+BaseBaseMissing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime - (772)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime)
The software does not release a resource after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the resource is no longer needed.
*BaseBaseImproper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference ('Memory Leak') - (401)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime) > 401 (Improper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference ('Memory Leak'))
The software does not sufficiently track and release allocated memory after it has been used, which slowly consumes remaining memory.Memory Leak
*VariantVariantMissing Release of File Descriptor or Handle after Effective Lifetime - (775)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 404 (Improper Resource Shutdown or Release) > 772 (Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime) > 775 (Missing Release of File Descriptor or Handle after Effective Lifetime)
The software does not release a file descriptor or handle after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the file descriptor/handle is no longer needed.
+ClassClassAsymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification) - (405)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification))
Software that does not appropriately monitor or control resource consumption can lead to adverse system performance.
*BaseBaseInsufficient Control of Network Message Volume (Network Amplification) - (406)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 406 (Insufficient Control of Network Message Volume (Network Amplification))
The software does not sufficiently monitor or control transmitted network traffic volume, so that an actor can cause the software to transmit more traffic than should be allowed for that actor.
*BaseBaseAlgorithmic Complexity - (407)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 407 (Algorithmic Complexity)
An algorithm in a product has an inefficient worst-case computational complexity that may be detrimental to system performance and can be triggered by an attacker, typically using crafted manipulations that ensure that the worst case is being reached.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification - (408)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 408 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification)
The software allows an entity to perform a legitimate but expensive operation before authentication or authorization has taken place.
+BaseBaseImproper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification) - (409)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 409 (Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification))
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles a compressed input with a very high compression ratio that produces a large output.
*VariantVariantImproper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion') - (776)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 405 (Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)) > 409 (Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification)) > 776 (Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion'))
The software uses XML documents and allows their structure to be defined with a Document Type Definition (DTD), but it does not properly control the number of recursive definitions of entities.XEEBillion Laughs AttackXML Bomb
*BaseBaseInsufficient Resource Pool - (410)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 410 (Insufficient Resource Pool)
The software's resource pool is not large enough to handle peak demand, which allows an attacker to prevent others from accessing the resource by using a (relatively) large number of requests for resources.
+BaseBaseModification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID) - (471)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID))
The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.
*VariantVariantReliance on IP Address for Authentication - (291)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 291 (Reliance on IP Address for Authentication)
The software uses an IP address for authentication.
*BaseBaseExternal Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter - (472)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 472 (External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter)
The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.Assumed-Immutable Parameter Tampering
*VariantVariantPHP External Variable Modification - (473)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 473 (PHP External Variable Modification)
A PHP application does not properly protect against the modification of variables from external sources, such as query parameters or cookies. This can expose the application to numerous weaknesses that would not exist otherwise.
*VariantVariantPublic Static Final Field References Mutable Object - (607)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 471 (Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)) > 607 (Public Static Final Field References Mutable Object)
A public or protected static final field references a mutable object, which allows the object to be changed by malicious code, or accidentally from another package.
*VariantVariantReliance on Package-level Scope - (487)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 487 (Reliance on Package-level Scope)
Java packages are not inherently closed; therefore, relying on them for code security is not a good practice.
*VariantVariantExposure of Data Element to Wrong Session - (488)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 488 (Exposure of Data Element to Wrong Session)
The product does not sufficiently enforce boundaries between the states of different sessions, causing data to be provided to, or used by, the wrong session.
*VariantVariantPrivate Array-Typed Field Returned From A Public Method - (495)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 495 (Private Array-Typed Field Returned From A Public Method)
The product has a method that is declared public, but returns a reference to a private array, which could then be modified in unexpected ways.
*VariantVariantPublic Data Assigned to Private Array-Typed Field - (496)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 496 (Public Data Assigned to Private Array-Typed Field)
Assigning public data to a private array is equivalent to giving public access to the array.
*VariantVariantCloneable Class Containing Sensitive Information - (498)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 498 (Cloneable Class Containing Sensitive Information)
The code contains a class with sensitive data, but the class is cloneable. The data can then be accessed by cloning the class.
*VariantVariantSerializable Class Containing Sensitive Data - (499)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 499 (Serializable Class Containing Sensitive Data)
The code contains a class with sensitive data, but the class does not explicitly deny serialization. The data can be accessed by serializing the class through another class.
*BaseBaseTrust Boundary Violation - (501)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 501 (Trust Boundary Violation)
The product mixes trusted and untrusted data in the same data structure or structured message.
*VariantVariantclone() Method Without super.clone() - (580)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 580 (clone() Method Without super.clone())
The software contains a clone() method that does not call super.clone() to obtain the new object.
+ClassClassExternally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere - (610)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere)
The product uses an externally controlled name or reference that resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.
*BaseBaseExternal Control of System or Configuration Setting - (15)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 15 (External Control of System or Configuration Setting)
One or more system settings or configuration elements can be externally controlled by a user.
+ClassClassUnintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy') - (441)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 441 (Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy'))
The software receives a request, message, or directive from an upstream component, but the software does not sufficiently preserve the original source of the request before forwarding the request to an external actor that is outside of the software's control sphere. This causes the software to appear to be the source of the request, leading it to act as a proxy or other intermediary between the upstream component and the external actor.Confused Deputy
*BaseBaseImproper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames - (1021)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 441 (Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy')) > 1021 (Improper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames)
The web application does not restrict or incorrectly restricts frame objects or UI layers that belong to another application or domain, which can lead to user confusion about which interface the user is interacting with.ClickjackingUI Redress AttackTapjacking
*BaseBaseServer-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) - (918)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 441 (Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy')) > 918 (Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF))
The web server receives a URL or similar request from an upstream component and retrieves the contents of this URL, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the request is being sent to the expected destination.XSPA
*BaseBaseUse of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection') - (470)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 470 (Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection'))
The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper classes or code.Reflection Injection
*VariantVariantURL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect') - (601)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 601 (URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect'))
A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks.Open RedirectCross-site RedirectCross-domain Redirect
*VariantVariantImproper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference ('XXE') - (611)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 611 (Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference ('XXE'))
The software processes an XML document that can contain XML entities with URIs that resolve to documents outside of the intended sphere of control, causing the product to embed incorrect documents into its output.XXE
*ClassClassExternal Control of File Name or Path - (73)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 610 (Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere) > 73 (External Control of File Name or Path)
The software allows user input to control or influence paths or file names that are used in filesystem operations.
+BaseBaseImproper Synchronization - (662)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization)
The software attempts to use a shared resource in an exclusive manner, but does not prevent or incorrectly prevents use of the resource by another thread or process.
+BaseBaseUse of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context - (663)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context)
The software calls a non-reentrant function in a concurrent context in which a competing code sequence (e.g. thread or signal handler) may have an opportunity to call the same function or otherwise influence its state.
*VariantVariantSignal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function - (479)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context) > 479 (Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function)
The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.
*VariantVariantUse of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application - (558)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context) > 558 (Use of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application)
The application uses the getlogin() function in a multithreaded context, potentially causing it to return incorrect values.
+BaseBaseImproper Locking - (667)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking)
The software does not properly acquire a lock on a resource, or it does not properly release a lock on a resource, leading to unexpected resource state changes and behaviors.
*BaseBaseUnrestricted Externally Accessible Lock - (412)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 412 (Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock)
The software properly checks for the existence of a lock, but the lock can be externally controlled or influenced by an actor that is outside of the intended sphere of control.
+BaseBaseImproper Resource Locking - (413)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 413 (Improper Resource Locking)
The software does not lock or does not correctly lock a resource when the software must have exclusive access to the resource.
*VariantVariantSensitive Data Storage in Improperly Locked Memory - (591)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 413 (Improper Resource Locking) > 591 (Sensitive Data Storage in Improperly Locked Memory)
The application stores sensitive data in memory that is not locked, or that has been incorrectly locked, which might cause the memory to be written to swap files on disk by the virtual memory manager. This can make the data more accessible to external actors.
*BaseBaseMissing Lock Check - (414)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 414 (Missing Lock Check)
A product does not check to see if a lock is present before performing sensitive operations on a resource.
*BaseBaseDouble-Checked Locking - (609)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 609 (Double-Checked Locking)
The program uses double-checked locking to access a resource without the overhead of explicit synchronization, but the locking is insufficient.
*VariantVariantMultiple Locks of a Critical Resource - (764)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 764 (Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource)
The software locks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*VariantVariantMultiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource - (765)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 765 (Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource)
The software unlocks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*BaseBaseUnlock of a Resource that is not Locked - (832)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 832 (Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked)
The software attempts to unlock a resource that is not locked.
*BaseBaseDeadlock - (833)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 833 (Deadlock)
The software contains multiple threads or executable segments that are waiting for each other to release a necessary lock, resulting in deadlock.
+BaseBaseMissing Synchronization - (820)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization)
The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but does not attempt to synchronize access to the resource.
*VariantVariantUse of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context - (543)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization) > 543 (Use of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context)
The software uses the singleton pattern when creating a resource within a multithreaded environment.
*BaseBaseUnsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context - (567)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization) > 567 (Unsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context)
The product does not properly synchronize shared data, such as static variables across threads, which can lead to undefined behavior and unpredictable data changes.
+BaseBaseIncorrect Synchronization - (821)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization)
The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but it does not correctly synchronize access to the resource.
*VariantVariantCall to Thread run() instead of start() - (572)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization) > 572 (Call to Thread run() instead of start())
The program calls a thread's run() method instead of calling start(), which causes the code to run in the thread of the caller instead of the callee.
*VariantVariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives - (574)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization) > 574 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using thread synchronization primitives.
+ClassClassImproper Initialization - (665)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization)
The software does not initialize or incorrectly initializes a resource, which might leave the resource in an unexpected state when it is accessed or used.
*BaseBaseInsecure Default Variable Initialization - (453)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 453 (Insecure Default Variable Initialization)
The software, by default, initializes an internal variable with an insecure or less secure value than is possible.
*BaseBaseExternal Initialization of Trusted Variables or Data Stores - (454)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 454 (External Initialization of Trusted Variables or Data Stores)
The software initializes critical internal variables or data stores using inputs that can be modified by untrusted actors.
*BaseBaseNon-exit on Failed Initialization - (455)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 455 (Non-exit on Failed Initialization)
The software does not exit or otherwise modify its operation when security-relevant errors occur during initialization, such as when a configuration file has a format error, which can cause the software to execute in a less secure fashion than intended by the administrator.
*VariantVariantUse of Uninitialized Variable - (457)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 457 (Use of Uninitialized Variable)
The code uses a variable that has not been initialized, leading to unpredictable or unintended results.
+BaseBaseAllocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling - (770)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many resources can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*VariantVariantAllocation of File Descriptors or Handles Without Limits or Throttling - (774)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling) > 774 (Allocation of File Descriptors or Handles Without Limits or Throttling)
The software allocates file descriptors or handles on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many descriptors can be allocated, in violation of the intended security policy for that actor.
*VariantVariantUncontrolled Memory Allocation - (789)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 770 (Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling) > 789 (Uncontrolled Memory Allocation)
The product allocates memory based on an untrusted size value, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the size, allowing arbitrary amounts of memory to be allocated.
+BaseBaseMissing Initialization of Resource - (909)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 909 (Missing Initialization of Resource)
The software does not initialize a critical resource.
*BaseBaseMissing Initialization of a Variable - (456)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 665 (Improper Initialization) > 909 (Missing Initialization of Resource) > 456 (Missing Initialization of a Variable)
The software does not initialize critical variables, which causes the execution environment to use unexpected values.
+BaseBaseOperation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime - (666)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime)
The software performs an operation on a resource at the wrong phase of the resource's lifecycle, which can lead to unexpected behaviors.
*VariantVariantDouble Free - (415)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 415 (Double Free)
The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.Double-free
*VariantVariantAuthentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created - (593)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 593 (Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created)
The software modifies the SSL context after connection creation has begun.
*BaseBaseMultiple Binds to the Same Port - (605)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 605 (Multiple Binds to the Same Port)
When multiple sockets are allowed to bind to the same port, other services on that port may be stolen or spoofed.
+BaseBaseOperation on a Resource after Expiration or Release - (672)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release)
The software uses, accesses, or otherwise operates on a resource after that resource has been expired, released, or revoked.
*VariantVariantImproper Validation of Certificate Expiration - (298)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 298 (Improper Validation of Certificate Expiration)
A certificate expiration is not validated or is incorrectly validated, so trust may be assigned to certificates that have been abandoned due to age.
*BaseBaseUse of a Key Past its Expiration Date - (324)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 324 (Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date)
The product uses a cryptographic key or password past its expiration date, which diminishes its safety significantly by increasing the timing window for cracking attacks against that key.
*BaseBaseReturn of Stack Variable Address - (562)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 562 (Return of Stack Variable Address)
A function returns the address of a stack variable, which will cause unintended program behavior, typically in the form of a crash.
*BaseBaseInsufficient Session Expiration - (613)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 613 (Insufficient Session Expiration)
According to WASC, "Insufficient Session Expiration is when a web site permits an attacker to reuse old session credentials or session IDs for authorization."
+BaseBaseExpired Pointer Dereference - (825)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference)
The program dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.Dangling pointer
*VariantVariantDouble Free - (415)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference) > 415 (Double Free)
The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.Double-free
*BaseBaseUse After Free - (416)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference) > 416 (Use After Free)
Referencing memory after it has been freed can cause a program to crash, use unexpected values, or execute code.Dangling pointerUse-After-Free
*BaseBaseUse of Expired File Descriptor - (910)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 672 (Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release) > 910 (Use of Expired File Descriptor)
The software uses or accesses a file descriptor after it has been closed.Stale file descriptor
*BaseBasePremature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime - (826)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 666 (Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime) > 826 (Premature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime)
The program releases a resource that is still intended to be used by the program itself or another actor.
+ClassClassExposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere - (668)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere)
The product exposes a resource to the wrong control sphere, providing unintended actors with inappropriate access to the resource.
+ClassClassInformation Exposure - (200)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure)
An information exposure is the intentional or unintentional disclosure of information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have access to that information.Information LeakInformation Disclosure
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Sent Data - (201)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 201 (Information Exposure Through Sent Data)
The accidental exposure of sensitive information through sent data refers to the transmission of data which are either sensitive in and of itself or useful in the further exploitation of the system through standard data channels.
+ClassClassInformation Exposure Through Discrepancy - (203)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy)
The product behaves differently or sends different responses in a way that exposes security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*BaseBaseResponse Discrepancy Information Exposure - (204)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 204 (Response Discrepancy Information Exposure)
The software provides different responses to incoming requests in a way that allows an actor to determine system state information that is outside of that actor's control sphere.
+BaseBaseInformation Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy - (205)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy)
The product's actions indicate important differences based on (1) the internal state of the product or (2) differences from other products in the same class.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure of Internal State Through Behavioral Inconsistency - (206)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy) > 206 (Information Exposure of Internal State Through Behavioral Inconsistency)
Two separate operations in a product cause the product to behave differently in a way that is observable to an attacker and reveals security-relevant information about the internal state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through an External Behavioral Inconsistency - (207)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 205 (Information Exposure Through Behavioral Discrepancy) > 207 (Information Exposure Through an External Behavioral Inconsistency)
The product behaves differently than other products like it, in a way that is observable to an attacker and exposes security-relevant information about which product is being used.
*BaseBaseInformation Exposure Through Timing Discrepancy - (208)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 203 (Information Exposure Through Discrepancy) > 208 (Information Exposure Through Timing Discrepancy)
Two separate operations in a product require different amounts of time to complete, in a way that is observable to an actor and reveals security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.
+BaseBaseInformation Exposure Through an Error Message - (209)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message)
The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.
+BaseBaseInformation Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message - (210)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message)
The software identifies an error condition and creates its own diagnostic or error messages that contain sensitive information.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Shell Error Message - (535)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 535 (Information Exposure Through Shell Error Message)
A command shell error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in the web application code. In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause these errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message - (536)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 536 (Information Exposure Through Servlet Runtime Error Message)
A servlet error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in your web application code and may provide useful information to an attacker.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message - (537)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 210 (Information Exposure Through Self-generated Error Message) > 537 (Information Exposure Through Java Runtime Error Message)
In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause unhandled exception errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.
*BaseBaseInformation Exposure Through Externally-Generated Error Message - (211)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 211 (Information Exposure Through Externally-Generated Error Message)
The software performs an operation that triggers an external diagnostic or error message that is not directly generated by the software, such as an error generated by the programming language interpreter that the software uses. The error can contain sensitive system information.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Server Error Message - (550)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 209 (Information Exposure Through an Error Message) > 550 (Information Exposure Through Server Error Message)
Certain conditions, such as network failure, will cause a server error message to be displayed.
*BaseBaseImproper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data - (212)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 212 (Improper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data)
The software uses a resource that contains sensitive data, but it does not properly remove that data before it stores, transfers, or shares the resource with actors in another control sphere.
*BaseBaseIntentional Information Exposure - (213)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 213 (Intentional Information Exposure)
A product's design or configuration explicitly requires the publication of information that could be regarded as sensitive by an administrator.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Process Environment - (214)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 214 (Information Exposure Through Process Environment)
A process is invoked with sensitive arguments, environment variables, or other elements that can be seen by other processes on the operating system.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Information - (215)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 215 (Information Exposure Through Debug Information)
The application contains debugging code that can expose sensitive information to untrusted parties.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Creating Debug Binary - (11)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 215 (Information Exposure Through Debug Information) > 11 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Creating Debug Binary)
Debugging messages help attackers learn about the system and plan a form of attack.
+BaseBaseSensitive Information Uncleared Before Release - (226)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release)
The software does not fully clear previously used information in a data structure, file, or other resource, before making that resource available to a party in another control sphere.
*VariantVariantImproper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection') - (244)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 226 (Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release) > 244 (Improper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection'))
Using realloc() to resize buffers that store sensitive information can leave the sensitive information exposed to attack, because it is not removed from memory.
+ClassClassExposure of Private Information ('Privacy Violation') - (359)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 359 (Exposure of Private Information ('Privacy Violation'))
The software does not properly prevent private data (such as credit card numbers) from being accessed by actors who either (1) are not explicitly authorized to access the data or (2) do not have the implicit consent of the people to which the data is related.Privacy leakPrivacy leakage
*VariantVariantExposure of Sensitive Data Through Data Queries - (202)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 359 (Exposure of Private Information ('Privacy Violation')) > 202 (Exposure of Sensitive Data Through Data Queries)
When trying to keep information confidential, an attacker can often infer some of the information by using statistics.
*VariantVariantExposure of System Data to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (497)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 497 (Exposure of System Data to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
Exposing system data or debugging information helps an adversary learn about the system and form an attack plan.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Caching - (524)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 524 (Information Exposure Through Caching)
The application uses a cache to maintain a pool of objects, threads, connections, pages, or passwords to minimize the time it takes to access them or the resources to which they connect. If implemented improperly, these caches can allow access to unauthorized information or cause a denial of service vulnerability.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Browser Caching - (525)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 524 (Information Exposure Through Caching) > 525 (Information Exposure Through Browser Caching)
For each web page, the application should have an appropriate caching policy specifying the extent to which the page and its form fields should be cached.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Environmental Variables - (526)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 526 (Information Exposure Through Environmental Variables)
Environmental variables may contain sensitive information about a remote server.
+BaseBaseFile and Directory Information Exposure - (538)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure)
The product stores sensitive information in files or directories that are accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (527)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 527 (Exposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores a CVS repository in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (528)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 528 (Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product generates a core dump file in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (529)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 529 (Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores access control list files in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (530)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 530 (Exposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
A backup file is stored in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Log Files - (532)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Server Log Files - (533)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 533 (Information Exposure Through Server Log Files)
A server.log file was found. This can give information on whatever application left the file. Usually this can give full path names and system information, and sometimes usernames and passwords.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Log Files - (534)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 534 (Information Exposure Through Debug Log Files)
The application does not sufficiently restrict access to a log file that is used for debugging.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files - (542)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 542 (Information Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files)
The application does not properly protect or delete a log file related to cleanup.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Persistent Cookies - (539)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 539 (Information Exposure Through Persistent Cookies)
Persistent cookies are cookies that are stored on the browser's hard drive. This can cause security and privacy issues depending on the information stored in the cookie and how it is accessed.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Source Code - (540)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code)
Source code on a web server often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Test Code - (531)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 531 (Information Exposure Through Test Code)
Accessible test applications can pose a variety of security risks. Since developers or administrators rarely consider that someone besides themselves would even know about the existence of these applications, it is common for them to contain sensitive information or functions.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Include Source Code - (541)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 541 (Information Exposure Through Include Source Code)
If an include file source is accessible, the file can contain usernames and passwords, as well as sensitive information pertaining to the application and system.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Comments - (615)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 615 (Information Exposure Through Comments)
While adding general comments is very useful, some programmers tend to leave important data, such as: filenames related to the web application, old links or links which were not meant to be browsed by users, old code fragments, etc.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Directory Listing - (548)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 548 (Information Exposure Through Directory Listing)
A directory listing is inappropriately exposed, yielding potentially sensitive information to attackers.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through WSDL File - (651)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 538 (File and Directory Information Exposure) > 651 (Information Exposure Through WSDL File)
The Web services architecture may require exposing a Web Service Definition Language (WSDL) file that contains information on the publicly accessible services and how callers of these services should interact with them (e.g. what parameters they expect and what types they return).
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Query Strings in GET Request - (598)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 598 (Information Exposure Through Query Strings in GET Request)
The web application uses the GET method to process requests that contain sensitive information, which can expose that information through the browser's history, Referers, web logs, and other sources.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Indexing of Private Data - (612)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 200 (Information Exposure) > 612 (Information Exposure Through Indexing of Private Data)
The product performs an indexing routine against private documents, but does not sufficiently verify that the actors who can access the index also have the privileges to access the private documents.
+ClassClassImproper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal') - (22)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal'))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that is intended to identify a file or directory that is located underneath a restricted parent directory, but the software does not properly neutralize special elements within the pathname that can cause the pathname to resolve to a location that is outside of the restricted directory.Directory traversalPath traversal
+BaseBaseRelative Path Traversal - (23)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize sequences such as ".." that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '../filedir' - (24)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 24 (Path Traversal: '../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '/../filedir' - (25)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 25 (Path Traversal: '/../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '/dir/../filename' - (26)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 26 (Path Traversal: '/dir/../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/dir/../filename" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: 'dir/../../filename' - (27)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 27 (Path Traversal: 'dir/../../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize multiple internal "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '..\filedir' - (28)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 28 (Path Traversal: '..\filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "..\" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\..\filename' - (29)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 29 (Path Traversal: '\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\dir\..\filename' - (30)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 30 (Path Traversal: '\dir\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\dir\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename' - (31)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 31 (Path Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize 'dir\..\..\filename' (multiple internal backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot) - (32)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 32 (Path Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '...' (triple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot) - (33)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 33 (Path Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....' (multiple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '....//' - (34)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 34 (Path Traversal: '....//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....//' (doubled dot dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '.../...//' - (35)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 35 (Path Traversal: '.../...//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '.../...//' (doubled triple dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
+BaseBaseAbsolute Path Traversal - (36)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize absolute path sequences such as "/abs/path" that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here' - (37)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 37 (Path Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a slash absolute path ('/absolute/pathname/here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here' - (38)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 38 (Path Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a backslash absolute path ('\absolute\pathname\here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: 'C:dirname' - (39)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 39 (Path Traversal: 'C:dirname')
An attacker can inject a drive letter or Windows volume letter ('C:dirname') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share) - (40)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 40 (Path Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share))
An attacker can inject a Windows UNC share ('\\UNC\share\name') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*VariantVariantSensitive Data Under FTP Root - (220)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 220 (Sensitive Data Under FTP Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the FTP document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*BaseBasePassing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method - (374)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 374 (Passing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method)
The program sends non-cloned mutable data as an argument to a method or function.
*BaseBaseReturning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller - (375)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 375 (Returning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller)
Sending non-cloned mutable data as a return value may result in that data being altered or deleted by the calling function.
+BaseBaseInsecure Temporary File - (377)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 377 (Insecure Temporary File)
Creating and using insecure temporary files can leave application and system data vulnerable to attack.
*BaseBaseCreation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions - (378)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 377 (Insecure Temporary File) > 378 (Creation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions)
Opening temporary files without appropriate measures or controls can leave the file, its contents and any function that it impacts vulnerable to attack.
*BaseBaseCreation of Temporary File in Directory with Incorrect Permissions - (379)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 377 (Insecure Temporary File) > 379 (Creation of Temporary File in Directory with Incorrect Permissions)
The software creates a temporary file in a directory whose permissions allow unintended actors to determine the file's existence or otherwise access that file.
+ClassClassTransmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak') - (402)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 402 (Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak'))
The software makes resources available to untrusted parties when those resources are only intended to be accessed by the software.Resource Leak
*BaseBaseExposure of File Descriptor to Unintended Control Sphere ('File Descriptor Leak') - (403)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 402 (Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak')) > 403 (Exposure of File Descriptor to Unintended Control Sphere ('File Descriptor Leak'))
A process does not close sensitive file descriptors before invoking a child process, which allows the child to perform unauthorized I/O operations using those descriptors.File descriptor leak
*BaseBaseDangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection') - (619)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 402 (Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak')) > 619 (Dangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection'))
If a database cursor is not closed properly, then it could become accessible to other users while retaining the same privileges that were originally assigned, leaving the cursor "dangling."
*BaseBaseUncontrolled Search Path Element - (427)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 427 (Uncontrolled Search Path Element)
The product uses a fixed or controlled search path to find resources, but one or more locations in that path can be under the control of unintended actors.DLL preloadingBinary plantingInsecure library loading
*BaseBaseUnquoted Search Path or Element - (428)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 428 (Unquoted Search Path or Element)
The product uses a search path that contains an unquoted element, in which the element contains whitespace or other separators. This can cause the product to access resources in a parent path.
*VariantVariantPublic cloneable() Method Without Final ('Object Hijack') - (491)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 491 (Public cloneable() Method Without Final ('Object Hijack'))
A class has a cloneable() method that is not declared final, which allows an object to be created without calling the constructor. This can cause the object to be in an unexpected state.
*VariantVariantUse of Inner Class Containing Sensitive Data - (492)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 492 (Use of Inner Class Containing Sensitive Data)
Inner classes are translated into classes that are accessible at package scope and may expose code that the programmer intended to keep private to attackers.
+VariantVariantCritical Public Variable Without Final Modifier - (493)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier)
The product has a critical public variable that is not final, which allows the variable to be modified to contain unexpected values.
*VariantVariantPublic Static Field Not Marked Final - (500)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier) > 500 (Public Static Field Not Marked Final)
An object contains a public static field that is not marked final, which might allow it to be modified in unexpected ways.
+ClassClassCovert Channel - (514)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 514 (Covert Channel)
A covert channel is a path that can be used to transfer information in a way not intended by the system's designers.
*BaseBaseCovert Timing Channel - (385)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 514 (Covert Channel) > 385 (Covert Timing Channel)
Covert timing channels convey information by modulating some aspect of system behavior over time, so that the program receiving the information can observe system behavior and infer protected information.
*BaseBaseCovert Storage Channel - (515)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 514 (Covert Channel) > 515 (Covert Storage Channel)
A covert storage channel transfers information through the setting of bits by one program and the reading of those bits by another. What distinguishes this case from that of ordinary operation is that the bits are used to convey encoded information.
+BaseBaseInsufficiently Protected Credentials - (522)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials)
This weakness occurs when the application transmits or stores authentication credentials and uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.
*VariantVariantPlaintext Storage of a Password - (256)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 256 (Plaintext Storage of a Password)
Storing a password in plaintext may result in a system compromise.
*BaseBaseStoring Passwords in a Recoverable Format - (257)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 257 (Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format)
The storage of passwords in a recoverable format makes them subject to password reuse attacks by malicious users. In fact, it should be noted that recoverable encrypted passwords provide no significant benefit over plaintext passwords since they are subject not only to reuse by malicious attackers but also by malicious insiders. If a system administrator can recover a password directly, or use a brute force search on the available information, the administrator can use the password on other accounts.
+VariantVariantPassword in Configuration File - (260)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File)
The software stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File - (13)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 13 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File)
Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource making them an easy target for attackers.
*VariantVariantEmpty Password in Configuration File - (258)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 258 (Empty Password in Configuration File)
Using an empty string as a password is insecure.
*VariantVariantUnprotected Transport of Credentials - (523)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 523 (Unprotected Transport of Credentials)
Login pages not using adequate measures to protect the user name and password while they are in transit from the client to the server.
*VariantVariantMissing Password Field Masking - (549)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 549 (Missing Password Field Masking)
The software does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File - (555)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 555 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File)
The J2EE application stores a plaintext password in a configuration file.
+BaseBaseFiles or Directories Accessible to External Parties - (552)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties)
Files or directories are accessible in the environment that should not be.
*VariantVariantExposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (527)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 527 (Exposure of CVS Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores a CVS repository in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (528)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 528 (Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product generates a core dump file in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (529)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 529 (Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores access control list files in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariantExposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (530)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 530 (Exposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
A backup file is stored in a directory that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Log Files - (532)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files)
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Server Log Files - (533)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 533 (Information Exposure Through Server Log Files)
A server.log file was found. This can give information on whatever application left the file. Usually this can give full path names and system information, and sometimes usernames and passwords.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Debug Log Files - (534)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 534 (Information Exposure Through Debug Log Files)
The application does not sufficiently restrict access to a log file that is used for debugging.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files - (542)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 532 (Information Exposure Through Log Files) > 542 (Information Exposure Through Cleanup Log Files)
The application does not properly protect or delete a log file related to cleanup.
+VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Source Code - (540)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code)
Source code on a web server often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Test Code - (531)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 531 (Information Exposure Through Test Code)
Accessible test applications can pose a variety of security risks. Since developers or administrators rarely consider that someone besides themselves would even know about the existence of these applications, it is common for them to contain sensitive information or functions.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Include Source Code - (541)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 541 (Information Exposure Through Include Source Code)
If an include file source is accessible, the file can contain usernames and passwords, as well as sensitive information pertaining to the application and system.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Comments - (615)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 540 (Information Exposure Through Source Code) > 615 (Information Exposure Through Comments)
While adding general comments is very useful, some programmers tend to leave important data, such as: filenames related to the web application, old links or links which were not meant to be browsed by users, old code fragments, etc.
*VariantVariantInformation Exposure Through Directory Listing - (548)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 548 (Information Exposure Through Directory Listing)
A directory listing is inappropriately exposed, yielding potentially sensitive information to attackers.
*VariantVariantCommand Shell in Externally Accessible Directory - (553)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties) > 553 (Command Shell in Externally Accessible Directory)
A possible shell file exists in /cgi-bin/ or other accessible directories. This is extremely dangerous and can be used by an attacker to execute commands on the web server.
*VariantVariantArray Declared Public, Final, and Static - (582)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 582 (Array Declared Public, Final, and Static)
The program declares an array public, final, and static, which is not sufficient to prevent the array's contents from being modified.
*VariantVariantfinalize() Method Declared Public - (583)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 583 (finalize() Method Declared Public)
The program violates secure coding principles for mobile code by declaring a finalize() method public.
*VariantVariantStruts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class - (608)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 608 (Struts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class)
An ActionForm class contains a field that has not been declared private, which can be accessed without using a setter or getter.
+ClassClassExternal Control of Critical State Data - (642)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data)
The software stores security-critical state information about its users, or the software itself, in a location that is accessible to unauthorized actors.
*BaseBaseExternal Control of System or Configuration Setting - (15)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 15 (External Control of System or Configuration Setting)
One or more system settings or configuration elements can be externally controlled by a user.
*CompositeCompositeUntrusted Search Path - (426)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path)
The application searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the application's direct control.Untrusted Path
*BaseBaseExternal Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter - (472)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 472 (External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter)
The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.Assumed-Immutable Parameter Tampering
+BaseBaseReliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking - (565)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking)
The application relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid for the associated user.
*VariantVariantReliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision - (784)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking) > 784 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision)
The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of a cookie, but it does not properly ensure that the cookie is valid for the associated user.
*ClassClassExternal Control of File Name or Path - (73)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data) > 73 (External Control of File Name or Path)
The software allows user input to control or influence paths or file names that are used in filesystem operations.
+ClassClassIncorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The software specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
*VariantVariantSensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag - (1004)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 1004 (Sensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag)
The software uses a cookie to store sensitive information, but the cookie is not marked with the HttpOnly flag.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Default Permissions - (276)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 276 (Incorrect Default Permissions)
The software, upon installation, sets incorrect permissions for an object that exposes it to an unintended actor.
*VariantVariantInsecure Inherited Permissions - (277)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 277 (Insecure Inherited Permissions)
A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.
*VariantVariantInsecure Preserved Inherited Permissions - (278)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 278 (Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions)
A product inherits a set of insecure permissions for an object, e.g. when copying from an archive file, without user awareness or involvement.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions - (279)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 279 (Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions)
While it is executing, the software sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.
*BaseBaseImproper Preservation of Permissions - (281)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 281 (Improper Preservation of Permissions)
The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrictive permissions than intended.
*CompositeCompositePermission Race Condition During Resource Copy - (689)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 689 (Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy)
The product, while copying or cloning a resource, does not set the resource's permissions or access control until the copy is complete, leaving the resource exposed to other spheres while the copy is taking place.
*VariantVariantCritical Variable Declared Public - (766)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 766 (Critical Variable Declared Public)
The software declares a critical variable or field to be public when intended security policy requires it to be private.
*VariantVariantAccess to Critical Private Variable via Public Method - (767)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 767 (Access to Critical Private Variable via Public Method)
The software defines a public method that reads or modifies a private variable.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Entity Bean Declared Remote - (8)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 8 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Entity Bean Declared Remote)
When an application exposes a remote interface for an entity bean, it might also expose methods that get or set the bean's data. These methods could be leveraged to read sensitive information, or to change data in ways that violate the application's expectations, potentially leading to other vulnerabilities.
*VariantVariantUse of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication - (927)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 927 (Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication)
The Android application uses an implicit intent for transmitting sensitive data to other applications.
*VariantVariantOverly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist - (942)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere) > 942 (Overly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist)
The software uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.
+ClassClassIncorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres - (669)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres)
The product does not properly transfer a resource/behavior to another sphere, or improperly imports a resource/behavior from another sphere, in a manner that provides unintended control over that resource.
*BaseBaseImproper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data - (212)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 212 (Improper Cross-boundary Removal of Sensitive Data)
The software uses a resource that contains sensitive data, but it does not properly remove that data before it stores, transfers, or shares the resource with actors in another control sphere.
*VariantVariantCreation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory - (243)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 243 (Creation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory)
The program uses the chroot() system call to create a jail, but does not change the working directory afterward. This does not prevent access to files outside of the jail.
*BaseBaseUnrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type - (434)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 434 (Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type)
The software allows the attacker to upload or transfer files of dangerous types that can be automatically processed within the product's environment.Unrestricted File Upload
*BaseBaseDownload of Code Without Integrity Check - (494)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 494 (Download of Code Without Integrity Check)
The product downloads source code or an executable from a remote location and executes the code without sufficiently verifying the origin and integrity of the code.
+BaseBaseClient-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security - (602)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 602 (Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security)
The software is composed of a server that relies on the client to implement a mechanism that is intended to protect the server.
+BaseBaseReliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking - (565)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 602 (Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking)
The application relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid for the associated user.
*VariantVariantReliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision - (784)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 602 (Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking) > 784 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision)
The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of a cookie, but it does not properly ensure that the cookie is valid for the associated user.
*BaseBaseUse of Client-Side Authentication - (603)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 602 (Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security) > 603 (Use of Client-Side Authentication)
A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client that omits the authentication check.
+ClassClassInclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere - (829)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere)
The software imports, requires, or includes executable functionality (such as a library) from a source that is outside of the intended control sphere.
*BaseBaseImproper Control of Document Type Definition - (827)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere) > 827 (Improper Control of Document Type Definition)
The software does not restrict a reference to a Document Type Definition (DTD) to the intended control sphere. This might allow attackers to reference arbitrary DTDs, possibly causing the software to expose files, consume excessive system resources, or execute arbitrary http requests on behalf of the attacker.
*BaseBaseInclusion of Web Functionality from an Untrusted Source - (830)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere) > 830 (Inclusion of Web Functionality from an Untrusted Source)
The software includes web functionality (such as a web widget) from another domain, which causes it to operate within the domain of the software, potentially granting total access and control of the software to the untrusted source.
*BaseBaseImproper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion') - (98)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 669 (Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres) > 829 (Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere) > 98 (Improper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion'))
The PHP application receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before its usage in "require," "include," or similar functions.Remote file includeRFILocal file inclusion
+ClassClassExternal Influence of Sphere Definition - (673)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 673 (External Influence of Sphere Definition)
The product does not prevent the definition of control spheres from external actors.
*CompositeCompositeUntrusted Search Path - (426)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 673 (External Influence of Sphere Definition) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path)
The application searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the application's direct control.Untrusted Path
+ClassClassIncorrect Type Conversion or Cast - (704)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast)
The software does not correctly convert an object, resource or structure from one type to a different type.
*VariantVariantAttempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer - (588)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 588 (Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer)
Casting a non-structure type to a structure type and accessing a field can lead to memory access errors or data corruption.
+ClassClassIncorrect Conversion between Numeric Types - (681)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types)
When converting from one data type to another, such as long to integer, data can be omitted or translated in a way that produces unexpected values. If the resulting values are used in a sensitive context, then dangerous behaviors may occur.
*ClassClassInteger Coercion Error - (192)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 192 (Integer Coercion Error)
Integer coercion refers to a set of flaws pertaining to the type casting, extension, or truncation of primitive data types.
*BaseBaseUnexpected Sign Extension - (194)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 194 (Unexpected Sign Extension)
The software performs an operation on a number that causes it to be sign extended when it is transformed into a larger data type. When the original number is negative, this can produce unexpected values that lead to resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariantSigned to Unsigned Conversion Error - (195)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 195 (Signed to Unsigned Conversion Error)
The software uses a signed primitive and performs a cast to an unsigned primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the signed primitive can not be represented using an unsigned primitive.
*VariantVariantUnsigned to Signed Conversion Error - (196)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 196 (Unsigned to Signed Conversion Error)
The software uses an unsigned primitive and performs a cast to a signed primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the unsigned primitive can not be represented using a signed primitive.
*BaseBaseNumeric Truncation Error - (197)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 681 (Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types) > 197 (Numeric Truncation Error)
Truncation errors occur when a primitive is cast to a primitive of a smaller size and data is lost in the conversion.
*BaseBaseAccess of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion') - (843)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 704 (Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast) > 843 (Access of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion'))
The program allocates or initializes a resource such as a pointer, object, or variable using one type, but it later accesses that resource using a type that is incompatible with the original type.Object Type Confusion
+ClassClassUse of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference - (706)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference)
The software uses a name or reference to access a resource, but the name/reference resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Case Sensitivity - (178)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 178 (Improper Handling of Case Sensitivity)
The software does not properly account for differences in case sensitivity when accessing or determining the properties of a resource, leading to inconsistent results.
+ClassClassImproper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal') - (22)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal'))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that is intended to identify a file or directory that is located underneath a restricted parent directory, but the software does not properly neutralize special elements within the pathname that can cause the pathname to resolve to a location that is outside of the restricted directory.Directory traversalPath traversal
+BaseBaseRelative Path Traversal - (23)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize sequences such as ".." that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '../filedir' - (24)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 24 (Path Traversal: '../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '/../filedir' - (25)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 25 (Path Traversal: '/../filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '/dir/../filename' - (26)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 26 (Path Traversal: '/dir/../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/dir/../filename" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: 'dir/../../filename' - (27)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 27 (Path Traversal: 'dir/../../filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize multiple internal "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '..\filedir' - (28)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 28 (Path Traversal: '..\filedir')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "..\" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\..\filename' - (29)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 29 (Path Traversal: '\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\dir\..\filename' - (30)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 30 (Path Traversal: '\dir\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\dir\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename' - (31)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 31 (Path Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize 'dir\..\..\filename' (multiple internal backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot) - (32)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 32 (Path Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '...' (triple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot) - (33)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 33 (Path Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot))
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....' (multiple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '....//' - (34)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 34 (Path Traversal: '....//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....//' (doubled dot dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '.../...//' - (35)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal) > 35 (Path Traversal: '.../...//')
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '.../...//' (doubled triple dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
+BaseBaseAbsolute Path Traversal - (36)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal)
The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize absolute path sequences such as "/abs/path" that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here' - (37)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 37 (Path Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a slash absolute path ('/absolute/pathname/here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here' - (38)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 38 (Path Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here')
A software system that accepts input in the form of a backslash absolute path ('\absolute\pathname\here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: 'C:dirname' - (39)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 39 (Path Traversal: 'C:dirname')
An attacker can inject a drive letter or Windows volume letter ('C:dirname') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*VariantVariantPath Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share) - (40)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal) > 40 (Path Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share))
An attacker can inject a Windows UNC share ('\\UNC\share\name') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*BaseBaseSymbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object - (386)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 386 (Symbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object)
A constant symbolic reference to an object is used, even though the reference can resolve to a different object over time.
+BaseBaseImproper Resolution of Path Equivalence - (41)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence)
The system or application is vulnerable to file system contents disclosure through path equivalence. Path equivalence involves the use of special characters in file and directory names. The associated manipulations are intended to generate multiple names for the same object.
+VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot) - (42)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 42 (Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing dot ('filedir.') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot) - (43)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 42 (Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot)) > 43 (Path Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing dot ('filedir....') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
+VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot) - (44)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 44 (Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of internal dot ('file.ordir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot) - (45)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 44 (Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot)) > 45 (Path Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal dot ('file...dir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space) - (46)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 46 (Path Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing space ('filedir ') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space) - (47)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 47 (Path Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of leading space (' filedir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace) - (48)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 48 (Path Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of internal space ('file(SPACE)name') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash) - (49)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 49 (Path Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing slash ('filedir/') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash' - (50)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 50 (Path Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple leading slash ('//multiple/leading/slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash' - (51)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 51 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal slash ('/multiple//internal/slash/') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//' - (52)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 52 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing slash ('/multiple/trailing/slash//') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash' - (53)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 53 (Path Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash')
A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal backslash ('\multiple\trailing\\slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash) - (54)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 54 (Path Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing backslash ('filedir\') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory) - (55)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 55 (Path Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of single dot directory exploit ('/./') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard) - (56)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 56 (Path Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard))
A software system that accepts path input in the form of asterisk wildcard ('filedir*') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename' - (57)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 57 (Path Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename')
The software contains protection mechanisms to restrict access to 'realdir/filename', but it constructs pathnames using external input in the form of 'fakedir/../realdir/filename' that are not handled by those mechanisms. This allows attackers to perform unauthorized actions against the targeted file.
*VariantVariantPath Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename - (58)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence) > 58 (Path Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename)
The software contains a protection mechanism that restricts access to a long filename on a Windows operating system, but the software does not properly restrict access to the equivalent short "8.3" filename.
+BaseBaseImproper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following') - (59)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following'))
The software attempts to access a file based on the filename, but it does not properly prevent that filename from identifying a link or shortcut that resolves to an unintended resource.insecure temporary file
*CompositeCompositeUNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following - (61)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the file is a symbolic link that resolves to a target outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.Symlink followingsymlink vulnerability
*VariantVariantUNIX Hard Link - (62)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 62 (UNIX Hard Link)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.
*VariantVariantWindows Shortcut Following (.LNK) - (64)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 64 (Windows Shortcut Following (.LNK))
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the file is a Windows shortcut (.LNK) whose target is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.Windows symbolic link followingsymlink
*VariantVariantWindows Hard Link - (65)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')) > 65 (Windows Hard Link)
The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the software to operate on unauthorized files.
+BaseBaseImproper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources - (66)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles a file name that identifies a "virtual" resource that is not directly specified within the directory that is associated with the file name, causing the product to perform file-based operations on a resource that is not a file.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Windows Device Names - (67)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 67 (Improper Handling of Windows Device Names)
The software constructs pathnames from user input, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a pathname containing a Windows device name such as AUX or CON. This typically leads to denial of service or an information exposure when the application attempts to process the pathname as a regular file.
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream - (69)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 69 (Improper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream)
The software does not properly prevent access to, or detect usage of, alternate data streams (ADS).
*VariantVariantImproper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path - (72)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources) > 72 (Improper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path)
The software does not properly handle special paths that may identify the data or resource fork of a file on the HFS+ file system.
*BaseBaseImproper Control of Document Type Definition - (827)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 827 (Improper Control of Document Type Definition)
The software does not restrict a reference to a Document Type Definition (DTD) to the intended control sphere. This might allow attackers to reference arbitrary DTDs, possibly causing the software to expose files, consume excessive system resources, or execute arbitrary http requests on behalf of the attacker.
*BaseBaseImproper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion') - (98)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 706 (Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference) > 98 (Improper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion'))
The PHP application receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before its usage in "require," "include," or similar functions.Remote file includeRFILocal file inclusion
+BaseBaseExposed Dangerous Method or Function - (749)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function)
The software provides an Applications Programming Interface (API) or similar interface for interaction with external actors, but the interface includes a dangerous method or function that is not properly restricted.
*BaseBaseExposed Unsafe ActiveX Method - (618)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function) > 618 (Exposed Unsafe ActiveX Method)
An ActiveX control is intended for use in a web browser, but it exposes dangerous methods that perform actions that are outside of the browser's security model (e.g. the zone or domain).
*VariantVariantExposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control - (782)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function) > 782 (Exposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control)
The software implements an IOCTL with functionality that should be restricted, but it does not properly enforce access control for the IOCTL.
*BaseBaseUse of Uninitialized Resource - (908)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 908 (Use of Uninitialized Resource)
The software uses a resource that has not been properly initialized.
*BaseBaseImproper Update of Reference Count - (911)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 911 (Improper Update of Reference Count)
The software uses a reference count to manage a resource, but it does not update or incorrectly updates the reference count.
+ClassClassImproper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources - (913)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources)
The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-managed code resources such as variables, objects, classes, attributes, functions, or executable instructions or statements.
*BaseBaseUse of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection') - (470)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 470 (Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection'))
The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper classes or code.Reflection Injection
*VariantVariantDeserialization of Untrusted Data - (502)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 502 (Deserialization of Untrusted Data)
The application deserializes untrusted data without sufficiently verifying that the resulting data will be valid.Marshaling, UnmarshalingPickling, Unpickling
+BaseBaseImproper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables - (914)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables)
The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-identified variables.
*BaseBaseVariable Extraction Error - (621)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables) > 621 (Variable Extraction Error)
The product uses external input to determine the names of variables into which information is extracted, without verifying that the names of the specified variables are valid. This could cause the program to overwrite unintended variables.Variable overwrite
*BaseBaseDynamic Variable Evaluation - (627)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables) > 627 (Dynamic Variable Evaluation)
In a language where the user can influence the name of a variable at runtime, if the variable names are not controlled, an attacker can read or write to arbitrary variables, or access arbitrary functions.Dynamic evaluation
*BaseBaseImproperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes - (915)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 915 (Improperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes)
The software receives input from an upstream component that specifies multiple attributes, properties, or fields that are to be initialized or updated in an object, but it does not properly control which attributes can be modified.Mass AssignmentAutoBindingObject injection
+ClassClassImproper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection') - (94)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the syntax or behavior of the intended code segment.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection') - (95)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 95 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before using the input in a dynamic evaluation call (e.g. "eval").
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection') - (96)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable resource, such as a library, configuration file, or template.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page - (97)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 913 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection')) > 97 (Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page)
The software generates a web page, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input that could be interpreted as a server-side include (SSI) directive.
+ClassClassInsecure Storage of Sensitive Information - (922)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information)
The software stores sensitive information without properly limiting read or write access by unauthorized actors.
+BaseBaseCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information - (312)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within a resource that might be accessible to another control sphere.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage in a File or on Disk - (313)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 313 (Cleartext Storage in a File or on Disk)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a file, or on disk.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage in the Registry - (314)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 314 (Cleartext Storage in the Registry)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in the registry.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie - (315)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 315 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a cookie.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory - (316)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 316 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in memory.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI - (317)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 317 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within the GUI.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable - (318)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 318 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in an executable.
*BaseBaseStorage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control - (921)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 664 (Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime) > 922 (Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information) > 921 (Storage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control)
The software stores sensitive information in a file system or device that does not have built-in access control.
+ClassClassInsufficient Control Flow Management - (691)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management)
The code does not sufficiently manage its control flow during execution, creating conditions in which the control flow can be modified in unexpected ways.
+ClassClassConcurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition') - (362)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition'))
The program contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a timing window exists in which the shared resource can be modified by another code sequence that is operating concurrently.
+BaseBaseSignal Handler Race Condition - (364)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition)
The software uses a signal handler that introduces a race condition.
*BaseBaseDangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations - (432)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 432 (Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations)
The application uses a signal handler that shares state with other signal handlers, but it does not properly mask or prevent those signal handlers from being invoked while the original signal handler is still running.
+BaseBaseSignal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe - (828)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 828 (Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe)
The software defines a signal handler that contains code sequences that are not asynchronous-safe, i.e., the functionality is not reentrant, or it can be interrupted.
*VariantVariantSignal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function - (479)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 828 (Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe) > 479 (Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function)
The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.
*BaseBaseSignal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals - (831)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition) > 831 (Signal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals)
The software defines a function that is used as a handler for more than one signal.
*BaseBaseRace Condition within a Thread - (366)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 366 (Race Condition within a Thread)
If two threads of execution use a resource simultaneously, there exists the possibility that resources may be used while invalid, in turn making the state of execution undefined.
+BaseBaseTime-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition - (367)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 367 (Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition)
The software checks the state of a resource before using that resource, but the resource's state can change between the check and the use in a way that invalidates the results of the check. This can cause the software to perform invalid actions when the resource is in an unexpected state.TOCTTOUTOCCTOU
*BaseBaseRace Condition Enabling Link Following - (363)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 367 (Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition) > 363 (Race Condition Enabling Link Following)
The software checks the status of a file or directory before accessing it, which produces a race condition in which the file can be replaced with a link before the access is performed, causing the software to access the wrong file.
*BaseBaseRace Condition in Switch - (365)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 367 (Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition) > 365 (Race Condition in Switch)
The code contains a switch statement in which the switched variable can be modified while the switch is still executing, resulting in unexpected behavior.
*BaseBaseContext Switching Race Condition - (368)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 368 (Context Switching Race Condition)
A product performs a series of non-atomic actions to switch between contexts that cross privilege or other security boundaries, but a race condition allows an attacker to modify or misrepresent the product's behavior during the switch.
*BaseBaseRace Condition During Access to Alternate Channel - (421)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')) > 421 (Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel)
The product opens an alternate channel to communicate with an authorized user, but the channel is accessible to other actors.
*BaseBaseDeployment of Wrong Handler - (430)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 430 (Deployment of Wrong Handler)
The wrong "handler" is assigned to process an object.
*BaseBaseMissing Handler - (431)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 431 (Missing Handler)
A handler is not available or implemented.
*VariantVariantUnsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting - (623)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 623 (Unsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting)
An ActiveX control is intended for restricted use, but it has been marked as safe-for-scripting.
+BaseBaseImproper Synchronization - (662)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization)
The software attempts to use a shared resource in an exclusive manner, but does not prevent or incorrectly prevents use of the resource by another thread or process.
+BaseBaseUse of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context - (663)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context)
The software calls a non-reentrant function in a concurrent context in which a competing code sequence (e.g. thread or signal handler) may have an opportunity to call the same function or otherwise influence its state.
*VariantVariantSignal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function - (479)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context) > 479 (Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function)
The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.
*VariantVariantUse of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application - (558)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context) > 558 (Use of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application)
The application uses the getlogin() function in a multithreaded context, potentially causing it to return incorrect values.
+BaseBaseImproper Locking - (667)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking)
The software does not properly acquire a lock on a resource, or it does not properly release a lock on a resource, leading to unexpected resource state changes and behaviors.
*BaseBaseUnrestricted Externally Accessible Lock - (412)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 412 (Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock)
The software properly checks for the existence of a lock, but the lock can be externally controlled or influenced by an actor that is outside of the intended sphere of control.
+BaseBaseImproper Resource Locking - (413)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 413 (Improper Resource Locking)
The software does not lock or does not correctly lock a resource when the software must have exclusive access to the resource.
*VariantVariantSensitive Data Storage in Improperly Locked Memory - (591)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 413 (Improper Resource Locking) > 591 (Sensitive Data Storage in Improperly Locked Memory)
The application stores sensitive data in memory that is not locked, or that has been incorrectly locked, which might cause the memory to be written to swap files on disk by the virtual memory manager. This can make the data more accessible to external actors.
*BaseBaseMissing Lock Check - (414)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 414 (Missing Lock Check)
A product does not check to see if a lock is present before performing sensitive operations on a resource.
*BaseBaseDouble-Checked Locking - (609)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 609 (Double-Checked Locking)
The program uses double-checked locking to access a resource without the overhead of explicit synchronization, but the locking is insufficient.
*VariantVariantMultiple Locks of a Critical Resource - (764)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 764 (Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource)
The software locks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*VariantVariantMultiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource - (765)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 765 (Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource)
The software unlocks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*BaseBaseUnlock of a Resource that is not Locked - (832)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 832 (Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked)
The software attempts to unlock a resource that is not locked.
*BaseBaseDeadlock - (833)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 667 (Improper Locking) > 833 (Deadlock)
The software contains multiple threads or executable segments that are waiting for each other to release a necessary lock, resulting in deadlock.
+BaseBaseMissing Synchronization - (820)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization)
The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but does not attempt to synchronize access to the resource.
*VariantVariantUse of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context - (543)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization) > 543 (Use of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context)
The software uses the singleton pattern when creating a resource within a multithreaded environment.
*BaseBaseUnsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context - (567)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 820 (Missing Synchronization) > 567 (Unsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context)
The product does not properly synchronize shared data, such as static variables across threads, which can lead to undefined behavior and unpredictable data changes.
+BaseBaseIncorrect Synchronization - (821)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization)
The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but it does not correctly synchronize access to the resource.
*VariantVariantCall to Thread run() instead of start() - (572)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization) > 572 (Call to Thread run() instead of start())
The program calls a thread's run() method instead of calling start(), which causes the code to run in the thread of the caller instead of the callee.
*VariantVariantEJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives - (574)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 662 (Improper Synchronization) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization) > 574 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives)
The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using thread synchronization primitives.
+ClassClassAlways-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation - (670)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation)
The code contains a control flow path that does not reflect the algorithm that the path is intended to implement, leading to incorrect behavior any time this path is navigated.
+BaseBaseUse of Incorrect Operator - (480)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator)
The programmer accidentally uses the wrong operator, which changes the application logic in security-relevant ways.
*VariantVariantAssigning instead of Comparing - (481)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator) > 481 (Assigning instead of Comparing)
The code uses an operator for assignment when the intention was to perform a comparison.
*VariantVariantComparing instead of Assigning - (482)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator) > 482 (Comparing instead of Assigning)
The code uses an operator for comparison when the intention was to perform an assignment.
*VariantVariantUse of Wrong Operator in String Comparison - (597)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator) > 597 (Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison)
The product uses the wrong operator when comparing a string, such as using "==" when the equals() method should be used instead.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Block Delimitation - (483)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation) > 483 (Incorrect Block Delimitation)
The code does not explicitly delimit a block that is intended to contain 2 or more statements, creating a logic error.
*BaseBaseOmitted Break Statement in Switch - (484)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation) > 484 (Omitted Break Statement in Switch)
The program omits a break statement within a switch or similar construct, causing code associated with multiple conditions to execute. This can cause problems when the programmer only intended to execute code associated with one condition.
*VariantVariantReachable Assertion - (617)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation) > 617 (Reachable Assertion)
The product contains an assert() or similar statement that can be triggered by an attacker, which leads to an application exit or other behavior that is more severe than necessary.
*BaseBaseExecution After Redirect (EAR) - (698)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation) > 698 (Execution After Redirect (EAR))
The web application sends a redirect to another location, but instead of exiting, it executes additional code.Redirect Without Exit
*VariantVariantOperator Precedence Logic Error - (783)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation) > 783 (Operator Precedence Logic Error)
The program uses an expression in which operator precedence causes incorrect logic to be used.
+BaseBaseUncontrolled Recursion - (674)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 674 (Uncontrolled Recursion)
The product does not properly control the amount of recursion that takes place, which consumes excessive resources, such as allocated memory or the program stack.Stack Exhaustion
*VariantVariantImproper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion') - (776)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 674 (Uncontrolled Recursion) > 776 (Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion'))
The software uses XML documents and allows their structure to be defined with a Document Type Definition (DTD), but it does not properly control the number of recursive definitions of entities.XEEBillion Laughs AttackXML Bomb
+ClassClassIncorrect Behavior Order - (696)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 696 (Incorrect Behavior Order)
The software performs multiple related behaviors, but the behaviors are performed in the wrong order in ways which may produce resultant weaknesses.
+BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation - (179)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 696 (Incorrect Behavior Order) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation)
The software validates input before applying protection mechanisms that modify the input, which could allow an attacker to bypass the validation via dangerous inputs that only arise after the modification.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize - (180)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 696 (Incorrect Behavior Order) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation) > 180 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize)
The software validates input before it is canonicalized, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the canonicalization step.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter - (181)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 696 (Incorrect Behavior Order) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation) > 181 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter)
The software validates data before it has been filtered, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the filtering step.Validate-before-cleanse
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification - (408)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 696 (Incorrect Behavior Order) > 408 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification)
The software allows an entity to perform a legitimate but expensive operation before authentication or authorization has taken place.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization - (551)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 696 (Incorrect Behavior Order) > 551 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization)
If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.
+ClassClassIncorrect Control Flow Scoping - (705)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping)
The software does not properly return control flow to the proper location after it has completed a task or detected an unusual condition.
+BaseBaseUncaught Exception - (248)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping) > 248 (Uncaught Exception)
An exception is thrown from a function, but it is not caught.
*BaseBaseUncaught Exception in Servlet - (600)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping) > 248 (Uncaught Exception) > 600 (Uncaught Exception in Servlet )
The Servlet does not catch all exceptions, which may reveal sensitive debugging information.Missing Catch Block
*VariantVariantJ2EE Bad Practices: Use of System.exit() - (382)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping) > 382 (J2EE Bad Practices: Use of System.exit())
A J2EE application uses System.exit(), which also shuts down its container.
*BaseBaseUse of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference - (395)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping) > 395 (Use of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference)
Catching NullPointerException should not be used as an alternative to programmatic checks to prevent dereferencing a null pointer.
*BaseBaseDeclaration of Catch for Generic Exception - (396)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping) > 396 (Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception)
Catching overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*BaseBaseDeclaration of Throws for Generic Exception - (397)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping) > 397 (Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception)
Throwing overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*BaseBaseNon-exit on Failed Initialization - (455)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping) > 455 (Non-exit on Failed Initialization)
The software does not exit or otherwise modify its operation when security-relevant errors occur during initialization, such as when a configuration file has a format error, which can cause the software to execute in a less secure fashion than intended by the administrator.
*BaseBaseReturn Inside Finally Block - (584)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping) > 584 (Return Inside Finally Block)
The code has a return statement inside a finally block, which will cause any thrown exception in the try block to be discarded.
*BaseBaseExecution After Redirect (EAR) - (698)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping) > 698 (Execution After Redirect (EAR))
The web application sends a redirect to another location, but instead of exiting, it executes additional code.Redirect Without Exit
+BaseBaseExposed Dangerous Method or Function - (749)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function)
The software provides an Applications Programming Interface (API) or similar interface for interaction with external actors, but the interface includes a dangerous method or function that is not properly restricted.
*BaseBaseExposed Unsafe ActiveX Method - (618)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function) > 618 (Exposed Unsafe ActiveX Method)
An ActiveX control is intended for use in a web browser, but it exposes dangerous methods that perform actions that are outside of the browser's security model (e.g. the zone or domain).
*VariantVariantExposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control - (782)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 749 (Exposed Dangerous Method or Function) > 782 (Exposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control)
The software implements an IOCTL with functionality that should be restricted, but it does not properly enforce access control for the IOCTL.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Short Circuit Evaluation - (768)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 768 (Incorrect Short Circuit Evaluation)
The software contains a conditional statement with multiple logical expressions in which one of the non-leading expressions may produce side effects. This may lead to an unexpected state in the program after the execution of the conditional, because short-circuiting logic may prevent the side effects from occurring.
+ClassClassImproper Control of Interaction Frequency - (799)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 799 (Improper Control of Interaction Frequency)
The software does not properly limit the number or frequency of interactions that it has with an actor, such as the number of incoming requests.Insufficient anti-automationBrute force
*BaseBaseImproper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts - (307)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 799 (Improper Control of Interaction Frequency) > 307 (Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts)
The software does not implement sufficient measures to prevent multiple failed authentication attempts within in a short time frame, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*BaseBaseImproper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action - (837)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 799 (Improper Control of Interaction Frequency) > 837 (Improper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action)
The software requires that an actor should only be able to perform an action once, or to have only one unique action, but the software does not enforce or improperly enforces this restriction.
+BaseBaseExcessive Iteration - (834)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 834 (Excessive Iteration)
The software performs an iteration or loop without sufficiently limiting the number of times that the loop is executed.
*BaseBaseLoop with Unreachable Exit Condition ('Infinite Loop') - (835)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 834 (Excessive Iteration) > 835 (Loop with Unreachable Exit Condition ('Infinite Loop'))
The program contains an iteration or loop with an exit condition that cannot be reached, i.e., an infinite loop.
*BaseBaseImproper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow - (841)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 841 (Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow)
The software supports a session in which more than one behavior must be performed by an actor, but it does not properly ensure that the actor performs the behaviors in the required sequence.
+ClassClassImproper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection') - (94)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection'))
The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the syntax or behavior of the intended code segment.
*BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection') - (95)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 95 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before using the input in a dynamic evaluation call (e.g. "eval").
+BaseBaseImproper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection') - (96)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection'))
The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable resource, such as a library, configuration file, or template.
*VariantVariantImproper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page - (97)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection')) > 97 (Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page)
The software generates a web page, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input that could be interpreted as a server-side include (SSI) directive.
+ClassClassProtection Mechanism Failure - (693)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure)
The product does not use or incorrectly uses a protection mechanism that provides sufficient defense against directed attacks against the product.
+BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation - (179)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation)
The software validates input before applying protection mechanisms that modify the input, which could allow an attacker to bypass the validation via dangerous inputs that only arise after the modification.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize - (180)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation) > 180 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize)
The software validates input before it is canonicalized, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the canonicalization step.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter - (181)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation) > 181 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter)
The software validates data before it has been filtered, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the filtering step.Validate-before-cleanse
*BaseBaseCollapse of Data into Unsafe Value - (182)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 182 (Collapse of Data into Unsafe Value)
The software filters data in a way that causes it to be reduced or "collapsed" into an unsafe value that violates an expected security property.
+BaseBasePermissive Whitelist - (183)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 183 (Permissive Whitelist)
An application uses a "whitelist" of acceptable values, but the whitelist includes at least one unsafe value, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariantOverly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist - (942)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 183 (Permissive Whitelist) > 942 (Overly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist)
The software uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.
*BaseBaseIncomplete Blacklist - (184)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 184 (Incomplete Blacklist)
An application uses a "blacklist" of prohibited values, but the blacklist is incomplete.
+ClassClassImproper Input Validation - (20)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation)
The product does not validate or incorrectly validates input that can affect the control flow or data flow of a program.
*VariantVariantStruts: Form Field Without Validator - (105)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 105 (Struts: Form Field Without Validator)
The application has a form field that is not validated by a corresponding validation form, which can introduce other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*VariantVariantStruts: Plug-in Framework not in Use - (106)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 106 (Struts: Plug-in Framework not in Use)
When an application does not use an input validation framework such as the Struts Validator, there is a greater risk of introducing weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*VariantVariantStruts: Unvalidated Action Form - (108)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 108 (Struts: Unvalidated Action Form)
Every Action Form must have a corresponding validation form.
*VariantVariantStruts: Validator Turned Off - (109)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 109 (Struts: Validator Turned Off)
Automatic filtering via a Struts bean has been turned off, which disables the Struts Validator and custom validation logic. This exposes the application to other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*BaseBaseMissing XML Validation - (112)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 112 (Missing XML Validation)
The software accepts XML from an untrusted source but does not validate the XML against the proper schema.
*BaseBaseProcess Control - (114)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 114 (Process Control)
Executing commands or loading libraries from an untrusted source or in an untrusted environment can cause an application to execute malicious commands (and payloads) on behalf of an attacker.
*BaseBaseImproper Validation of Array Index - (129)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 129 (Improper Validation of Array Index)
The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index references a valid position within the array.out-of-bounds array indexindex-out-of-rangearray index underflow
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework - (554)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 554 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework)
The ASP.NET application does not use an input validation framework.
*BaseBaseUnchecked Input for Loop Condition - (606)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 606 (Unchecked Input for Loop Condition)
The product does not properly check inputs that are used for loop conditions, potentially leading to a denial of service because of excessive looping.
*VariantVariantImproper Validation of Function Hook Arguments - (622)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 622 (Improper Validation of Function Hook Arguments)
A product adds hooks to user-accessible API functions, but does not properly validate the arguments. This could lead to resultant vulnerabilities.
*VariantVariantNull Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte) - (626)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 626 (Null Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte))
The product does not properly handle null bytes or NUL characters when passing data between different representations or components.
*VariantVariantImproper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code - (781)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 781 (Improper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code)
The software defines an IOCTL that uses METHOD_NEITHER for I/O, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the addresses that are provided.
*VariantVariantUncontrolled Memory Allocation - (789)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 20 (Improper Input Validation) > 789 (Uncontrolled Memory Allocation)
The product allocates memory based on an untrusted size value, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the size, allowing arbitrary amounts of memory to be allocated.
+ClassClassImproper Access Control - (284)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control)
The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts access to a resource from an unauthorized actor.Authorization
+ClassClassImproper Privilege Management - (269)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management)
The software does not properly assign, modify, track, or check privileges for an actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*ClassClassExecution with Unnecessary Privileges - (250)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 250 (Execution with Unnecessary Privileges)
The software performs an operation at a privilege level that is higher than the minimum level required, which creates new weaknesses or amplifies the consequences of other weaknesses.
+BaseBaseIncorrect Privilege Assignment - (266)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment)
A product incorrectly assigns a privilege to a particular actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*VariantVariantImproper Restriction of Cross-Origin Permission to window.opener.location - (1022)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 1022 (Improper Restriction of Cross-Origin Permission to window.opener.location)
The web application does not restrict or incorrectly restricts modification of its window opener object's location property by an external application from a different origin.
*VariantVariant.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation - (520)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 520 (.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation)
Allowing a .NET application to run at potentially escalated levels of access to the underlying operating and file systems can be dangerous and result in various forms of attacks.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation - (556)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 556 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation)
Configuring an ASP.NET application to run with impersonated credentials may give the application unnecessary privileges.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods - (9)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment) > 9 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods)
If elevated access rights are assigned to EJB methods, then an attacker can take advantage of the permissions to exploit the software system.
+BaseBasePrivilege Defined With Unsafe Actions - (267)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 267 (Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions)
A particular privilege, role, capability, or right can be used to perform unsafe actions that were not intended, even when it is assigned to the correct entity.
*VariantVariantUnsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting - (623)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 267 (Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions) > 623 (Unsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting)
An ActiveX control is intended for restricted use, but it has been marked as safe-for-scripting.
*BaseBasePrivilege Chaining - (268)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 268 (Privilege Chaining)
Two distinct privileges, roles, capabilities, or rights can be combined in a way that allows an entity to perform unsafe actions that would not be allowed without that combination.
*BaseBasePrivilege Context Switching Error - (270)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 270 (Privilege Context Switching Error)
The software does not properly manage privileges while it is switching between different contexts that have different privileges or spheres of control.
+ClassClassPrivilege Dropping / Lowering Errors - (271)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors)
The software does not drop privileges before passing control of a resource to an actor that does not have those privileges.
*BaseBaseLeast Privilege Violation - (272)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors) > 272 (Least Privilege Violation)
The elevated privilege level required to perform operations such as chroot() should be dropped immediately after the operation is performed.
*BaseBaseImproper Check for Dropped Privileges - (273)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors) > 273 (Improper Check for Dropped Privileges)
The software attempts to drop privileges but does not check or incorrectly checks to see if the drop succeeded.
*BaseBaseImproper Handling of Insufficient Privileges - (274)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 274 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges)
The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to perform an operation, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Use of Privileged APIs - (648)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management) > 648 (Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs)
The application does not conform to the API requirements for a function call that requires extra privileges. This could allow attackers to gain privileges by causing the function to be called incorrectly.
+ClassClassImproper Ownership Management - (282)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management)
The software assigns the wrong ownership, or does not properly verify the ownership, of an object or resource.
*BaseBaseUnverified Ownership - (283)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management) > 283 (Unverified Ownership)
The software does not properly verify that a critical resource is owned by the proper entity.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Ownership Assignment - (708)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management) > 708 (Incorrect Ownership Assignment)
The software assigns an owner to a resource, but the owner is outside of the intended control sphere.
+ClassClassImproper Authorization - (285)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization)
The software does not perform or incorrectly performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
+VariantVariantSensitive Data Under Web Root - (219)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root)
The application stores sensitive data under the web document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*VariantVariantUnparsed Raw Web Content Delivery - (433)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 219 (Sensitive Data Under Web Root) > 433 (Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery)
The software stores raw content or supporting code under the web document root with an extension that is not specifically handled by the server.
+ClassClassIncorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The software specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
*VariantVariantSensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag - (1004)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 1004 (Sensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag)
The software uses a cookie to store sensitive information, but the cookie is not marked with the HttpOnly flag.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Default Permissions - (276)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 276 (Incorrect Default Permissions)
The software, upon installation, sets incorrect permissions for an object that exposes it to an unintended actor.
*VariantVariantInsecure Inherited Permissions - (277)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 277 (Insecure Inherited Permissions)
A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.
*VariantVariantInsecure Preserved Inherited Permissions - (278)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 278 (Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions)
A product inherits a set of insecure permissions for an object, e.g. when copying from an archive file, without user awareness or involvement.
*VariantVariantIncorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions - (279)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 279 (Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions)
While it is executing, the software sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.
*BaseBaseImproper Preservation of Permissions - (281)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 281 (Improper Preservation of Permissions)
The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrictive permissions than intended.
*CompositeCompositePermission Race Condition During Resource Copy - (689)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource) > 689 (Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy)
The product, while copying or cloning a resource, does not set the resource's permissions or access control until the copy is complete, leaving the resource exposed to other spheres while the copy is taking place.
+ClassClassMissing Authorization - (862)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization)
The software does not perform an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
*BaseBaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
+ClassClassNot Using Complete Mediation - (638)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation)
The software does not perform access checks on a resource every time the resource is accessed by an entity, which can create resultant weaknesses if that entity's rights or privileges change over time.
+ClassClassImproper Protection of Alternate Path - (424)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path)
The product does not sufficiently protect all possible paths that a user can take to access restricted functionality or resources.
*BaseBaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 638 (Not Using Complete Mediation) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
+BaseBaseAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key - (639)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key)
The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.Insecure Direct Object ReferenceHorizontal Authorization
*VariantVariantAuthorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key - (566)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key) > 566 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key)
The software uses a database table that includes records that should not be accessible to an actor, but it executes a SQL statement with a primary key that can be controlled by that actor.
*BaseBaseImproper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme - (939)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 862 (Missing Authorization) > 939 (Improper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme)
The software uses a handler for a custom URL scheme, but it does not properly restrict which actors can invoke the handler using the scheme.
+ClassClassIncorrect Authorization - (863)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization)
The software performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action, but it does not correctly perform the check. This allows attackers to bypass intended access restrictions.AuthZ
*BaseBaseIncorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization - (551)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 551 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization)
If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.
*VariantVariantUse of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions - (647)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 647 (Use of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions)
The software defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the assumption that a URL is canonical. This can allow a non-canonical URL to bypass the authorization.
*BaseBaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
*VariantVariantImproper Export of Android Application Components - (926)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 926 (Improper Export of Android Application Components)
The Android application exports a component for use by other applications, but does not properly restrict which applications can launch the component or access the data it contains.
*VariantVariantUse of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication - (927)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization) > 927 (Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication)
The Android application uses an implicit intent for transmitting sensitive data to other applications.
+ClassClassIncorrect User Management - (286)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 286 (Incorrect User Management)
The software does not properly manage a user within its environment.
*BaseBasePlacement of User into Incorrect Group - (842)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 286 (Incorrect User Management) > 842 (Placement of User into Incorrect Group)
The software or the administrator places a user into an incorrect group.
+ClassClassImproper Authentication - (287)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication)
When an actor claims to have a given identity, the software does not prove or insufficiently proves that the claim is correct.authentificationAuthC
*VariantVariantWeak Cryptography for Passwords - (261)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 261 (Weak Cryptography for Passwords)
Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.
*VariantVariantNot Using Password Aging - (262)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 262 (Not Using Password Aging)
If no mechanism is in place for managing password aging, users will have no incentive to update passwords in a timely manner.
*BaseBasePassword Aging with Long Expiration - (263)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 263 (Password Aging with Long Expiration)
Allowing password aging to occur unchecked can result in the possibility of diminished password integrity.
+BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel - (288)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel)
A product requires authentication, but the product has an alternate path or channel that does not require authentication.
*BaseBaseDirect Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*VariantVariantAuthentication Bypass by Alternate Name - (289)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 289 (Authentication Bypass by Alternate Name)
The software performs authentication based on the name of a resource being accessed, or the name of the actor performing the access, but it does not properly check all possible names for that resource or actor.
+BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass by Spoofing - (290)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing)
This attack-focused weakness is caused by improperly implemented authentication schemes that are subject to spoofing attacks.
*VariantVariantReliance on IP Address for Authentication - (291)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 291 (Reliance on IP Address for Authentication)
The software uses an IP address for authentication.
*VariantVariantUsing Referer Field for Authentication - (293)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 293 (Using Referer Field for Authentication)
The referer field in HTTP requests can be easily modified and, as such, is not a valid means of message integrity checking.referrer
*VariantVariantReliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action - (350)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing) > 350 (Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action)
The software performs reverse DNS resolution on an IP address to obtain the hostname and make a security decision, but it does not properly ensure that the IP address is truly associated with the hostname.
*BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass by Capture-replay - (294)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 294 (Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay)
A capture-replay flaw exists when the design of the software makes it possible for a malicious user to sniff network traffic and bypass authentication by replaying it to the server in question to the same effect as the original message (or with minor changes).
*VariantVariantReflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol - (301)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 301 (Reflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol)
Simple authentication protocols are subject to reflection attacks if a malicious user can use the target machine to impersonate a trusted user.
*VariantVariantAuthentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data - (302)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 302 (Authentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data)
The authentication scheme or implementation uses key data elements that are assumed to be immutable, but can be controlled or modified by the attacker.
*BaseBaseIncorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm - (303)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 303 (Incorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm)
The requirements for the software dictate the use of an established authentication algorithm, but the implementation of the algorithm is incorrect.
*BaseBaseAuthentication Bypass by Primary Weakness - (305)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 305 (Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness)
The authentication algorithm is sound, but the implemented mechanism can be bypassed as the result of a separate weakness that is primary to the authentication error.
*VariantVariantMissing Authentication for Critical Function - (306)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 306 (Missing Authentication for Critical Function)
The software does not perform any authentication for functionality that requires a provable user identity or consumes a significant amount of resources.
*BaseBaseImproper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts - (307)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 307 (Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts)
The software does not implement sufficient measures to prevent multiple failed authentication attempts within in a short time frame, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*BaseBaseUse of Single-factor Authentication - (308)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 308 (Use of Single-factor Authentication)
The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.
*BaseBaseUse of Password System for Primary Authentication - (309)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 309 (Use of Password System for Primary Authentication)
The use of password systems as the primary means of authentication may be subject to several flaws or shortcomings, each reducing the effectiveness of the mechanism.
*CompositeCompositeSession Fixation - (384)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 384 (Session Fixation)
Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal authenticated sessions.
+BaseBaseWeak Password Requirements - (521)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 521 (Weak Password Requirements)
The product does not require that users should have strong passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to compromise user accounts.
*VariantVariantEmpty Password in Configuration File - (258)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 521 (Weak Password Requirements) > 258 (Empty Password in Configuration File)
Using an empty string as a password is insecure.
+BaseBaseInsufficiently Protected Credentials - (522)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials)
This weakness occurs when the application transmits or stores authentication credentials and uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.
*VariantVariantPlaintext Storage of a Password - (256)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 256 (Plaintext Storage of a Password)
Storing a password in plaintext may result in a system compromise.
*BaseBaseStoring Passwords in a Recoverable Format - (257)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 257 (Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format)
The storage of passwords in a recoverable format makes them subject to password reuse attacks by malicious users. In fact, it should be noted that recoverable encrypted passwords provide no significant benefit over plaintext passwords since they are subject not only to reuse by malicious attackers but also by malicious insiders. If a system administrator can recover a password directly, or use a brute force search on the available information, the administrator can use the password on other accounts.
+VariantVariantPassword in Configuration File - (260)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File)
The software stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.
*VariantVariantASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File - (13)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 13 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File)
Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource making them an easy target for attackers.
*VariantVariantEmpty Password in Configuration File - (258)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 260 (Password in Configuration File) > 258 (Empty Password in Configuration File)
Using an empty string as a password is insecure.
*VariantVariantUnprotected Transport of Credentials - (523)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 523 (Unprotected Transport of Credentials)
Login pages not using adequate measures to protect the user name and password while they are in transit from the client to the server.
*VariantVariantMissing Password Field Masking - (549)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 549 (Missing Password Field Masking)
The software does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File - (555)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials) > 555 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File)
The J2EE application stores a plaintext password in a configuration file.
*VariantVariantAuthentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created - (593)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 593 (Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created)
The software modifies the SSL context after connection creation has begun.
*BaseBaseUse of Client-Side Authentication - (603)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 603 (Use of Client-Side Authentication)
A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client that omits the authentication check.
*VariantVariantUnverified Password Change - (620)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 620 (Unverified Password Change)
When setting a new password for a user, the product does not require knowledge of the original password, or using another form of authentication.
*BaseBaseWeak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password - (640)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 640 (Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password)
The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.
*BaseBaseOverly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism - (645)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 645 (Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism)
The software contains an account lockout protection mechanism, but the mechanism is too restrictive and can be triggered too easily, which allows attackers to deny service to legitimate users by causing their accounts to be locked out.
+BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Credentials - (798)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials)
The software contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to external components, or encryption of internal data.
*BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Password - (259)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 259 (Use of Hard-coded Password)
The software contains a hard-coded password, which it uses for its own inbound authentication or for outbound communication to external components.
*BaseBaseUse of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key - (321)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials) > 321 (Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key)
The use of a hard-coded cryptographic key significantly increases the possibility that encrypted data may be recovered.
*BaseBaseGuessable CAPTCHA - (804)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
*BaseBaseUse of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication - (836)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication) > 836 (Use of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication)
The software records password hashes in a data store, receives a hash of a password from a client, and compares the supplied hash to the hash obtained from the data store.
*BaseBaseOrigin Validation Error - (346)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
+ClassClassImproper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints - (923)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints)
The software establishes a communication channel to (or from) an endpoint for privileged or protected operations, but it does not properly ensure that it is communicating with the correct endpoint.
*VariantVariantReliance on IP Address for Authentication - (291)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 291 (Reliance on IP Address for Authentication)
The software uses an IP address for authentication.
*VariantVariantImproper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch - (297)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 297 (Improper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch)
The software communicates with a host that provides a certificate, but the software does not properly ensure that the certificate is actually associated with that host.
*ClassClassChannel Accessible by Non-Endpoint ('Man-in-the-Middle') - (300)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 300 (Channel Accessible by Non-Endpoint ('Man-in-the-Middle'))
The product does not adequately verify the identity of actors at both ends of a communication channel, or does not adequately ensure the integrity of the channel, in a way that allows the channel to be accessed or influenced by an actor that is not an endpoint.
*BaseBaseKey Exchange without Entity Authentication - (322)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 322 (Key Exchange without Entity Authentication)
The software performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.
*VariantVariantReliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action - (350)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 350 (Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action)
The software performs reverse DNS resolution on an IP address to obtain the hostname and make a security decision, but it does not properly ensure that the IP address is truly associated with the hostname.
*BaseBaseUnprotected Primary Channel - (419)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 419 (Unprotected Primary Channel)
The software uses a primary channel for administration or restricted functionality, but it does not properly protect the channel.
+BaseBaseUnprotected Alternate Channel - (420)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel)
The software protects a primary channel, but it does not use the same level of protection for an alternate channel.
*BaseBaseRace Condition During Access to Alternate Channel - (421)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel) > 421 (Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel)
The product opens an alternate channel to communicate with an authorized user, but the channel is accessible to other actors.
*VariantVariantUnprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter') - (422)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel) > 422 (Unprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter'))
The software does not properly verify the source of a message in the Windows Messaging System while running at elevated privileges, creating an alternate channel through which an attacker can directly send a message to the product.
*VariantVariantImproper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver - (925)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 925 (Improper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver)
The Android application uses a Broadcast Receiver that receives an Intent but does not properly verify that the Intent came from an authorized source.Intent Spoofing
*BaseBaseImproper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel - (940)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 940 (Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel)
The software establishes a communication channel to handle an incoming request that has been initiated by an actor, but it does not properly verify that the request is coming from the expected origin.
*BaseBaseIncorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel - (941)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints) > 941 (Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel)
The software creates a communication channel to initiate an outgoing request to an actor, but it does not correctly specify the intended destination for that actor.
*VariantVariantOverly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist - (942)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 284 (Improper Access Control) > 942 (Overly Permissive Cross-domain Whitelist)
The software uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.
+BaseBaseImproper Certificate Validation - (295)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation)
The software does not validate, or incorrectly validates, a certificate.
*BaseBaseImproper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust - (296)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 296 (Improper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust)
The software does not follow, or incorrectly follows, the chain of trust for a certificate back to a trusted root certificate, resulting in incorrect trust of any resource that is associated with that certificate.
*VariantVariantImproper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch - (297)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 297 (Improper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch)
The software communicates with a host that provides a certificate, but the software does not properly ensure that the certificate is actually associated with that host.
*VariantVariantImproper Validation of Certificate Expiration - (298)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 298 (Improper Validation of Certificate Expiration)
A certificate expiration is not validated or is incorrectly validated, so trust may be assigned to certificates that have been abandoned due to age.
+BaseBaseImproper Check for Certificate Revocation - (299)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 299 (Improper Check for Certificate Revocation)
The software does not check or incorrectly checks the revocation status of a certificate, which may cause it to use a certificate that has been compromised.
*VariantVariantMissing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check - (370)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 299 (Improper Check for Certificate Revocation) > 370 (Missing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check)
The software does not check the revocation status of a certificate after its initial revocation check, which can cause the software to perform privileged actions even after the certificate is revoked at a later time.
*VariantVariantMissing Validation of OpenSSL Certificate - (599)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation) > 599 (Missing Validation of OpenSSL Certificate)
The software uses OpenSSL and trusts or uses a certificate without using the SSL_get_verify_result() function to ensure that the certificate satisfies all necessary security requirements.
+BaseBaseMissing Encryption of Sensitive Data - (311)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data)
The software does not encrypt sensitive or critical information before storage or transmission.
+BaseBaseCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information - (312)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within a resource that might be accessible to another control sphere.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage in a File or on Disk - (313)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 313 (Cleartext Storage in a File or on Disk)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a file, or on disk.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage in the Registry - (314)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 314 (Cleartext Storage in the Registry)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in the registry.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie - (315)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 315 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a cookie.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory - (316)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 316 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in memory.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI - (317)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 317 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within the GUI.
*VariantVariantCleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable - (318)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information) > 318 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable)
The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in an executable.
+BaseBaseCleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information - (319)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 319 (Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information)
The software transmits sensitive or security-critical data in cleartext in a communication channel that can be sniffed by unauthorized actors.
*VariantVariantJ2EE Misconfiguration: Data Transmission Without Encryption - (5)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 319 (Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information) > 5 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Data Transmission Without Encryption)
Information sent over a network can be compromised while in transit. An attacker may be able to read or modify the contents if the data are sent in plaintext or are weakly encrypted.
*VariantVariantSensitive Cookie in HTTPS Session Without 'Secure' Attribute - (614)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data) > 614 (Sensitive Cookie in HTTPS Session Without 'Secure' Attribute)
The Secure attribute for sensitive cookies in HTTPS sessions is not set, which could cause the user agent to send those cookies in plaintext over an HTTP session.
+ClassClassInadequate Encryption Strength - (326)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 326 (Inadequate Encryption Strength)
The software stores or transmits sensitive data using an encryption scheme that is theoretically sound, but is not strong enough for the level of protection required.
*VariantVariantWeak Cryptography for Passwords - (261)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 326 (Inadequate Encryption Strength) > 261 (Weak Cryptography for Passwords)
Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.
*BaseBaseReversible One-Way Hash - (328)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 326 (Inadequate Encryption Strength) > 328 (Reversible One-Way Hash)
The product uses a hashing algorithm that produces a hash value that can be used to determine the original input, or to find an input that can produce the same hash, more efficiently than brute force techniques.
+BaseBaseUse of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm - (327)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm)
The use of a broken or risky cryptographic algorithm is an unnecessary risk that may result in the exposure of sensitive information.
*BaseBaseReversible One-Way Hash - (328)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm) > 328 (Reversible One-Way Hash)
The product uses a hashing algorithm that produces a hash value that can be used to determine the original input, or to find an input that can produce the same hash, more efficiently than brute force techniques.
*VariantVariantUse of RSA Algorithm without OAEP - (780)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm) > 780 (Use of RSA Algorithm without OAEP)
The software uses the RSA algorithm but does not incorporate Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP), which might weaken the encryption.
+BaseBaseUse of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort - (916)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm) > 916 (Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort)
The software generates a hash for a password, but it uses a scheme that does not provide a sufficient level of computational effort that would make password cracking attacks infeasible or expensive.
*BaseBaseUse of a One-Way Hash without a Salt - (759)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm) > 916 (Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort) > 759 (Use of a One-Way Hash without a Salt)
The software uses a one-way cryptographic hash against an input that should not be reversible, such as a password, but the software does not also use a salt as part of the input.
*BaseBaseUse of a One-Way Hash with a Predictable Salt - (760)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm) > 916 (Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort) > 760 (Use of a One-Way Hash with a Predictable Salt)
The software uses a one-way cryptographic hash against an input that should not be reversible, such as a password, but the software uses a predictable salt as part of the input.
+ClassClassInsufficient Verification of Data Authenticity - (345)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity)
The software does not sufficiently verify the origin or authenticity of data, in a way that causes it to accept invalid data.
*BaseBaseOrigin Validation Error - (346)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
*BaseBaseImproper Verification of Cryptographic Signature - (347)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 347 (Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature)
The software does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.
*BaseBaseUse of Less Trusted Source - (348)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 348 (Use of Less Trusted Source)
The software has two different sources of the same data or information, but it uses the source that has less support for verification, is less trusted, or is less resistant to attack.
*BaseBaseAcceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data - (349)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 349 (Acceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data)
The software, when processing trusted data, accepts any untrusted data that is also included with the trusted data, treating the untrusted data as if it were trusted.
*BaseBaseInsufficient Type Distinction - (351)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 351 (Insufficient Type Distinction)
The software does not properly distinguish between different types of elements in a way that leads to insecure behavior.
*CompositeCompositeCross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) - (352)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 352 (Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF))
The web application does not, or can not, sufficiently verify whether a well-formed, valid, consistent request was intentionally provided by the user who submitted the request.Session RidingCross Site Reference ForgeryXSRF
*BaseBaseMissing Support for Integrity Check - (353)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 353 (Missing Support for Integrity Check)
The software uses a transmission protocol that does not include a mechanism for verifying the integrity of the data during transmission, such as a checksum.
*BaseBaseImproper Validation of Integrity Check Value - (354)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 354 (Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value)
The software does not validate or incorrectly validates the integrity check values or "checksums" of a message. This may prevent it from detecting if the data has been modified or corrupted in transmission.
+BaseBaseTrust of System Event Data - (360)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 360 (Trust of System Event Data)
Security based on event locations are insecure and can be spoofed.
*VariantVariantUnprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter') - (422)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 360 (Trust of System Event Data) > 422 (Unprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter'))
The software does not properly verify the source of a message in the Windows Messaging System while running at elevated privileges, creating an alternate channel through which an attacker can directly send a message to the product.
*VariantVariantIncomplete Identification of Uploaded File Variables (PHP) - (616)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 616 (Incomplete Identification of Uploaded File Variables (PHP))
The PHP application uses an old method for processing uploaded files by referencing the four global variables that are set for each file (e.g. $varname, $varname_size, $varname_name, $varname_type). These variables could be overwritten by attackers, causing the application to process unauthorized files.
*VariantVariantReliance on File Name or Extension of Externally-Supplied File - (646)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 646 (Reliance on File Name or Extension of Externally-Supplied File)
The software allows a file to be uploaded, but it relies on the file name or extension of the file to determine the appropriate behaviors. This could be used by attackers to cause the file to be misclassified and processed in a dangerous fashion.
*BaseBaseReliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking - (649)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 649 (Reliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking)
The software uses obfuscation or encryption of inputs that should not be mutable by an external actor, but the software does not use integrity checks to detect if those inputs have been modified.
*ClassClassImproper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel - (924)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 924 (Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel)
The software establishes a communication channel with an endpoint and receives a message from that endpoint, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the message was not modified during transmission.
+BaseBaseInsufficient UI Warning of Dangerous Operations - (357)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 357 (Insufficient UI Warning of Dangerous Operations)
The user interface provides a warning to a user regarding dangerous or sensitive operations, but the warning is not noticeable enough to warrant attention.
*BaseBaseMultiple Interpretations of UI Input - (450)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 357 (Insufficient UI Warning of Dangerous Operations) > 450 (Multiple Interpretations of UI Input)
The UI has multiple interpretations of user input but does not prompt the user when it selects the less secure interpretation.
*BaseBaseImproperly Implemented Security Check for Standard - (358)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 358 (Improperly Implemented Security Check for Standard)
The software does not implement or incorrectly implements one or more security-relevant checks as specified by the design of a standardized algorithm, protocol, or technique.
+ClassClassImproper Protection of Alternate Path - (424)
1000 (Research Concepts) > 693 (Protection Mechanism Failure) > 424 (Improper Protection of Alternate Path)
The product does not sufficiently protect all possible paths that a user can take to access restricted functionality or resources.