CWE

Common Weakness Enumeration

A community-developed list of SW & HW weaknesses that can become vulnerabilities

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ID

CWE VIEW: Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends

View ID: 1400
Vulnerability Mapping: PROHIBITEDThis CWE ID must not be used to map to real-world vulnerabilities
Type: Graph
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+ Objective

This view organizes weaknesses around categories that are of interest to large-scale software assurance research to support the elimination of weaknesses using tactics such as secure language development. It is also intended to help tracking weakness trends in publicly disclosed vulnerability data. This view is comprehensive in that every weakness must be contained in it, unlike most other views that only use a subset of weaknesses. This view is structured with categories at the top level, with a second level of only weaknesses. Relationships among the weaknesses presented under the research view (CWE-1000) are not shown.

Each weakness is added to only one category. All categories are mutually exclusive; that is, no weakness can be a member of more than one category. While weaknesses defy strict categorization along only one characteristic, the forced bucketing into a single category can simplify certain kinds of analysis.

Note that the size of each category can vary widely because (1) CWE is not as well fleshed-out in some areas compared to others; (2) abstraction of the CWEs in the grouping might go down to Variant level for some buckets, versus others.

+ Audience
StakeholderDescription
Academic ResearchersResearchers can use this view to evaluate the breadth and depth of software assurance with respect to mitigating and managing weaknesses before they become vulnerabilities.
+ Relationships
The following graph shows the tree-like relationships between weaknesses that exist at different levels of abstraction. At the highest level, categories and pillars exist to group weaknesses. Categories (which are not technically weaknesses) are special CWE entries used to group weaknesses that share a common characteristic. Pillars are weaknesses that are described in the most abstract fashion. Below these top-level entries are weaknesses are varying levels of abstraction. Classes are still very abstract, typically independent of any specific language or technology. Base level weaknesses are used to present a more specific type of weakness. A variant is a weakness that is described at a very low level of detail, typically limited to a specific language or technology. A chain is a set of weaknesses that must be reachable consecutively in order to produce an exploitable vulnerability. While a composite is a set of weaknesses that must all be present simultaneously in order to produce an exploitable vulnerability.
Show Details:
1400 - Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control - (1396)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control)
Weaknesses in this category are related to access control.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods - (9)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 9 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods)
If elevated access rights are assigned to EJB methods, then an attacker can take advantage of the permissions to exploit the product.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File - (13)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 13 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File)
Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource making them an easy target for attackers.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Data Queries - (202)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 202 (Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Data Queries)
When trying to keep information confidential, an attacker can often infer some of the information by using statistics.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Plaintext Storage of a Password - (256)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 256 (Plaintext Storage of a Password)
Storing a password in plaintext may result in a system compromise.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format - (257)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 257 (Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format)
The storage of passwords in a recoverable format makes them subject to password reuse attacks by malicious users. In fact, it should be noted that recoverable encrypted passwords provide no significant benefit over plaintext passwords since they are subject not only to reuse by malicious attackers but also by malicious insiders. If a system administrator can recover a password directly, or use a brute force search on the available information, the administrator can use the password on other accounts.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Empty Password in Configuration File - (258)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 258 (Empty Password in Configuration File)
Using an empty string as a password is insecure.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Hard-coded Password - (259)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 259 (Use of Hard-coded Password)
The product contains a hard-coded password, which it uses for its own inbound authentication or for outbound communication to external components.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Password in Configuration File - (260)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 260 (Password in Configuration File)
The product stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Weak Encoding for Password - (261)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 261 (Weak Encoding for Password)
Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Not Using Password Aging - (262)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 262 (Not Using Password Aging)
The product does not have a mechanism in place for managing password aging.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Password Aging with Long Expiration - (263)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 263 (Password Aging with Long Expiration)
The product supports password aging, but the expiration period is too long.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Privilege Assignment - (266)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 266 (Incorrect Privilege Assignment)
A product incorrectly assigns a privilege to a particular actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions - (267)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 267 (Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions)
A particular privilege, role, capability, or right can be used to perform unsafe actions that were not intended, even when it is assigned to the correct entity.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Privilege Chaining - (268)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 268 (Privilege Chaining)
Two distinct privileges, roles, capabilities, or rights can be combined in a way that allows an entity to perform unsafe actions that would not be allowed without that combination.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Privilege Management - (269)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 269 (Improper Privilege Management)
The product does not properly assign, modify, track, or check privileges for an actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Privilege Context Switching Error - (270)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 270 (Privilege Context Switching Error)
The product does not properly manage privileges while it is switching between different contexts that have different privileges or spheres of control.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors - (271)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 271 (Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors)
The product does not drop privileges before passing control of a resource to an actor that does not have those privileges.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Least Privilege Violation - (272)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 272 (Least Privilege Violation)
The elevated privilege level required to perform operations such as chroot() should be dropped immediately after the operation is performed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Check for Dropped Privileges - (273)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 273 (Improper Check for Dropped Privileges)
The product attempts to drop privileges but does not check or incorrectly checks to see if the drop succeeded.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges - (274)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 274 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to perform an operation, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Default Permissions - (276)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 276 (Incorrect Default Permissions)
During installation, installed file permissions are set to allow anyone to modify those files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insecure Inherited Permissions - (277)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 277 (Insecure Inherited Permissions)
A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions - (278)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 278 (Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions)
A product inherits a set of insecure permissions for an object, e.g. when copying from an archive file, without user awareness or involvement.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions - (279)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 279 (Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions)
While it is executing, the product sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges - (280)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 280 (Improper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges )
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to access resources or functionality as specified by their permissions. This may cause it to follow unexpected code paths that may leave the product in an invalid state.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Preservation of Permissions - (281)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 281 (Improper Preservation of Permissions)
The product does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrictive permissions than intended.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Ownership Management - (282)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 282 (Improper Ownership Management)
The product assigns the wrong ownership, or does not properly verify the ownership, of an object or resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unverified Ownership - (283)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 283 (Unverified Ownership)
The product does not properly verify that a critical resource is owned by the proper entity.
*PillarPillar - a weakness that is the most abstract type of weakness and represents a theme for all class/base/variant weaknesses related to it. A Pillar is different from a Category as a Pillar is still technically a type of weakness that describes a mistake, while a Category represents a common characteristic used to group related things.Improper Access Control - (284)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 284 (Improper Access Control)
The product does not restrict or incorrectly restricts access to a resource from an unauthorized actor.Authorization
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Authorization - (285)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 285 (Improper Authorization)
The product does not perform or incorrectly performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Incorrect User Management - (286)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 286 (Incorrect User Management)
The product does not properly manage a user within its environment.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Authentication - (287)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 287 (Improper Authentication)
When an actor claims to have a given identity, the product does not prove or insufficiently proves that the claim is correct.authentificationAuthNAuthC
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel - (288)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 288 (Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel)
A product requires authentication, but the product has an alternate path or channel that does not require authentication.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass by Alternate Name - (289)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 289 (Authentication Bypass by Alternate Name)
The product performs authentication based on the name of a resource being accessed, or the name of the actor performing the access, but it does not properly check all possible names for that resource or actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass by Spoofing - (290)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 290 (Authentication Bypass by Spoofing)
This attack-focused weakness is caused by incorrectly implemented authentication schemes that are subject to spoofing attacks.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on IP Address for Authentication - (291)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 291 (Reliance on IP Address for Authentication)
The product uses an IP address for authentication.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Using Referer Field for Authentication - (293)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 293 (Using Referer Field for Authentication)
The referer field in HTTP requests can be easily modified and, as such, is not a valid means of message integrity checking.referrer
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay - (294)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 294 (Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay)
A capture-replay flaw exists when the design of the product makes it possible for a malicious user to sniff network traffic and bypass authentication by replaying it to the server in question to the same effect as the original message (or with minor changes).
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Certificate Validation - (295)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 295 (Improper Certificate Validation)
The product does not validate, or incorrectly validates, a certificate.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust - (296)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 296 (Improper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust)
The product does not follow, or incorrectly follows, the chain of trust for a certificate back to a trusted root certificate, resulting in incorrect trust of any resource that is associated with that certificate.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch - (297)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 297 (Improper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch)
The product communicates with a host that provides a certificate, but the product does not properly ensure that the certificate is actually associated with that host.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Certificate Expiration - (298)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 298 (Improper Validation of Certificate Expiration)
A certificate expiration is not validated or is incorrectly validated, so trust may be assigned to certificates that have been abandoned due to age.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Check for Certificate Revocation - (299)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 299 (Improper Check for Certificate Revocation)
The product does not check or incorrectly checks the revocation status of a certificate, which may cause it to use a certificate that has been compromised.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Channel Accessible by Non-Endpoint - (300)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 300 (Channel Accessible by Non-Endpoint)
The product does not adequately verify the identity of actors at both ends of a communication channel, or does not adequately ensure the integrity of the channel, in a way that allows the channel to be accessed or influenced by an actor that is not an endpoint.Adversary-in-the-Middle / AITMMan-in-the-Middle / MITMPerson-in-the-Middle / PITMMonkey-in-the-MiddleMonster-in-the-MiddleOn-path attackInterception attack
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol - (301)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 301 (Reflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol)
Simple authentication protocols are subject to reflection attacks if a malicious user can use the target machine to impersonate a trusted user.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data - (302)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 302 (Authentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data)
The authentication scheme or implementation uses key data elements that are assumed to be immutable, but can be controlled or modified by the attacker.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm - (303)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 303 (Incorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm)
The requirements for the product dictate the use of an established authentication algorithm, but the implementation of the algorithm is incorrect.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Critical Step in Authentication - (304)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 304 (Missing Critical Step in Authentication)
The product implements an authentication technique, but it skips a step that weakens the technique.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness - (305)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 305 (Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness)
The authentication algorithm is sound, but the implemented mechanism can be bypassed as the result of a separate weakness that is primary to the authentication error.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Authentication for Critical Function - (306)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 306 (Missing Authentication for Critical Function)
The product does not perform any authentication for functionality that requires a provable user identity or consumes a significant amount of resources.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts - (307)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 307 (Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts)
The product does not implement sufficient measures to prevent multiple failed authentication attempts within a short time frame, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Single-factor Authentication - (308)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 308 (Use of Single-factor Authentication)
The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Password System for Primary Authentication - (309)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 309 (Use of Password System for Primary Authentication)
The use of password systems as the primary means of authentication may be subject to several flaws or shortcomings, each reducing the effectiveness of the mechanism.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key - (321)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 321 (Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key)
The use of a hard-coded cryptographic key significantly increases the possibility that encrypted data may be recovered.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Key Exchange without Entity Authentication - (322)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 322 (Key Exchange without Entity Authentication)
The product performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action - (350)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 350 (Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action)
The product performs reverse DNS resolution on an IP address to obtain the hostname and make a security decision, but it does not properly ensure that the IP address is truly associated with the hostname.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check - (370)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 370 (Missing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check)
The product does not check the revocation status of a certificate after its initial revocation check, which can cause the product to perform privileged actions even after the certificate is revoked at a later time.
*CompositeComposite - a Compound Element that consists of two or more distinct weaknesses, in which all weaknesses must be present at the same time in order for a potential vulnerability to arise. Removing any of the weaknesses eliminates or sharply reduces the risk. One weakness, X, can be "broken down" into component weaknesses Y and Z. There can be cases in which one weakness might not be essential to a composite, but changes the nature of the composite when it becomes a vulnerability.Session Fixation - (384)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 384 (Session Fixation)
Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal authenticated sessions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unprotected Primary Channel - (419)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 419 (Unprotected Primary Channel)
The product uses a primary channel for administration or restricted functionality, but it does not properly protect the channel.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unprotected Alternate Channel - (420)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 420 (Unprotected Alternate Channel)
The product protects a primary channel, but it does not use the same level of protection for an alternate channel.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel - (421)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 421 (Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel)
The product opens an alternate channel to communicate with an authorized user, but the channel is accessible to other actors.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter') - (422)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 422 (Unprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter'))
The product does not properly verify the source of a message in the Windows Messaging System while running at elevated privileges, creating an alternate channel through which an attacker can directly send a message to the product.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Direct Request ('Forced Browsing') - (425)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 425 (Direct Request ('Forced Browsing'))
The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.forced browsing
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy') - (441)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 441 (Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy'))
The product receives a request, message, or directive from an upstream component, but the product does not sufficiently preserve the original source of the request before forwarding the request to an external actor that is outside of the product's control sphere. This causes the product to appear to be the source of the request, leading it to act as a proxy or other intermediary between the upstream component and the external actor.Confused Deputy
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource..NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation - (520)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 520 (.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation)
Allowing a .NET application to run at potentially escalated levels of access to the underlying operating and file systems can be dangerous and result in various forms of attacks.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Weak Password Requirements - (521)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 521 (Weak Password Requirements)
The product does not require that users should have strong passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to compromise user accounts.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Insufficiently Protected Credentials - (522)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 522 (Insufficiently Protected Credentials)
The product transmits or stores authentication credentials, but it uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unprotected Transport of Credentials - (523)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 523 (Unprotected Transport of Credentials)
Login pages do not use adequate measures to protect the user name and password while they are in transit from the client to the server.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Password Field Masking - (549)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 549 (Missing Password Field Masking)
The product does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization - (551)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 551 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization)
If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File - (555)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 555 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File)
The J2EE application stores a plaintext password in a configuration file.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation - (556)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 556 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation)
Configuring an ASP.NET application to run with impersonated credentials may give the application unnecessary privileges.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key - (566)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 566 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key)
The product uses a database table that includes records that should not be accessible to an actor, but it executes a SQL statement with a primary key that can be controlled by that actor.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created - (593)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 593 (Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created)
The product modifies the SSL context after connection creation has begun.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Validation of OpenSSL Certificate - (599)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 599 (Missing Validation of OpenSSL Certificate)
The product uses OpenSSL and trusts or uses a certificate without using the SSL_get_verify_result() function to ensure that the certificate satisfies all necessary security requirements.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect') - (601)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 601 (URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect'))
A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks.Open RedirectCross-site RedirectCross-domain Redirect
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Client-Side Authentication - (603)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 603 (Use of Client-Side Authentication)
A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client that omits the authentication check.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference - (611)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 611 (Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference)
The product processes an XML document that can contain XML entities with URIs that resolve to documents outside of the intended sphere of control, causing the product to embed incorrect documents into its output.XXE
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Authorization of Index Containing Sensitive Information - (612)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 612 (Improper Authorization of Index Containing Sensitive Information)
The product creates a search index of private or sensitive documents, but it does not properly limit index access to actors who are authorized to see the original information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Session Expiration - (613)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 613 (Insufficient Session Expiration)
According to WASC, "Insufficient Session Expiration is when a web site permits an attacker to reuse old session credentials or session IDs for authorization."
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unverified Password Change - (620)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 620 (Unverified Password Change)
When setting a new password for a user, the product does not require knowledge of the original password, or using another form of authentication.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting - (623)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 623 (Unsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting)
An ActiveX control is intended for restricted use, but it has been marked as safe-for-scripting.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key - (639)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 639 (Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key)
The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.Insecure Direct Object Reference / IDORBroken Object Level Authorization / BOLAHorizontal Authorization
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password - (640)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 640 (Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password)
The product contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism - (645)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 645 (Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism)
The product contains an account lockout protection mechanism, but the mechanism is too restrictive and can be triggered too easily, which allows attackers to deny service to legitimate users by causing their accounts to be locked out.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions - (647)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 647 (Use of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions)
The product defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the assumption that a URL is canonical. This can allow a non-canonical URL to bypass the authorization.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs - (648)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 648 (Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs)
The product does not conform to the API requirements for a function call that requires extra privileges. This could allow attackers to gain privileges by causing the function to be called incorrectly.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Ownership Assignment - (708)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 708 (Incorrect Ownership Assignment)
The product assigns an owner to a resource, but the owner is outside of the intended control sphere.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource - (732)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 732 (Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource)
The product specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Hard-coded Credentials - (798)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 798 (Use of Hard-coded Credentials)
The product contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to external components, or encryption of internal data.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Guessable CAPTCHA - (804)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 804 (Guessable CAPTCHA)
The product uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication - (836)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 836 (Use of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication)
The product records password hashes in a data store, receives a hash of a password from a client, and compares the supplied hash to the hash obtained from the data store.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Placement of User into Incorrect Group - (842)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 842 (Placement of User into Incorrect Group)
The product or the administrator places a user into an incorrect group.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Missing Authorization - (862)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 862 (Missing Authorization)
The product does not perform an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.AuthZ
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Incorrect Authorization - (863)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 863 (Incorrect Authorization)
The product performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action, but it does not correctly perform the check. This allows attackers to bypass intended access restrictions.AuthZ
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) - (918)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 918 (Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF))
The web server receives a URL or similar request from an upstream component and retrieves the contents of this URL, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the request is being sent to the expected destination.XSPA
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Storage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control - (921)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 921 (Storage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control)
The product stores sensitive information in a file system or device that does not have built-in access control.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints - (923)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 923 (Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints)
The product establishes a communication channel to (or from) an endpoint for privileged or protected operations, but it does not properly ensure that it is communicating with the correct endpoint.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver - (925)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 925 (Improper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver)
The Android application uses a Broadcast Receiver that receives an Intent but does not properly verify that the Intent came from an authorized source.Intent Spoofing
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Export of Android Application Components - (926)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 926 (Improper Export of Android Application Components)
The Android application exports a component for use by other applications, but does not properly restrict which applications can launch the component or access the data it contains.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication - (927)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 927 (Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication)
The Android application uses an implicit intent for transmitting sensitive data to other applications.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme - (939)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 939 (Improper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme)
The product uses a handler for a custom URL scheme, but it does not properly restrict which actors can invoke the handler using the scheme.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel - (940)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 940 (Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel)
The product establishes a communication channel to handle an incoming request that has been initiated by an actor, but it does not properly verify that the request is coming from the expected origin.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel - (941)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 941 (Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel)
The product creates a communication channel to initiate an outgoing request to an actor, but it does not correctly specify the intended destination for that actor.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Permissive Cross-domain Policy with Untrusted Domains - (942)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 942 (Permissive Cross-domain Policy with Untrusted Domains)
The product uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Sensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag - (1004)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1004 (Sensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag)
The product uses a cookie to store sensitive information, but the cookie is not marked with the HttpOnly flag.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames - (1021)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1021 (Improper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames)
The web application does not restrict or incorrectly restricts frame objects or UI layers that belong to another application or domain, which can lead to user confusion about which interface the user is interacting with.ClickjackingUI Redress AttackTapjacking
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Web Link to Untrusted Target with window.opener Access - (1022)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1022 (Use of Web Link to Untrusted Target with window.opener Access)
The web application produces links to untrusted external sites outside of its sphere of control, but it does not properly prevent the external site from modifying security-critical properties of the window.opener object, such as the location property.tabnabbing
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.On-Chip Debug and Test Interface With Improper Access Control - (1191)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1191 (On-Chip Debug and Test Interface With Improper Access Control)
The chip does not implement or does not correctly perform access control to check whether users are authorized to access internal registers and test modes through the physical debug/test interface.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Granularity of Access Control - (1220)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1220 (Insufficient Granularity of Access Control)
The product implements access controls via a policy or other feature with the intention to disable or restrict accesses (reads and/or writes) to assets in a system from untrusted agents. However, implemented access controls lack required granularity, which renders the control policy too broad because it allows accesses from unauthorized agents to the security-sensitive assets.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Granularity of Address Regions Protected by Register Locks - (1222)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1222 (Insufficient Granularity of Address Regions Protected by Register Locks)
The product defines a large address region protected from modification by the same register lock control bit. This results in a conflict between the functional requirement that some addresses need to be writable by software during operation and the security requirement that the system configuration lock bit must be set during the boot process.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Write-Once Bit Fields - (1224)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1224 (Improper Restriction of Write-Once Bit Fields)
The hardware design control register "sticky bits" or write-once bit fields are improperly implemented, such that they can be reprogrammed by software.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Metadata - (1230)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1230 (Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Metadata)
The product prevents direct access to a resource containing sensitive information, but it does not sufficiently limit access to metadata that is derived from the original, sensitive information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Prevention of Lock Bit Modification - (1231)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1231 (Improper Prevention of Lock Bit Modification)
The product uses a trusted lock bit for restricting access to registers, address regions, or other resources, but the product does not prevent the value of the lock bit from being modified after it has been set.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Security-Sensitive Hardware Controls with Missing Lock Bit Protection - (1233)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1233 (Security-Sensitive Hardware Controls with Missing Lock Bit Protection)
The product uses a register lock bit protection mechanism, but it does not ensure that the lock bit prevents modification of system registers or controls that perform changes to important hardware system configuration.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inclusion of Undocumented Features or Chicken Bits - (1242)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1242 (Inclusion of Undocumented Features or Chicken Bits)
The device includes chicken bits or undocumented features that can create entry points for unauthorized actors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Sensitive Non-Volatile Information Not Protected During Debug - (1243)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1243 (Sensitive Non-Volatile Information Not Protected During Debug)
Access to security-sensitive information stored in fuses is not limited during debug.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Internal Asset Exposed to Unsafe Debug Access Level or State - (1244)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1244 (Internal Asset Exposed to Unsafe Debug Access Level or State)
The product uses physical debug or test interfaces with support for multiple access levels, but it assigns the wrong debug access level to an internal asset, providing unintended access to the asset from untrusted debug agents.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.CPU Hardware Not Configured to Support Exclusivity of Write and Execute Operations - (1252)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1252 (CPU Hardware Not Configured to Support Exclusivity of Write and Execute Operations)
The CPU is not configured to provide hardware support for exclusivity of write and execute operations on memory. This allows an attacker to execute data from all of memory.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Software Interfaces to Hardware Features - (1256)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1256 (Improper Restriction of Software Interfaces to Hardware Features)
The product provides software-controllable device functionality for capabilities such as power and clock management, but it does not properly limit functionality that can lead to modification of hardware memory or register bits, or the ability to observe physical side channels.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Access Control Applied to Mirrored or Aliased Memory Regions - (1257)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1257 (Improper Access Control Applied to Mirrored or Aliased Memory Regions)
Aliased or mirrored memory regions in hardware designs may have inconsistent read/write permissions enforced by the hardware. A possible result is that an untrusted agent is blocked from accessing a memory region but is not blocked from accessing the corresponding aliased memory region.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Security Token Assignment - (1259)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1259 (Improper Restriction of Security Token Assignment)
The System-On-A-Chip (SoC) implements a Security Token mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. However, the Security Tokens are improperly protected.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Overlap Between Protected Memory Ranges - (1260)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1260 (Improper Handling of Overlap Between Protected Memory Ranges)
The product allows address regions to overlap, which can result in the bypassing of intended memory protection.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Access Control for Register Interface - (1262)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1262 (Improper Access Control for Register Interface)
The product uses memory-mapped I/O registers that act as an interface to hardware functionality from software, but there is improper access control to those registers.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Physical Access Control - (1263)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1263 (Improper Physical Access Control)
The product is designed with access restricted to certain information, but it does not sufficiently protect against an unauthorized actor with physical access to these areas.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Policy Uses Obsolete Encoding - (1267)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1267 (Policy Uses Obsolete Encoding)
The product uses an obsolete encoding mechanism to implement access controls.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Policy Privileges are not Assigned Consistently Between Control and Data Agents - (1268)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1268 (Policy Privileges are not Assigned Consistently Between Control and Data Agents)
The product's hardware-enforced access control for a particular resource improperly accounts for privilege discrepancies between control and write policies.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Generation of Incorrect Security Tokens - (1270)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1270 (Generation of Incorrect Security Tokens)
The product implements a Security Token mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. However, the Security Tokens generated in the system are incorrect.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Access Control for Volatile Memory Containing Boot Code - (1274)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1274 (Improper Access Control for Volatile Memory Containing Boot Code)
The product conducts a secure-boot process that transfers bootloader code from Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) into Volatile Memory (VM), but it does not have sufficient access control or other protections for the Volatile Memory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Sensitive Cookie with Improper SameSite Attribute - (1275)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1275 (Sensitive Cookie with Improper SameSite Attribute)
The SameSite attribute for sensitive cookies is not set, or an insecure value is used.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Hardware Child Block Incorrectly Connected to Parent System - (1276)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1276 (Hardware Child Block Incorrectly Connected to Parent System)
Signals between a hardware IP and the parent system design are incorrectly connected causing security risks.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Mutable Attestation or Measurement Reporting Data - (1283)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1283 (Mutable Attestation or Measurement Reporting Data)
The register contents used for attestation or measurement reporting data to verify boot flow are modifiable by an adversary.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Decoding of Security Identifiers - (1290)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1290 (Incorrect Decoding of Security Identifiers )
The product implements a decoding mechanism to decode certain bus-transaction signals to security identifiers. If the decoding is implemented incorrectly, then untrusted agents can now gain unauthorized access to the asset.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Conversion of Security Identifiers - (1292)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1292 (Incorrect Conversion of Security Identifiers)
The product implements a conversion mechanism to map certain bus-transaction signals to security identifiers. However, if the conversion is incorrectly implemented, untrusted agents can gain unauthorized access to the asset.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Insecure Security Identifier Mechanism - (1294)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1294 (Insecure Security Identifier Mechanism)
The System-on-Chip (SoC) implements a Security Identifier mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. However, the Security Identifiers are not correctly implemented.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Chaining or Granularity of Debug Components - (1296)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1296 (Incorrect Chaining or Granularity of Debug Components)
The product's debug components contain incorrect chaining or granularity of debug components.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unprotected Confidential Information on Device is Accessible by OSAT Vendors - (1297)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1297 (Unprotected Confidential Information on Device is Accessible by OSAT Vendors)
The product does not adequately protect confidential information on the device from being accessed by Outsourced Semiconductor Assembly and Test (OSAT) vendors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Protection Mechanism for Alternate Hardware Interface - (1299)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1299 (Missing Protection Mechanism for Alternate Hardware Interface)
The lack of protections on alternate paths to access control-protected assets (such as unprotected shadow registers and other external facing unguarded interfaces) allows an attacker to bypass existing protections to the asset that are only performed against the primary path.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Source Identifier in Entity Transactions on a System-On-Chip (SOC) - (1302)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1302 (Missing Source Identifier in Entity Transactions on a System-On-Chip (SOC))
The product implements a security identifier mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. A transaction is sent without a security identifier.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improperly Preserved Integrity of Hardware Configuration State During a Power Save/Restore Operation - (1304)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1304 (Improperly Preserved Integrity of Hardware Configuration State During a Power Save/Restore Operation)
The product performs a power save/restore operation, but it does not ensure that the integrity of the configuration state is maintained and/or verified between the beginning and ending of the operation.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Translation of Security Attributes by Fabric Bridge - (1311)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1311 (Improper Translation of Security Attributes by Fabric Bridge)
The bridge incorrectly translates security attributes from either trusted to untrusted or from untrusted to trusted when converting from one fabric protocol to another.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Protection for Mirrored Regions in On-Chip Fabric Firewall - (1312)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1312 (Missing Protection for Mirrored Regions in On-Chip Fabric Firewall)
The firewall in an on-chip fabric protects the main addressed region, but it does not protect any mirrored memory or memory-mapped-IO (MMIO) regions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Hardware Allows Activation of Test or Debug Logic at Runtime - (1313)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1313 (Hardware Allows Activation of Test or Debug Logic at Runtime)
During runtime, the hardware allows for test or debug logic (feature) to be activated, which allows for changing the state of the hardware. This feature can alter the intended behavior of the system and allow for alteration and leakage of sensitive data by an adversary.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Write Protection for Parametric Data Values - (1314)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1314 (Missing Write Protection for Parametric Data Values)
The device does not write-protect the parametric data values for sensors that scale the sensor value, allowing untrusted software to manipulate the apparent result and potentially damage hardware or cause operational failure.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Setting of Bus Controlling Capability in Fabric End-point - (1315)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1315 (Improper Setting of Bus Controlling Capability in Fabric End-point)
The bus controller enables bits in the fabric end-point to allow responder devices to control transactions on the fabric.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Fabric-Address Map Allows Programming of Unwarranted Overlaps of Protected and Unprotected Ranges - (1316)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1316 (Fabric-Address Map Allows Programming of Unwarranted Overlaps of Protected and Unprotected Ranges)
The address map of the on-chip fabric has protected and unprotected regions overlapping, allowing an attacker to bypass access control to the overlapping portion of the protected region.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Access Control in Fabric Bridge - (1317)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1317 (Improper Access Control in Fabric Bridge)
The product uses a fabric bridge for transactions between two Intellectual Property (IP) blocks, but the bridge does not properly perform the expected privilege, identity, or other access control checks between those IP blocks.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Protection for Outbound Error Messages and Alert Signals - (1320)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1320 (Improper Protection for Outbound Error Messages and Alert Signals)
Untrusted agents can disable alerts about signal conditions exceeding limits or the response mechanism that handles such alerts.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Management of Sensitive Trace Data - (1323)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1323 (Improper Management of Sensitive Trace Data)
Trace data collected from several sources on the System-on-Chip (SoC) is stored in unprotected locations or transported to untrusted agents.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Security Version Number Mutable to Older Versions - (1328)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1328 (Security Version Number Mutable to Older Versions)
Security-version number in hardware is mutable, resulting in the ability to downgrade (roll-back) the boot firmware to vulnerable code versions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unauthorized Error Injection Can Degrade Hardware Redundancy - (1334)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1334 (Unauthorized Error Injection Can Degrade Hardware Redundancy)
An unauthorized agent can inject errors into a redundant block to deprive the system of redundancy or put the system in a degraded operating mode.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Weak Authentication - (1390)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1390 (Weak Authentication)
The product uses an authentication mechanism to restrict access to specific users or identities, but the mechanism does not sufficiently prove that the claimed identity is correct.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Use of Weak Credentials - (1391)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1391 (Use of Weak Credentials)
The product uses weak credentials (such as a default key or hard-coded password) that can be calculated, derived, reused, or guessed by an attacker.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Default Credentials - (1392)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1392 (Use of Default Credentials)
The product uses default credentials (such as passwords or cryptographic keys) for potentially critical functionality.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Default Password - (1393)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1393 (Use of Default Password)
The product uses default passwords for potentially critical functionality.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Default Cryptographic Key - (1394)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1396 (Comprehensive Categorization: Access Control) > 1394 (Use of Default Cryptographic Key)
The product uses a default cryptographic key for potentially critical functionality.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison - (1397)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison)
Weaknesses in this category are related to comparison.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Permissive List of Allowed Inputs - (183)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 183 (Permissive List of Allowed Inputs)
The product implements a protection mechanism that relies on a list of inputs (or properties of inputs) that are explicitly allowed by policy because the inputs are assumed to be safe, but the list is too permissive - that is, it allows an input that is unsafe, leading to resultant weaknesses.Allowlist / Allow ListSafelist / Safe ListWhitelist / White List
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Incorrect Regular Expression - (185)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 185 (Incorrect Regular Expression)
The product specifies a regular expression in a way that causes data to be improperly matched or compared.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Overly Restrictive Regular Expression - (186)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 186 (Overly Restrictive Regular Expression)
A regular expression is overly restrictive, which prevents dangerous values from being detected.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Partial String Comparison - (187)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 187 (Partial String Comparison)
The product performs a comparison that only examines a portion of a factor before determining whether there is a match, such as a substring, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Default Case in Multiple Condition Expression - (478)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 478 (Missing Default Case in Multiple Condition Expression)
The code does not have a default case in an expression with multiple conditions, such as a switch statement.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Comparison of Classes by Name - (486)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 486 (Comparison of Classes by Name)
The product compares classes by name, which can cause it to use the wrong class when multiple classes can have the same name.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents - (595)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 595 (Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents)
The product compares object references instead of the contents of the objects themselves, preventing it from detecting equivalent objects.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison - (597)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 597 (Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison)
The product uses the wrong operator when comparing a string, such as using "==" when the .equals() method should be used instead.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Permissive Regular Expression - (625)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 625 (Permissive Regular Expression)
The product uses a regular expression that does not sufficiently restrict the set of allowed values.
*PillarPillar - a weakness that is the most abstract type of weakness and represents a theme for all class/base/variant weaknesses related to it. A Pillar is different from a Category as a Pillar is still technically a type of weakness that describes a mistake, while a Category represents a common characteristic used to group related things.Incorrect Comparison - (697)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 697 (Incorrect Comparison)
The product compares two entities in a security-relevant context, but the comparison is incorrect, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Regular Expression without Anchors - (777)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 777 (Regular Expression without Anchors)
The product uses a regular expression to perform neutralization, but the regular expression is not anchored and may allow malicious or malformed data to slip through.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Numeric Range Comparison Without Minimum Check - (839)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 839 (Numeric Range Comparison Without Minimum Check)
The product checks a value to ensure that it is less than or equal to a maximum, but it does not also verify that the value is greater than or equal to the minimum.Signed comparison
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Incomplete Comparison with Missing Factors - (1023)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 1023 (Incomplete Comparison with Missing Factors)
The product performs a comparison between entities that must consider multiple factors or characteristics of each entity, but the comparison does not include one or more of these factors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Comparison of Incompatible Types - (1024)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 1024 (Comparison of Incompatible Types)
The product performs a comparison between two entities, but the entities are of different, incompatible types that cannot be guaranteed to provide correct results when they are directly compared.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Comparison Using Wrong Factors - (1025)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 1025 (Comparison Using Wrong Factors)
The code performs a comparison between two entities, but the comparison examines the wrong factors or characteristics of the entities, which can lead to incorrect results and resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Floating Point Comparison with Incorrect Operator - (1077)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1397 (Comprehensive Categorization: Comparison) > 1077 (Floating Point Comparison with Incorrect Operator)
The code performs a comparison such as an equality test between two float (floating point) values, but it uses comparison operators that do not account for the possibility of loss of precision.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction - (1398)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction)
Weaknesses in this category are related to component interaction.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Compiler Removal of Code to Clear Buffers - (14)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 14 (Compiler Removal of Code to Clear Buffers)
Sensitive memory is cleared according to the source code, but compiler optimizations leave the memory untouched when it is not read from again, aka "dead store removal."
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Misinterpretation of Input - (115)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 115 (Misinterpretation of Input)
The product misinterprets an input, whether from an attacker or another product, in a security-relevant fashion.
*PillarPillar - a weakness that is the most abstract type of weakness and represents a theme for all class/base/variant weaknesses related to it. A Pillar is different from a Category as a Pillar is still technically a type of weakness that describes a mistake, while a Category represents a common characteristic used to group related things.Improper Interaction Between Multiple Correctly-Behaving Entities - (435)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 435 (Improper Interaction Between Multiple Correctly-Behaving Entities)
An interaction error occurs when two entities have correct behavior when running independently of each other, but when they are integrated as components in a larger system or process, they introduce incorrect behaviors that may cause resultant weaknesses.Interaction ErrorEmergent Fault
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Interpretation Conflict - (436)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 436 (Interpretation Conflict)
Product A handles inputs or steps differently than Product B, which causes A to perform incorrect actions based on its perception of B's state.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Model of Endpoint Features - (437)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 437 (Incomplete Model of Endpoint Features)
A product acts as an intermediary or monitor between two or more endpoints, but it does not have a complete model of an endpoint's features, behaviors, or state, potentially causing the product to perform incorrect actions based on this incomplete model.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Behavioral Change in New Version or Environment - (439)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 439 (Behavioral Change in New Version or Environment)
A's behavior or functionality changes with a new version of A, or a new environment, which is not known (or manageable) by B.Functional change
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request/Response Smuggling') - (444)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 444 (Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request/Response Smuggling'))
The product acts as an intermediary HTTP agent (such as a proxy or firewall) in the data flow between two entities such as a client and server, but it does not interpret malformed HTTP requests or responses in ways that are consistent with how the messages will be processed by those entities that are at the ultimate destination.HTTP Request SmugglingHTTP Response SmugglingHTTP Smuggling
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Trusting HTTP Permission Methods on the Server Side - (650)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 650 (Trusting HTTP Permission Methods on the Server Side)
The server contains a protection mechanism that assumes that any URI that is accessed using HTTP GET will not cause a state change to the associated resource. This might allow attackers to bypass intended access restrictions and conduct resource modification and deletion attacks, since some applications allow GET to modify state.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Compiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code - (733)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 733 (Compiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code)
The developer builds a security-critical protection mechanism into the software, but the compiler optimizes the program such that the mechanism is removed or modified.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Processor Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code - (1037)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 1037 (Processor Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code)
The developer builds a security-critical protection mechanism into the software, but the processor optimizes the execution of the program such that the mechanism is removed or modified.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Insecure Automated Optimizations - (1038)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1398 (Comprehensive Categorization: Component Interaction) > 1038 (Insecure Automated Optimizations)
The product uses a mechanism that automatically optimizes code, e.g. to improve a characteristic such as performance, but the optimizations can have an unintended side effect that might violate an intended security assumption.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency - (1401)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency)
Weaknesses in this category are related to concurrency.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition') - (362)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 362 (Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition'))
The product contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a timing window exists in which the shared resource can be modified by another code sequence that is operating concurrently.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Race Condition Enabling Link Following - (363)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 363 (Race Condition Enabling Link Following)
The product checks the status of a file or directory before accessing it, which produces a race condition in which the file can be replaced with a link before the access is performed, causing the product to access the wrong file.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Signal Handler Race Condition - (364)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 364 (Signal Handler Race Condition)
The product uses a signal handler that introduces a race condition.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Race Condition within a Thread - (366)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 366 (Race Condition within a Thread)
If two threads of execution use a resource simultaneously, there exists the possibility that resources may be used while invalid, in turn making the state of execution undefined.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition - (367)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 367 (Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition)
The product checks the state of a resource before using that resource, but the resource's state can change between the check and the use in a way that invalidates the results of the check. This can cause the product to perform invalid actions when the resource is in an unexpected state.TOCTTOUTOCCTOU
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Context Switching Race Condition - (368)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 368 (Context Switching Race Condition)
A product performs a series of non-atomic actions to switch between contexts that cross privilege or other security boundaries, but a race condition allows an attacker to modify or misrepresent the product's behavior during the switch.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock - (412)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 412 (Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock)
The product properly checks for the existence of a lock, but the lock can be externally controlled or influenced by an actor that is outside of the intended sphere of control.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Resource Locking - (413)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 413 (Improper Resource Locking)
The product does not lock or does not correctly lock a resource when the product must have exclusive access to the resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Lock Check - (414)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 414 (Missing Lock Check)
A product does not check to see if a lock is present before performing sensitive operations on a resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations - (432)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 432 (Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations)
The product uses a signal handler that shares state with other signal handlers, but it does not properly mask or prevent those signal handlers from being invoked while the original signal handler is still running.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function - (479)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 479 (Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function)
The product defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context - (543)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 543 (Use of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context)
The product uses the singleton pattern when creating a resource within a multithreaded environment.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application - (558)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 558 (Use of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application)
The product uses the getlogin() function in a multithreaded context, potentially causing it to return incorrect values.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context - (567)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 567 (Unsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context)
The product does not properly synchronize shared data, such as static variables across threads, which can lead to undefined behavior and unpredictable data changes.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Call to Thread run() instead of start() - (572)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 572 (Call to Thread run() instead of start())
The product calls a thread's run() method instead of calling start(), which causes the code to run in the thread of the caller instead of the callee.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.EJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives - (574)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 574 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives)
The product violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using thread synchronization primitives.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Sensitive Data Storage in Improperly Locked Memory - (591)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 591 (Sensitive Data Storage in Improperly Locked Memory)
The product stores sensitive data in memory that is not locked, or that has been incorrectly locked, which might cause the memory to be written to swap files on disk by the virtual memory manager. This can make the data more accessible to external actors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Double-Checked Locking - (609)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 609 (Double-Checked Locking)
The product uses double-checked locking to access a resource without the overhead of explicit synchronization, but the locking is insufficient.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context - (663)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 663 (Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context)
The product calls a non-reentrant function in a concurrent context in which a competing code sequence (e.g. thread or signal handler) may have an opportunity to call the same function or otherwise influence its state.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Locking - (667)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 667 (Improper Locking)
The product does not properly acquire or release a lock on a resource, leading to unexpected resource state changes and behaviors.
*CompositeComposite - a Compound Element that consists of two or more distinct weaknesses, in which all weaknesses must be present at the same time in order for a potential vulnerability to arise. Removing any of the weaknesses eliminates or sharply reduces the risk. One weakness, X, can be "broken down" into component weaknesses Y and Z. There can be cases in which one weakness might not be essential to a composite, but changes the nature of the composite when it becomes a vulnerability.Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy - (689)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 689 (Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy)
The product, while copying or cloning a resource, does not set the resource's permissions or access control until the copy is complete, leaving the resource exposed to other spheres while the copy is taking place.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource - (764)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 764 (Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource)
The product locks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource - (765)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 765 (Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource)
The product unlocks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Synchronization - (820)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 820 (Missing Synchronization)
The product utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but does not attempt to synchronize access to the resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Synchronization - (821)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 821 (Incorrect Synchronization)
The product utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner, but it does not correctly synchronize access to the resource.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe - (828)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 828 (Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe)
The product defines a signal handler that contains code sequences that are not asynchronous-safe, i.e., the functionality is not reentrant, or it can be interrupted.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Signal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals - (831)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 831 (Signal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals)
The product defines a function that is used as a handler for more than one signal.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked - (832)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 832 (Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked)
The product attempts to unlock a resource that is not locked.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Deadlock - (833)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 833 (Deadlock)
The product contains multiple threads or executable segments that are waiting for each other to release a necessary lock, resulting in deadlock.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element in Multi-Thread Context with non-Final Static Storable or Member Element - (1058)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 1058 (Invokable Control Element in Multi-Thread Context with non-Final Static Storable or Member Element)
The code contains a function or method that operates in a multi-threaded environment but owns an unsafe non-final static storable or member data element.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Synchronous Access of Remote Resource without Timeout - (1088)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 1088 (Synchronous Access of Remote Resource without Timeout)
The code has a synchronous call to a remote resource, but there is no timeout for the call, or the timeout is set to infinite.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Singleton Class Instance Creation without Proper Locking or Synchronization - (1096)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 1096 (Singleton Class Instance Creation without Proper Locking or Synchronization)
The product implements a Singleton design pattern but does not use appropriate locking or other synchronization mechanism to ensure that the singleton class is only instantiated once.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Race Condition for Write-Once Attributes - (1223)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 1223 (Race Condition for Write-Once Attributes)
A write-once register in hardware design is programmable by an untrusted software component earlier than the trusted software component, resulting in a race condition issue.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Lock Behavior After Power State Transition - (1232)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 1232 (Improper Lock Behavior After Power State Transition)
Register lock bit protection disables changes to system configuration once the bit is set. Some of the protected registers or lock bits become programmable after power state transitions (e.g., Entry and wake from low power sleep modes) causing the system configuration to be changeable.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Hardware Internal or Debug Modes Allow Override of Locks - (1234)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 1234 (Hardware Internal or Debug Modes Allow Override of Locks)
System configuration protection may be bypassed during debug mode.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Hardware Logic with Insecure De-Synchronization between Control and Data Channels - (1264)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 1264 (Hardware Logic with Insecure De-Synchronization between Control and Data Channels)
The hardware logic for error handling and security checks can incorrectly forward data before the security check is complete.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Hardware Logic Contains Race Conditions - (1298)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1401 (Comprehensive Categorization: Concurrency) > 1298 (Hardware Logic Contains Race Conditions)
A race condition in the hardware logic results in undermining security guarantees of the system.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption - (1402)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption)
Weaknesses in this category are related to encryption.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Misconfiguration: Data Transmission Without Encryption - (5)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 5 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Data Transmission Without Encryption)
Information sent over a network can be compromised while in transit. An attacker may be able to read or modify the contents if the data are sent in plaintext or are weakly encrypted.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data - (311)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 311 (Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data)
The product does not encrypt sensitive or critical information before storage or transmission.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information - (312)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 312 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information)
The product stores sensitive information in cleartext within a resource that might be accessible to another control sphere.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Storage in a File or on Disk - (313)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 313 (Cleartext Storage in a File or on Disk)
The product stores sensitive information in cleartext in a file, or on disk.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Storage in the Registry - (314)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 314 (Cleartext Storage in the Registry)
The product stores sensitive information in cleartext in the registry.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie - (315)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 315 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie)
The product stores sensitive information in cleartext in a cookie.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory - (316)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 316 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory)
The product stores sensitive information in cleartext in memory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI - (317)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 317 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI)
The product stores sensitive information in cleartext within the GUI.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable - (318)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 318 (Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable)
The product stores sensitive information in cleartext in an executable.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information - (319)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 319 (Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information)
The product transmits sensitive or security-critical data in cleartext in a communication channel that can be sniffed by unauthorized actors.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date - (324)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 324 (Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date)
The product uses a cryptographic key or password past its expiration date, which diminishes its safety significantly by increasing the timing window for cracking attacks against that key.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Cryptographic Step - (325)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 325 (Missing Cryptographic Step)
The product does not implement a required step in a cryptographic algorithm, resulting in weaker encryption than advertised by the algorithm.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Inadequate Encryption Strength - (326)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 326 (Inadequate Encryption Strength)
The product stores or transmits sensitive data using an encryption scheme that is theoretically sound, but is not strong enough for the level of protection required.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm - (327)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 327 (Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm)
The product uses a broken or risky cryptographic algorithm or protocol.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Weak Hash - (328)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 328 (Use of Weak Hash)
The product uses an algorithm that produces a digest (output value) that does not meet security expectations for a hash function that allows an adversary to reasonably determine the original input (preimage attack), find another input that can produce the same hash (2nd preimage attack), or find multiple inputs that evaluate to the same hash (birthday attack).
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature - (347)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 347 (Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature)
The product does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Sensitive Cookie in HTTPS Session Without 'Secure' Attribute - (614)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 614 (Sensitive Cookie in HTTPS Session Without 'Secure' Attribute)
The Secure attribute for sensitive cookies in HTTPS sessions is not set, which could cause the user agent to send those cookies in plaintext over an HTTP session.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a One-Way Hash without a Salt - (759)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 759 (Use of a One-Way Hash without a Salt)
The product uses a one-way cryptographic hash against an input that should not be reversible, such as a password, but the product does not also use a salt as part of the input.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a One-Way Hash with a Predictable Salt - (760)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 760 (Use of a One-Way Hash with a Predictable Salt)
The product uses a one-way cryptographic hash against an input that should not be reversible, such as a password, but the product uses a predictable salt as part of the input.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of RSA Algorithm without OAEP - (780)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 780 (Use of RSA Algorithm without OAEP)
The product uses the RSA algorithm but does not incorporate Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP), which might weaken the encryption.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort - (916)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 916 (Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort)
The product generates a hash for a password, but it uses a scheme that does not provide a sufficient level of computational effort that would make password cracking attacks infeasible or expensive.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of a Cryptographic Primitive with a Risky Implementation - (1240)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1402 (Comprehensive Categorization: Encryption) > 1240 (Use of a Cryptographic Primitive with a Risky Implementation)
To fulfill the need for a cryptographic primitive, the product implements a cryptographic algorithm using a non-standard, unproven, or disallowed/non-compliant cryptographic implementation.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource - (1403)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource)
Weaknesses in this category are related to exposed resource.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Misconfiguration: Entity Bean Declared Remote - (8)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 8 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Entity Bean Declared Remote)
When an application exposes a remote interface for an entity bean, it might also expose methods that get or set the bean's data. These methods could be leveraged to read sensitive information, or to change data in ways that violate the application's expectations, potentially leading to other vulnerabilities.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.External Control of System or Configuration Setting - (15)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 15 (External Control of System or Configuration Setting)
One or more system settings or configuration elements can be externally controlled by a user.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.External Control of File Name or Path - (73)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 73 (External Control of File Name or Path)
The product allows user input to control or influence paths or file names that are used in filesystem operations.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Process Control - (114)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 114 (Process Control)
Executing commands or loading libraries from an untrusted source or in an untrusted environment can cause an application to execute malicious commands (and payloads) on behalf of an attacker.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Storage of File with Sensitive Data Under Web Root - (219)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 219 (Storage of File with Sensitive Data Under Web Root)
The product stores sensitive data under the web document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Storage of File With Sensitive Data Under FTP Root - (220)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 220 (Storage of File With Sensitive Data Under FTP Root)
The product stores sensitive data under the FTP server root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Passing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method - (374)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 374 (Passing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method)
The product sends non-cloned mutable data as an argument to a method or function.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Returning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller - (375)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 375 (Returning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller)
Sending non-cloned mutable data as a return value may result in that data being altered or deleted by the calling function.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Insecure Temporary File - (377)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 377 (Insecure Temporary File)
Creating and using insecure temporary files can leave application and system data vulnerable to attack.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Creation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions - (378)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 378 (Creation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions)
Opening temporary files without appropriate measures or controls can leave the file, its contents and any function that it impacts vulnerable to attack.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Creation of Temporary File in Directory with Insecure Permissions - (379)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 379 (Creation of Temporary File in Directory with Insecure Permissions)
The product creates a temporary file in a directory whose permissions allow unintended actors to determine the file's existence or otherwise access that file.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak') - (402)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 402 (Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak'))
The product makes resources available to untrusted parties when those resources are only intended to be accessed by the product.Resource Leak
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of File Descriptor to Unintended Control Sphere ('File Descriptor Leak') - (403)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 403 (Exposure of File Descriptor to Unintended Control Sphere ('File Descriptor Leak'))
A process does not close sensitive file descriptors before invoking a child process, which allows the child to perform unauthorized I/O operations using those descriptors.File descriptor leak
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Untrusted Search Path - (426)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 426 (Untrusted Search Path)
The product searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the product's direct control.Untrusted Path
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Uncontrolled Search Path Element - (427)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 427 (Uncontrolled Search Path Element)
The product uses a fixed or controlled search path to find resources, but one or more locations in that path can be under the control of unintended actors.DLL preloadingBinary plantingInsecure library loadingDependency confusion
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unquoted Search Path or Element - (428)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 428 (Unquoted Search Path or Element)
The product uses a search path that contains an unquoted element, in which the element contains whitespace or other separators. This can cause the product to access resources in a parent path.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery - (433)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 433 (Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery)
The product stores raw content or supporting code under the web document root with an extension that is not specifically handled by the server.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter - (472)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 472 (External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter)
The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.Assumed-Immutable Parameter Tampering
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Data Element to Wrong Session - (488)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 488 (Exposure of Data Element to Wrong Session)
The product does not sufficiently enforce boundaries between the states of different sessions, causing data to be provided to, or used by, the wrong session.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Public cloneable() Method Without Final ('Object Hijack') - (491)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 491 (Public cloneable() Method Without Final ('Object Hijack'))
A class has a cloneable() method that is not declared final, which allows an object to be created without calling the constructor. This can cause the object to be in an unexpected state.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Inner Class Containing Sensitive Data - (492)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 492 (Use of Inner Class Containing Sensitive Data)
Inner classes are translated into classes that are accessible at package scope and may expose code that the programmer intended to keep private to attackers.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier - (493)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 493 (Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier)
The product has a critical public variable that is not final, which allows the variable to be modified to contain unexpected values.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Cloneable Class Containing Sensitive Information - (498)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 498 (Cloneable Class Containing Sensitive Information)
The code contains a class with sensitive data, but the class is cloneable. The data can then be accessed by cloning the class.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Serializable Class Containing Sensitive Data - (499)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 499 (Serializable Class Containing Sensitive Data)
The code contains a class with sensitive data, but the class does not explicitly deny serialization. The data can be accessed by serializing the class through another class.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Public Static Field Not Marked Final - (500)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 500 (Public Static Field Not Marked Final)
An object contains a public static field that is not marked final, which might allow it to be modified in unexpected ways.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Cache Containing Sensitive Information - (524)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 524 (Use of Cache Containing Sensitive Information)
The code uses a cache that contains sensitive information, but the cache can be read by an actor outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Web Browser Cache Containing Sensitive Information - (525)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 525 (Use of Web Browser Cache Containing Sensitive Information)
The web application does not use an appropriate caching policy that specifies the extent to which each web page and associated form fields should be cached.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Version-Control Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (527)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 527 (Exposure of Version-Control Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores a CVS, git, or other repository in a directory, archive, or other resource that is stored, transferred, or otherwise made accessible to unauthorized actors.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (528)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 528 (Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product generates a core dump file in a directory, archive, or other resource that is stored, transferred, or otherwise made accessible to unauthorized actors.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (529)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 529 (Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
The product stores access control list files in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Exposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere - (530)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 530 (Exposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere)
A backup file is stored in a directory or archive that is made accessible to unauthorized actors.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Persistent Cookies Containing Sensitive Information - (539)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 539 (Use of Persistent Cookies Containing Sensitive Information)
The web application uses persistent cookies, but the cookies contain sensitive information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties - (552)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 552 (Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties)
The product makes files or directories accessible to unauthorized actors, even though they should not be.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Command Shell in Externally Accessible Directory - (553)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 553 (Command Shell in Externally Accessible Directory)
A possible shell file exists in /cgi-bin/ or other accessible directories. This is extremely dangerous and can be used by an attacker to execute commands on the web server.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking - (565)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 565 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking)
The product relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid for the associated user.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Array Declared Public, Final, and Static - (582)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 582 (Array Declared Public, Final, and Static)
The product declares an array public, final, and static, which is not sufficient to prevent the array's contents from being modified.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.finalize() Method Declared Public - (583)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 583 (finalize() Method Declared Public)
The product violates secure coding principles for mobile code by declaring a finalize() method public.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Struts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class - (608)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 608 (Struts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class)
An ActionForm class contains a field that has not been declared private, which can be accessed without using a setter or getter.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Dangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection') - (619)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 619 (Dangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection'))
If a database cursor is not closed properly, then it could become accessible to other users while retaining the same privileges that were originally assigned, leaving the cursor "dangling."
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.External Control of Critical State Data - (642)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 642 (External Control of Critical State Data)
The product stores security-critical state information about its users, or the product itself, in a location that is accessible to unauthorized actors.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere - (668)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 668 (Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere)
The product exposes a resource to the wrong control sphere, providing unintended actors with inappropriate access to the resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Access to Critical Private Variable via Public Method - (767)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 767 (Access to Critical Private Variable via Public Method)
The product defines a public method that reads or modifies a private variable.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision - (784)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 784 (Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision)
The product uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of a cookie, but it does not properly ensure that the cookie is valid for the associated user.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Assumed-Immutable Data is Stored in Writable Memory - (1282)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 1282 (Assumed-Immutable Data is Stored in Writable Memory)
Immutable data, such as a first-stage bootloader, device identifiers, and "write-once" configuration settings are stored in writable memory that can be re-programmed or updated in the field.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Binding to an Unrestricted IP Address - (1327)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1403 (Comprehensive Categorization: Exposed Resource) > 1327 (Binding to an Unrestricted IP Address)
The product assigns the address 0.0.0.0 for a database server, a cloud service/instance, or any computing resource that communicates remotely.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling - (1404)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling)
Weaknesses in this category are related to file handling.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal') - (22)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 22 (Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal'))
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that is intended to identify a file or directory that is located underneath a restricted parent directory, but the product does not properly neutralize special elements within the pathname that can cause the pathname to resolve to a location that is outside of the restricted directory.Directory traversalPath traversal
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Relative Path Traversal - (23)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 23 (Relative Path Traversal)
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize sequences such as ".." that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.Zip Slip
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '../filedir' - (24)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 24 (Path Traversal: '../filedir')
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '/../filedir' - (25)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 25 (Path Traversal: '/../filedir')
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '/dir/../filename' - (26)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 26 (Path Traversal: '/dir/../filename')
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/dir/../filename" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: 'dir/../../filename' - (27)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 27 (Path Traversal: 'dir/../../filename')
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize multiple internal "../" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '..\filedir' - (28)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 28 (Path Traversal: '..\filedir')
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "..\" sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '\..\filename' - (29)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 29 (Path Traversal: '\..\filename')
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '\dir\..\filename' - (30)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 30 (Path Traversal: '\dir\..\filename')
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\dir\..\filename' (leading backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename' - (31)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 31 (Path Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename')
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize 'dir\..\..\filename' (multiple internal backslash dot dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot) - (32)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 32 (Path Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot))
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '...' (triple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot) - (33)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 33 (Path Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot))
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....' (multiple dot) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '....//' - (34)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 34 (Path Traversal: '....//')
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....//' (doubled dot dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '.../...//' - (35)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 35 (Path Traversal: '.../...//')
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '.../...//' (doubled triple dot slash) sequences that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Absolute Path Traversal - (36)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 36 (Absolute Path Traversal)
The product uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize absolute path sequences such as "/abs/path" that can resolve to a location that is outside of that directory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here' - (37)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 37 (Path Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here')
The product accepts input in the form of a slash absolute path ('/absolute/pathname/here') without appropriate validation, which can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here' - (38)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 38 (Path Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here')
The product accepts input in the form of a backslash absolute path ('\absolute\pathname\here') without appropriate validation, which can allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: 'C:dirname' - (39)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 39 (Path Traversal: 'C:dirname')
The product accepts input that contains a drive letter or Windows volume letter ('C:dirname') that potentially redirects access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share) - (40)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 40 (Path Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share))
The product accepts input that identifies a Windows UNC share ('\\UNC\share\name') that potentially redirects access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence - (41)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 41 (Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence)
The product is vulnerable to file system contents disclosure through path equivalence. Path equivalence involves the use of special characters in file and directory names. The associated manipulations are intended to generate multiple names for the same object.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot) - (42)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 42 (Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot))
The product accepts path input in the form of trailing dot ('filedir.') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot) - (43)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 43 (Path Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot))
The product accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing dot ('filedir....') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot) - (44)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 44 (Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot))
The product accepts path input in the form of internal dot ('file.ordir') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot) - (45)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 45 (Path Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot))
The product accepts path input in the form of multiple internal dot ('file...dir') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space) - (46)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 46 (Path Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space))
The product accepts path input in the form of trailing space ('filedir ') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space) - (47)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 47 (Path Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space))
The product accepts path input in the form of leading space (' filedir') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace) - (48)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 48 (Path Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace))
The product accepts path input in the form of internal space ('file(SPACE)name') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash) - (49)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 49 (Path Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash))
The product accepts path input in the form of trailing slash ('filedir/') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash' - (50)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 50 (Path Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash')
The product accepts path input in the form of multiple leading slash ('//multiple/leading/slash') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash' - (51)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 51 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash')
The product accepts path input in the form of multiple internal slash ('/multiple//internal/slash/') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//' - (52)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 52 (Path Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//')
The product accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing slash ('/multiple/trailing/slash//') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash' - (53)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 53 (Path Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash')
The product accepts path input in the form of multiple internal backslash ('\multiple\trailing\\slash') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash) - (54)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 54 (Path Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash))
The product accepts path input in the form of trailing backslash ('filedir\') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory) - (55)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 55 (Path Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory))
The product accepts path input in the form of single dot directory exploit ('/./') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard) - (56)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 56 (Path Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard))
The product accepts path input in the form of asterisk wildcard ('filedir*') without appropriate validation, which can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an attacker to traverse the file system to unintended locations or access arbitrary files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename' - (57)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 57 (Path Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename')
The product contains protection mechanisms to restrict access to 'realdir/filename', but it constructs pathnames using external input in the form of 'fakedir/../realdir/filename' that are not handled by those mechanisms. This allows attackers to perform unauthorized actions against the targeted file.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Path Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename - (58)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 58 (Path Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename)
The product contains a protection mechanism that restricts access to a long filename on a Windows operating system, but it does not properly restrict access to the equivalent short "8.3" filename.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following') - (59)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 59 (Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following'))
The product attempts to access a file based on the filename, but it does not properly prevent that filename from identifying a link or shortcut that resolves to an unintended resource.insecure temporary fileZip Slip
*CompositeComposite - a Compound Element that consists of two or more distinct weaknesses, in which all weaknesses must be present at the same time in order for a potential vulnerability to arise. Removing any of the weaknesses eliminates or sharply reduces the risk. One weakness, X, can be "broken down" into component weaknesses Y and Z. There can be cases in which one weakness might not be essential to a composite, but changes the nature of the composite when it becomes a vulnerability.UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following - (61)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 61 (UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following)
The product, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the file is a symbolic link that resolves to a target outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the product to operate on unauthorized files.Symlink followingsymlink vulnerability
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.UNIX Hard Link - (62)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 62 (UNIX Hard Link)
The product, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the product to operate on unauthorized files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Windows Shortcut Following (.LNK) - (64)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 64 (Windows Shortcut Following (.LNK))
The product, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the file is a Windows shortcut (.LNK) whose target is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the product to operate on unauthorized files.Windows symbolic link followingsymlink
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Windows Hard Link - (65)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 65 (Windows Hard Link)
The product, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended control sphere. This could allow an attacker to cause the product to operate on unauthorized files.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources - (66)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 66 (Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles a file name that identifies a "virtual" resource that is not directly specified within the directory that is associated with the file name, causing the product to perform file-based operations on a resource that is not a file.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Windows Device Names - (67)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 67 (Improper Handling of Windows Device Names)
The product constructs pathnames from user input, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a pathname containing a Windows device name such as AUX or CON. This typically leads to denial of service or an information exposure when the application attempts to process the pathname as a regular file.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream - (69)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 69 (Improper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream)
The product does not properly prevent access to, or detect usage of, alternate data streams (ADS).
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path - (72)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1404 (Comprehensive Categorization: File Handling) > 72 (Improper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path)
The product does not properly handle special paths that may identify the data or resource fork of a file on the HFS+ file system.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions - (1405)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper check or handling of exceptional conditions.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page - (7)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 7 (J2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page)
The default error page of a web application should not display sensitive information about the product.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page - (12)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 12 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page)
An ASP .NET application must enable custom error pages in order to prevent attackers from mining information from the framework's built-in responses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unchecked Return Value - (252)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 252 (Unchecked Return Value)
The product does not check the return value from a method or function, which can prevent it from detecting unexpected states and conditions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Detection of Error Condition Without Action - (390)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 390 (Detection of Error Condition Without Action)
The product detects a specific error, but takes no actions to handle the error.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unchecked Error Condition - (391)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 391 (Unchecked Error Condition)
[PLANNED FOR DEPRECATION. SEE MAINTENANCE NOTES AND CONSIDER CWE-252, CWE-248, OR CWE-1069.] Ignoring exceptions and other error conditions may allow an attacker to induce unexpected behavior unnoticed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unexpected Status Code or Return Value - (394)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 394 (Unexpected Status Code or Return Value)
The product does not properly check when a function or operation returns a value that is legitimate for the function, but is not expected by the product.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism - (544)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 544 (Missing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism)
The product does not use a standardized method for handling errors throughout the code, which might introduce inconsistent error handling and resultant weaknesses.
*PillarPillar - a weakness that is the most abstract type of weakness and represents a theme for all class/base/variant weaknesses related to it. A Pillar is different from a Category as a Pillar is still technically a type of weakness that describes a mistake, while a Category represents a common characteristic used to group related things.Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions - (703)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 703 (Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions)
The product does not properly anticipate or handle exceptional conditions that rarely occur during normal operation of the product.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions - (754)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 754 (Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions)
The product does not check or incorrectly checks for unusual or exceptional conditions that are not expected to occur frequently during day to day operation of the product.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions - (755)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 755 (Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles an exceptional condition.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Custom Error Page - (756)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 756 (Missing Custom Error Page)
The product does not return custom error pages to the user, possibly exposing sensitive information.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Protection Against Voltage and Clock Glitches - (1247)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 1247 (Improper Protection Against Voltage and Clock Glitches)
The device does not contain or contains incorrectly implemented circuitry or sensors to detect and mitigate voltage and clock glitches and protect sensitive information or software contained on the device.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Single Event Upsets - (1261)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 1261 (Improper Handling of Single Event Upsets)
The hardware logic does not effectively handle when single-event upsets (SEUs) occur.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Faults that Lead to Instruction Skips - (1332)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 1332 (Improper Handling of Faults that Lead to Instruction Skips)
The device is missing or incorrectly implements circuitry or sensors that detect and mitigate the skipping of security-critical CPU instructions when they occur.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Hardware Behavior in Exceptionally Cold Environments - (1351)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 1351 (Improper Handling of Hardware Behavior in Exceptionally Cold Environments)
A hardware device, or the firmware running on it, is missing or has incorrect protection features to maintain goals of security primitives when the device is cooled below standard operating temperatures.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Handling of Physical or Environmental Conditions - (1384)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1405 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions) > 1384 (Improper Handling of Physical or Environmental Conditions)
The product does not properly handle unexpected physical or environmental conditions that occur naturally or are artificially induced.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation - (1406)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper input validation.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Input Validation - (20)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 20 (Improper Input Validation)
The product receives input or data, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input has the properties that are required to process the data safely and correctly.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Struts: Form Field Without Validator - (105)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 105 (Struts: Form Field Without Validator)
The product has a form field that is not validated by a corresponding validation form, which can introduce other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Struts: Plug-in Framework not in Use - (106)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 106 (Struts: Plug-in Framework not in Use)
When an application does not use an input validation framework such as the Struts Validator, there is a greater risk of introducing weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Struts: Unvalidated Action Form - (108)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 108 (Struts: Unvalidated Action Form)
Every Action Form must have a corresponding validation form.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Struts: Validator Turned Off - (109)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 109 (Struts: Validator Turned Off)
Automatic filtering via a Struts bean has been turned off, which disables the Struts Validator and custom validation logic. This exposes the application to other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing XML Validation - (112)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 112 (Missing XML Validation)
The product accepts XML from an untrusted source but does not validate the XML against the proper schema.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework - (554)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 554 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework)
The ASP.NET application does not use an input validation framework.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unchecked Input for Loop Condition - (606)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 606 (Unchecked Input for Loop Condition)
The product does not properly check inputs that are used for loop conditions, potentially leading to a denial of service or other consequences because of excessive looping.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Function Hook Arguments - (622)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 622 (Improper Validation of Function Hook Arguments)
The product adds hooks to user-accessible API functions, but it does not properly validate the arguments. This could lead to resultant vulnerabilities.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code - (781)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 781 (Improper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code)
The product defines an IOCTL that uses METHOD_NEITHER for I/O, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the addresses that are provided.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Use of Validation Framework - (1173)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 1173 (Improper Use of Validation Framework)
The product does not use, or incorrectly uses, an input validation framework that is provided by the source language or an independent library.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Improper Model Validation - (1174)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 1174 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Improper Model Validation)
The ASP.NET application does not use, or incorrectly uses, the model validation framework.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Specified Quantity in Input - (1284)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 1284 (Improper Validation of Specified Quantity in Input)
The product receives input that is expected to specify a quantity (such as size or length), but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the quantity has the required properties.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Specified Index, Position, or Offset in Input - (1285)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 1285 (Improper Validation of Specified Index, Position, or Offset in Input)
The product receives input that is expected to specify an index, position, or offset into an indexable resource such as a buffer or file, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the specified index/position/offset has the required properties.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Syntactic Correctness of Input - (1286)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 1286 (Improper Validation of Syntactic Correctness of Input)
The product receives input that is expected to be well-formed - i.e., to comply with a certain syntax - but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input complies with the syntax.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Specified Type of Input - (1287)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 1287 (Improper Validation of Specified Type of Input)
The product receives input that is expected to be of a certain type, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input is actually of the expected type.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Consistency within Input - (1288)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 1288 (Improper Validation of Consistency within Input)
The product receives a complex input with multiple elements or fields that must be consistent with each other, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input is actually consistent.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Unsafe Equivalence in Input - (1289)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1406 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Input Validation) > 1289 (Improper Validation of Unsafe Equivalence in Input)
The product receives an input value that is used as a resource identifier or other type of reference, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input is equivalent to a potentially-unsafe value.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization - (1407)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization)
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper neutralization.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output - (116)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 116 (Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output)
The product prepares a structured message for communication with another component, but encoding or escaping of the data is either missing or done incorrectly. As a result, the intended structure of the message is not preserved.Output SanitizationOutput ValidationOutput Encoding
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Output Neutralization for Logs - (117)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 117 (Improper Output Neutralization for Logs)
The product does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes output that is written to logs.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency - (130)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 130 (Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency)
The product parses a formatted message or structure, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a length field that is inconsistent with the actual length of the associated data.length manipulationlength tampering
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements - (138)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 138 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as control elements or syntactic markers when they are sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Delimiters - (140)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 140 (Improper Neutralization of Delimiters)
The product does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes delimiters.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters - (141)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 141 (Improper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as parameter or argument delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Value Delimiters - (142)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 142 (Improper Neutralization of Value Delimiters)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as value delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Record Delimiters - (143)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 143 (Improper Neutralization of Record Delimiters)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as record delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Line Delimiters - (144)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 144 (Improper Neutralization of Line Delimiters)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as line delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Section Delimiters - (145)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 145 (Improper Neutralization of Section Delimiters)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as section delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters - (146)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 146 (Improper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as expression or command delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Input Terminators - (147)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 147 (Improper Neutralization of Input Terminators)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as input terminators when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Input Leaders - (148)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 148 (Improper Neutralization of Input Leaders)
The product does not properly handle when a leading character or sequence ("leader") is missing or malformed, or if multiple leaders are used when only one should be allowed.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax - (149)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 149 (Improper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax)
Quotes injected into a product can be used to compromise a system. As data are parsed, an injected/absent/duplicate/malformed use of quotes may cause the process to take unexpected actions.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences - (150)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 150 (Improper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as escape, meta, or control character sequences when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters - (151)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 151 (Improper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as comment delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Macro Symbols - (152)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 152 (Improper Neutralization of Macro Symbols)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as macro symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Substitution Characters - (153)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 153 (Improper Neutralization of Substitution Characters)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as substitution characters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters - (154)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 154 (Improper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as variable name delimiters when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols - (155)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 155 (Improper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as wildcards or matching symbols when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Whitespace - (156)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 156 (Improper Neutralization of Whitespace)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as whitespace when they are sent to a downstream component.White space
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Failure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters - (157)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 157 (Failure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters)
The product does not properly handle the characters that are used to mark the beginning and ending of a group of entities, such as parentheses, brackets, and braces.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character - (158)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 158 (Improper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes NUL characters or null bytes when they are sent to a downstream component.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Handling of Invalid Use of Special Elements - (159)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 159 (Improper Handling of Invalid Use of Special Elements)
The product does not properly filter, remove, quote, or otherwise manage the invalid use of special elements in user-controlled input, which could cause adverse effect on its behavior and integrity.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements - (160)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 160 (Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements - (161)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 161 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple leading special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements - (162)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 162 (Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements - (163)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 163 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple trailing special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements - (164)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 164 (Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements - (165)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 165 (Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple internal special elements that could be interpreted in unexpected ways when they are sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Missing Special Element - (166)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 166 (Improper Handling of Missing Special Element)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Additional Special Element - (167)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 167 (Improper Handling of Additional Special Element)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is provided.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements - (168)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 168 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements)
The product does not properly handle input in which an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Null Termination - (170)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 170 (Improper Null Termination)
The product does not terminate or incorrectly terminates a string or array with a null character or equivalent terminator.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Encoding Error - (172)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 172 (Encoding Error)
The product does not properly encode or decode the data, resulting in unexpected values.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Alternate Encoding - (173)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 173 (Improper Handling of Alternate Encoding)
The product does not properly handle when an input uses an alternate encoding that is valid for the control sphere to which the input is being sent.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Double Decoding of the Same Data - (174)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 174 (Double Decoding of the Same Data)
The product decodes the same input twice, which can limit the effectiveness of any protection mechanism that occurs in between the decoding operations.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Mixed Encoding - (175)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 175 (Improper Handling of Mixed Encoding)
The product does not properly handle when the same input uses several different (mixed) encodings.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Unicode Encoding - (176)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 176 (Improper Handling of Unicode Encoding)
The product does not properly handle when an input contains Unicode encoding.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of URL Encoding (Hex Encoding) - (177)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 177 (Improper Handling of URL Encoding (Hex Encoding))
The product does not properly handle when all or part of an input has been URL encoded.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure - (228)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 228 (Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles input that is not syntactically well-formed with respect to the associated specification.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Values - (229)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 229 (Improper Handling of Values)
The product does not properly handle when the expected number of values for parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those values are undefined.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Missing Values - (230)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 230 (Improper Handling of Missing Values)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles when a parameter, field, or argument name is specified, but the associated value is missing, i.e. it is empty, blank, or null.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Extra Values - (231)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 231 (Improper Handling of Extra Values)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles when more values are provided than expected.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Undefined Values - (232)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 232 (Improper Handling of Undefined Values)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles when a value is not defined or supported for the associated parameter, field, or argument name.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Parameters - (233)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 233 (Improper Handling of Parameters)
The product does not properly handle when the expected number of parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those parameters are undefined.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Failure to Handle Missing Parameter - (234)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 234 (Failure to Handle Missing Parameter)
If too few arguments are sent to a function, the function will still pop the expected number of arguments from the stack. Potentially, a variable number of arguments could be exhausted in a function as well.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Extra Parameters - (235)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 235 (Improper Handling of Extra Parameters)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles when the number of parameters, fields, or arguments with the same name exceeds the expected amount.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Undefined Parameters - (236)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 236 (Improper Handling of Undefined Parameters)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular parameter, field, or argument name is not defined or supported by the product.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Structural Elements - (237)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 237 (Improper Handling of Structural Elements)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles inputs that are related to complex structures.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements - (238)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 238 (Improper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular structural element is not completely specified.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Failure to Handle Incomplete Element - (239)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 239 (Failure to Handle Incomplete Element)
The product does not properly handle when a particular element is not completely specified.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements - (240)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 240 (Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles when two or more structural elements should be consistent, but are not.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type - (241)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 241 (Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type)
The product does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular element is not the expected type, e.g. it expects a digit (0-9) but is provided with a letter (A-Z).
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Deletion of Data Structure Sentinel - (463)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 463 (Deletion of Data Structure Sentinel)
The accidental deletion of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Addition of Data Structure Sentinel - (464)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 464 (Addition of Data Structure Sentinel)
The accidental addition of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Null Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte) - (626)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 626 (Null Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte))
The product does not properly handle null bytes or NUL characters when passing data between different representations or components.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of HTTP Headers for Scripting Syntax - (644)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 644 (Improper Neutralization of HTTP Headers for Scripting Syntax)
The product does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes web scripting syntax in HTTP headers that can be used by web browser components that can process raw headers, such as Flash.
*PillarPillar - a weakness that is the most abstract type of weakness and represents a theme for all class/base/variant weaknesses related to it. A Pillar is different from a Category as a Pillar is still technically a type of weakness that describes a mistake, while a Category represents a common characteristic used to group related things.Improper Neutralization - (707)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 707 (Improper Neutralization)
The product does not ensure or incorrectly ensures that structured messages or data are well-formed and that certain security properties are met before being read from an upstream component or sent to a downstream component.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Filtering of Special Elements - (790)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 790 (Improper Filtering of Special Elements)
The product receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter or incorrectly filters special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements - (791)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 791 (Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements)
The product receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements - (792)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 792 (Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements)
The product receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter one or more instances of special elements before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Only Filtering One Instance of a Special Element - (793)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 793 (Only Filtering One Instance of a Special Element)
The product receives data from an upstream component, but only filters a single instance of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Filtering of Multiple Instances of Special Elements - (794)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 794 (Incomplete Filtering of Multiple Instances of Special Elements)
The product receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter all instances of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location - (795)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 795 (Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location)
The product receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at a specified location, thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Only Filtering Special Elements Relative to a Marker - (796)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 796 (Only Filtering Special Elements Relative to a Marker)
The product receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements positioned relative to a marker (e.g. "at the beginning/end of a string; the second argument"), thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Only Filtering Special Elements at an Absolute Position - (797)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 797 (Only Filtering Special Elements at an Absolute Position)
The product receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at an absolute position (e.g. "byte number 10"), thereby missing remaining special elements that may exist before sending it to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inappropriate Encoding for Output Context - (838)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1407 (Comprehensive Categorization: Improper Neutralization) > 838 (Inappropriate Encoding for Output Context)
The product uses or specifies an encoding when generating output to a downstream component, but the specified encoding is not the same as the encoding that is expected by the downstream component.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation - (1408)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation)
Weaknesses in this category are related to incorrect calculation.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Wrap-around Error - (128)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 128 (Wrap-around Error)
Wrap around errors occur whenever a value is incremented past the maximum value for its type and therefore "wraps around" to a very small, negative, or undefined value.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length - (135)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 135 (Incorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length)
The product does not correctly calculate the length of strings that can contain wide or multi-byte characters.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Integer Overflow or Wraparound - (190)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 190 (Integer Overflow or Wraparound)
The product performs a calculation that can produce an integer overflow or wraparound, when the logic assumes that the resulting value will always be larger than the original value. This can introduce other weaknesses when the calculation is used for resource management or execution control.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Integer Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound) - (191)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 191 (Integer Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound))
The product subtracts one value from another, such that the result is less than the minimum allowable integer value, which produces a value that is not equal to the correct result.Integer underflow
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Off-by-one Error - (193)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 193 (Off-by-one Error)
A product calculates or uses an incorrect maximum or minimum value that is 1 more, or 1 less, than the correct value.off-by-five
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Divide By Zero - (369)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 369 (Divide By Zero)
The product divides a value by zero.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of sizeof() on a Pointer Type - (467)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 467 (Use of sizeof() on a Pointer Type)
The code calls sizeof() on a malloced pointer type, which always returns the wordsize/8. This can produce an unexpected result if the programmer intended to determine how much memory has been allocated.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Pointer Scaling - (468)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 468 (Incorrect Pointer Scaling)
In C and C++, one may often accidentally refer to the wrong memory due to the semantics of when math operations are implicitly scaled.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Pointer Subtraction to Determine Size - (469)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 469 (Use of Pointer Subtraction to Determine Size)
The product subtracts one pointer from another in order to determine size, but this calculation can be incorrect if the pointers do not exist in the same memory chunk.
*PillarPillar - a weakness that is the most abstract type of weakness and represents a theme for all class/base/variant weaknesses related to it. A Pillar is different from a Category as a Pillar is still technically a type of weakness that describes a mistake, while a Category represents a common characteristic used to group related things.Incorrect Calculation - (682)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 682 (Incorrect Calculation)
The product performs a calculation that generates incorrect or unintended results that are later used in security-critical decisions or resource management.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Bitwise Shift of Integer - (1335)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 1335 (Incorrect Bitwise Shift of Integer)
An integer value is specified to be shifted by a negative amount or an amount greater than or equal to the number of bits contained in the value causing an unexpected or indeterminate result.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Precision or Accuracy of a Real Number - (1339)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1408 (Comprehensive Categorization: Incorrect Calculation) > 1339 (Insufficient Precision or Accuracy of a Real Number)
The product processes a real number with an implementation in which the number's representation does not preserve required accuracy and precision in its fractional part, causing an incorrect result.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Injection - (1409)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection)
Weaknesses in this category are related to injection.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection') - (74)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 74 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection'))
The product constructs all or part of a command, data structure, or record using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify how it is parsed or interpreted when it is sent to a downstream component.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection) - (75)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 75 (Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection))
The product does not adequately filter user-controlled input for special elements with control implications.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements - (76)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 76 (Improper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements)
The product correctly neutralizes certain special elements, but it improperly neutralizes equivalent special elements.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection') - (77)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 77 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection'))
The product constructs all or part of a command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended command when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection') - (78)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 78 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection'))
The product constructs all or part of an OS command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended OS command when it is sent to a downstream component.Shell injectionShell metacharacters
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting') - (79)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 79 (Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting'))
The product does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input before it is placed in output that is used as a web page that is served to other users.XSSHTML InjectionCSS
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Script-Related HTML Tags in a Web Page (Basic XSS) - (80)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 80 (Improper Neutralization of Script-Related HTML Tags in a Web Page (Basic XSS))
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special characters such as "<", ">", and "&" that could be interpreted as web-scripting elements when they are sent to a downstream component that processes web pages.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Script in an Error Message Web Page - (81)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 81 (Improper Neutralization of Script in an Error Message Web Page)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special characters that could be interpreted as web-scripting elements when they are sent to an error page.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes of IMG Tags in a Web Page - (82)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 82 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes of IMG Tags in a Web Page)
The web application does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes scripting elements within attributes of HTML IMG tags, such as the src attribute.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page - (83)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 83 (Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page)
The product does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes "javascript:" or other URIs from dangerous attributes within tags, such as onmouseover, onload, onerror, or style.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Encoded URI Schemes in a Web Page - (84)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 84 (Improper Neutralization of Encoded URI Schemes in a Web Page)
The web application improperly neutralizes user-controlled input for executable script disguised with URI encodings.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Doubled Character XSS Manipulations - (85)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 85 (Doubled Character XSS Manipulations)
The web application does not filter user-controlled input for executable script disguised using doubling of the involved characters.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages - (86)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 86 (Improper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages)
The product does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes invalid characters or byte sequences in the middle of tag names, URI schemes, and other identifiers.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Alternate XSS Syntax - (87)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 87 (Improper Neutralization of Alternate XSS Syntax)
The product does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controlled input for alternate script syntax.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Argument Delimiters in a Command ('Argument Injection') - (88)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 88 (Improper Neutralization of Argument Delimiters in a Command ('Argument Injection'))
The product constructs a string for a command to be executed by a separate component in another control sphere, but it does not properly delimit the intended arguments, options, or switches within that command string.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection') - (89)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 89 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection'))
The product constructs all or part of an SQL command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended SQL command when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection') - (90)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 90 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection'))
The product constructs all or part of an LDAP query using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended LDAP query when it is sent to a downstream component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection) - (91)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 91 (XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection))
The product does not properly neutralize special elements that are used in XML, allowing attackers to modify the syntax, content, or commands of the XML before it is processed by an end system.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection') - (93)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 93 (Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection'))
The product uses CRLF (carriage return line feeds) as a special element, e.g. to separate lines or records, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes CRLF sequences from inputs.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection') - (94)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 94 (Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection'))
The product constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the syntax or behavior of the intended code segment.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection') - (95)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 95 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection'))
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before using the input in a dynamic evaluation call (e.g. "eval").
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection') - (96)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 96 (Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection'))
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable resource, such as a library, configuration file, or template.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page - (97)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 97 (Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page)
The product generates a web page, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input that could be interpreted as a server-side include (SSI) directive.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection') - (99)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 99 (Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection'))
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before it is used as an identifier for a resource that may be outside the intended sphere of control.Insecure Direct Object Reference
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Struts: Duplicate Validation Forms - (102)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 102 (Struts: Duplicate Validation Forms)
The product uses multiple validation forms with the same name, which might cause the Struts Validator to validate a form that the programmer does not expect.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences in HTTP Headers ('HTTP Request/Response Splitting') - (113)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 113 (Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences in HTTP Headers ('HTTP Request/Response Splitting'))
The product receives data from an HTTP agent/component (e.g., web server, proxy, browser, etc.), but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes CR and LF characters before the data is included in outgoing HTTP headers.HTTP Request SplittingHTTP Response Splitting
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.SQL Injection: Hibernate - (564)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 564 (SQL Injection: Hibernate)
Using Hibernate to execute a dynamic SQL statement built with user-controlled input can allow an attacker to modify the statement's meaning or to execute arbitrary SQL commands.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Variable Extraction Error - (621)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 621 (Variable Extraction Error)
The product uses external input to determine the names of variables into which information is extracted, without verifying that the names of the specified variables are valid. This could cause the program to overwrite unintended variables.Variable overwrite
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Executable Regular Expression Error - (624)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 624 (Executable Regular Expression Error)
The product uses a regular expression that either (1) contains an executable component with user-controlled inputs, or (2) allows a user to enable execution by inserting pattern modifiers.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Dynamic Variable Evaluation - (627)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 627 (Dynamic Variable Evaluation)
In a language where the user can influence the name of a variable at runtime, if the variable names are not controlled, an attacker can read or write to arbitrary variables, or access arbitrary functions.Dynamic evaluation
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources - (641)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 641 (Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources)
The product constructs the name of a file or other resource using input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the resulting name.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection') - (643)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 643 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection'))
The product uses external input to dynamically construct an XPath expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection') - (652)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 652 (Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection'))
The product uses external input to dynamically construct an XQuery expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes that input. This allows an attacker to control the structure of the query.
*ChainChain - a Compound Element that is a sequence of two or more separate weaknesses that can be closely linked together within software. One weakness, X, can directly create the conditions that are necessary to cause another weakness, Y, to enter a vulnerable condition. When this happens, CWE refers to X as "primary" to Y, and Y is "resultant" from X. Chains can involve more than two weaknesses, and in some cases, they might have a tree-like structure.Incomplete Denylist to Cross-Site Scripting - (692)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 692 (Incomplete Denylist to Cross-Site Scripting)
The product uses a denylist-based protection mechanism to defend against XSS attacks, but the denylist is incomplete, allowing XSS variants to succeed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier - (694)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 694 (Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier)
The product uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables - (914)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 914 (Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables)
The product does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-identified variables.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection') - (917)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 917 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection'))
The product constructs all or part of an expression language (EL) statement in a framework such as a Java Server Page (JSP) using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could modify the intended EL statement before it is executed.EL Injection
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic - (943)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 943 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic)
The product generates a query intended to access or manipulate data in a data store such as a database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that can modify the intended logic of the query.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Formula Elements in a CSV File - (1236)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 1236 (Improper Neutralization of Formula Elements in a CSV File)
The product saves user-provided information into a Comma-Separated Value (CSV) file, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as a command when the file is opened by a spreadsheet product.CSV InjectionFormula InjectionExcel Macro Injection
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Neutralization of Special Elements Used in a Template Engine - (1336)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1409 (Comprehensive Categorization: Injection) > 1336 (Improper Neutralization of Special Elements Used in a Template Engine)
The product uses a template engine to insert or process externally-influenced input, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements or syntax that can be interpreted as template expressions or other code directives when processed by the engine.Server-Side Template Injection / SSTIClient-Side Template Injection / CSTI
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management - (1410)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management)
Weaknesses in this category are related to insufficient control flow management.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation - (179)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 179 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation)
The product validates input before applying protection mechanisms that modify the input, which could allow an attacker to bypass the validation via dangerous inputs that only arise after the modification.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize - (180)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 180 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize)
The product validates input before it is canonicalized, which prevents the product from detecting data that becomes invalid after the canonicalization step.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter - (181)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 181 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter)
The product validates data before it has been filtered, which prevents the product from detecting data that becomes invalid after the filtering step.Validate-before-cleanse
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Uncaught Exception - (248)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 248 (Uncaught Exception)
An exception is thrown from a function, but it is not caught.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Bad Practices: Use of System.exit() - (382)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 382 (J2EE Bad Practices: Use of System.exit())
A J2EE application uses System.exit(), which also shuts down its container.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference - (395)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 395 (Use of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference)
Catching NullPointerException should not be used as an alternative to programmatic checks to prevent dereferencing a null pointer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception - (396)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 396 (Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception)
Catching overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception - (397)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 397 (Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception)
Throwing overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification - (408)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 408 (Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification)
The product allows an entity to perform a legitimate but expensive operation before authentication or authorization has taken place.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Deployment of Wrong Handler - (430)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 430 (Deployment of Wrong Handler)
The wrong "handler" is assigned to process an object.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Handler - (431)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 431 (Missing Handler)
A handler is not available or implemented.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Non-exit on Failed Initialization - (455)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 455 (Non-exit on Failed Initialization)
The product does not exit or otherwise modify its operation when security-relevant errors occur during initialization, such as when a configuration file has a format error or a hardware security module (HSM) cannot be activated, which can cause the product to execute in a less secure fashion than intended by the administrator.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Incorrect Operator - (480)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 480 (Use of Incorrect Operator)
The product accidentally uses the wrong operator, which changes the logic in security-relevant ways.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Assigning instead of Comparing - (481)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 481 (Assigning instead of Comparing)
The code uses an operator for assignment when the intention was to perform a comparison.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Comparing instead of Assigning - (482)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 482 (Comparing instead of Assigning)
The code uses an operator for comparison when the intention was to perform an assignment.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Block Delimitation - (483)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 483 (Incorrect Block Delimitation)
The code does not explicitly delimit a block that is intended to contain 2 or more statements, creating a logic error.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Return Inside Finally Block - (584)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 584 (Return Inside Finally Block)
The code has a return statement inside a finally block, which will cause any thrown exception in the try block to be discarded.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Uncaught Exception in Servlet - (600)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 600 (Uncaught Exception in Servlet )
The Servlet does not catch all exceptions, which may reveal sensitive debugging information.Missing Catch Block
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reachable Assertion - (617)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 617 (Reachable Assertion)
The product contains an assert() or similar statement that can be triggered by an attacker, which leads to an application exit or other behavior that is more severe than necessary.assertion failure
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation - (670)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 670 (Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation)
The code contains a control flow path that does not reflect the algorithm that the path is intended to implement, leading to incorrect behavior any time this path is navigated.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Uncontrolled Recursion - (674)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 674 (Uncontrolled Recursion)
The product does not properly control the amount of recursion that takes place, consuming excessive resources, such as allocated memory or the program stack.Stack Exhaustion
*PillarPillar - a weakness that is the most abstract type of weakness and represents a theme for all class/base/variant weaknesses related to it. A Pillar is different from a Category as a Pillar is still technically a type of weakness that describes a mistake, while a Category represents a common characteristic used to group related things.Insufficient Control Flow Management - (691)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 691 (Insufficient Control Flow Management)
The code does not sufficiently manage its control flow during execution, creating conditions in which the control flow can be modified in unexpected ways.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Incorrect Behavior Order - (696)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 696 (Incorrect Behavior Order)
The product performs multiple related behaviors, but the behaviors are performed in the wrong order in ways which may produce resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Execution After Redirect (EAR) - (698)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 698 (Execution After Redirect (EAR))
The web application sends a redirect to another location, but instead of exiting, it executes additional code.Redirect Without Exit
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Incorrect Control Flow Scoping - (705)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 705 (Incorrect Control Flow Scoping)
The product does not properly return control flow to the proper location after it has completed a task or detected an unusual condition.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Short Circuit Evaluation - (768)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 768 (Incorrect Short Circuit Evaluation)
The product contains a conditional statement with multiple logical expressions in which one of the non-leading expressions may produce side effects. This may lead to an unexpected state in the program after the execution of the conditional, because short-circuiting logic may prevent the side effects from occurring.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Operator Precedence Logic Error - (783)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 783 (Operator Precedence Logic Error)
The product uses an expression in which operator precedence causes incorrect logic to be used.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Control of Interaction Frequency - (799)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 799 (Improper Control of Interaction Frequency)
The product does not properly limit the number or frequency of interactions that it has with an actor, such as the number of incoming requests.Insufficient anti-automationBrute force
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Excessive Iteration - (834)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 834 (Excessive Iteration)
The product performs an iteration or loop without sufficiently limiting the number of times that the loop is executed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Loop with Unreachable Exit Condition ('Infinite Loop') - (835)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 835 (Loop with Unreachable Exit Condition ('Infinite Loop'))
The product contains an iteration or loop with an exit condition that cannot be reached, i.e., an infinite loop.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action - (837)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 837 (Improper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action)
The product requires that an actor should only be able to perform an action once, or to have only one unique action, but the product does not enforce or improperly enforces this restriction.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow - (841)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 841 (Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow)
The product supports a session in which more than one behavior must be performed by an actor, but it does not properly ensure that the actor performs the behaviors in the required sequence.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.DMA Device Enabled Too Early in Boot Phase - (1190)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 1190 (DMA Device Enabled Too Early in Boot Phase)
The product enables a Direct Memory Access (DMA) capable device before the security configuration settings are established, which allows an attacker to extract data from or gain privileges on the product.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Power-On of Untrusted Execution Core Before Enabling Fabric Access Control - (1193)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 1193 (Power-On of Untrusted Execution Core Before Enabling Fabric Access Control)
The product enables components that contain untrusted firmware before memory and fabric access controls have been enabled.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unintended Reentrant Invocation of Non-reentrant Code Via Nested Calls - (1265)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 1265 (Unintended Reentrant Invocation of Non-reentrant Code Via Nested Calls)
During execution of non-reentrant code, the product performs a call that unintentionally produces a nested invocation of the non-reentrant code.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Access Control Check Implemented After Asset is Accessed - (1280)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 1280 (Access Control Check Implemented After Asset is Accessed)
A product's hardware-based access control check occurs after the asset has been accessed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Sequence of Processor Instructions Leads to Unexpected Behavior - (1281)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 1281 (Sequence of Processor Instructions Leads to Unexpected Behavior)
Specific combinations of processor instructions lead to undesirable behavior such as locking the processor until a hard reset performed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Blocking Code in Single-threaded, Non-blocking Context - (1322)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1410 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Control Flow Management) > 1322 (Use of Blocking Code in Single-threaded, Non-blocking Context)
The product uses a non-blocking model that relies on a single threaded process for features such as scalability, but it contains code that can block when it is invoked.
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity - (1411)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity)
Weaknesses in this category are related to insufficient verification of data authenticity.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity - (345)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 345 (Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity)
The product does not sufficiently verify the origin or authenticity of data, in a way that causes it to accept invalid data.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Origin Validation Error - (346)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 346 (Origin Validation Error)
The product does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Less Trusted Source - (348)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 348 (Use of Less Trusted Source)
The product has two different sources of the same data or information, but it uses the source that has less support for verification, is less trusted, or is less resistant to attack.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Acceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data - (349)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 349 (Acceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data)
The product, when processing trusted data, accepts any untrusted data that is also included with the trusted data, treating the untrusted data as if it were trusted.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Type Distinction - (351)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 351 (Insufficient Type Distinction)
The product does not properly distinguish between different types of elements in a way that leads to insecure behavior.
*CompositeComposite - a Compound Element that consists of two or more distinct weaknesses, in which all weaknesses must be present at the same time in order for a potential vulnerability to arise. Removing any of the weaknesses eliminates or sharply reduces the risk. One weakness, X, can be "broken down" into component weaknesses Y and Z. There can be cases in which one weakness might not be essential to a composite, but changes the nature of the composite when it becomes a vulnerability.Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) - (352)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 352 (Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF))
The web application does not, or can not, sufficiently verify whether a well-formed, valid, consistent request was intentionally provided by the user who submitted the request.Session RidingCross Site Reference ForgeryXSRF
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Support for Integrity Check - (353)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 353 (Missing Support for Integrity Check)
The product uses a transmission protocol that does not include a mechanism for verifying the integrity of the data during transmission, such as a checksum.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value - (354)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 354 (Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value)
The product does not validate or incorrectly validates the integrity check values or "checksums" of a message. This may prevent it from detecting if the data has been modified or corrupted in transmission.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Trust of System Event Data - (360)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 360 (Trust of System Event Data)
Security based on event locations are insecure and can be spoofed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Download of Code Without Integrity Check - (494)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 494 (Download of Code Without Integrity Check)
The product downloads source code or an executable from a remote location and executes the code without sufficiently verifying the origin and integrity of the code.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incomplete Identification of Uploaded File Variables (PHP) - (616)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 616 (Incomplete Identification of Uploaded File Variables (PHP))
The PHP application uses an old method for processing uploaded files by referencing the four global variables that are set for each file (e.g. $varname, $varname_size, $varname_name, $varname_type). These variables could be overwritten by attackers, causing the application to process unauthorized files.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on File Name or Extension of Externally-Supplied File - (646)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 646 (Reliance on File Name or Extension of Externally-Supplied File)
The product allows a file to be uploaded, but it relies on the file name or extension of the file to determine the appropriate behaviors. This could be used by attackers to cause the file to be misclassified and processed in a dangerous fashion.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking - (649)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 649 (Reliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking)
The product uses obfuscation or encryption of inputs that should not be mutable by an external actor, but the product does not use integrity checks to detect if those inputs have been modified.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel - (924)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 924 (Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel)
The product establishes a communication channel with an endpoint and receives a message from that endpoint, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the message was not modified during transmission.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Source Correlation of Multiple Independent Data - (1293)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 1293 (Missing Source Correlation of Multiple Independent Data)
The product relies on one source of data, preventing the ability to detect if an adversary has compromised a data source.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Origin Validation in WebSockets - (1385)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1411 (Comprehensive Categorization: Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity) > 1385 (Missing Origin Validation in WebSockets)
The product uses a WebSocket, but it does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.Cross-Site WebSocket hijacking (CSWSH)
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety - (1399)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety)
Weaknesses in this category are related to memory safety.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer - (119)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 119 (Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer)
The product performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.Buffer Overflowbuffer overrunmemory safety
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow') - (120)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 120 (Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow'))
The product copies an input buffer to an output buffer without verifying that the size of the input buffer is less than the size of the output buffer, leading to a buffer overflow.Classic Buffer OverflowUnbounded Transfer
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Stack-based Buffer Overflow - (121)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 121 (Stack-based Buffer Overflow)
A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter to a function).Stack Overflow
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Heap-based Buffer Overflow - (122)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 122 (Heap-based Buffer Overflow)
A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer was allocated using a routine such as malloc().
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Write-what-where Condition - (123)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 123 (Write-what-where Condition)
Any condition where the attacker has the ability to write an arbitrary value to an arbitrary location, often as the result of a buffer overflow.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow') - (124)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 124 (Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow'))
The product writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.buffer underrun
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Out-of-bounds Read - (125)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 125 (Out-of-bounds Read)
The product reads data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Buffer Over-read - (126)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 126 (Buffer Over-read)
The product reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Buffer Under-read - (127)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 127 (Buffer Under-read)
The product reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Validation of Array Index - (129)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 129 (Improper Validation of Array Index)
The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index references a valid position within the array.out-of-bounds array indexindex-out-of-rangearray index underflow
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size - (131)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 131 (Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size)
The product does not correctly calculate the size to be used when allocating a buffer, which could lead to a buffer overflow.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Externally-Controlled Format String - (134)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 134 (Use of Externally-Controlled Format String)
The product uses a function that accepts a format string as an argument, but the format string originates from an external source.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Reliance on Data/Memory Layout - (188)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 188 (Reliance on Data/Memory Layout)
The product makes invalid assumptions about how protocol data or memory is organized at a lower level, resulting in unintended program behavior.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering - (198)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 198 (Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering)
The product receives input from an upstream component, but it does not account for byte ordering (e.g. big-endian and little-endian) when processing the input, causing an incorrect number or value to be used.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection') - (244)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 244 (Improper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection'))
Using realloc() to resize buffers that store sensitive information can leave the sensitive information exposed to attack, because it is not removed from memory.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Release of Memory after Effective Lifetime - (401)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 401 (Missing Release of Memory after Effective Lifetime)
The product does not sufficiently track and release allocated memory after it has been used, which slowly consumes remaining memory.Memory Leak
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Double Free - (415)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 415 (Double Free)
The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.Double-free
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use After Free - (416)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 416 (Use After Free)
Referencing memory after it has been freed can cause a program to crash, use unexpected values, or execute code.Dangling pointerUse-After-Free
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Return of Pointer Value Outside of Expected Range - (466)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 466 (Return of Pointer Value Outside of Expected Range)
A function can return a pointer to memory that is outside of the buffer that the pointer is expected to reference.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Return of Stack Variable Address - (562)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 562 (Return of Stack Variable Address)
A function returns the address of a stack variable, which will cause unintended program behavior, typically in the form of a crash.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Assignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer - (587)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 587 (Assignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer)
The product sets a pointer to a specific address other than NULL or 0.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Free of Memory not on the Heap - (590)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 590 (Free of Memory not on the Heap)
The product calls free() on a pointer to memory that was not allocated using associated heap allocation functions such as malloc(), calloc(), or realloc().
*ChainChain - a Compound Element that is a sequence of two or more separate weaknesses that can be closely linked together within software. One weakness, X, can directly create the conditions that are necessary to cause another weakness, Y, to enter a vulnerable condition. When this happens, CWE refers to X as "primary" to Y, and Y is "resultant" from X. Chains can involve more than two weaknesses, and in some cases, they might have a tree-like structure.Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow - (680)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 680 (Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow)
The product performs a calculation to determine how much memory to allocate, but an integer overflow can occur that causes less memory to be allocated than expected, leading to a buffer overflow.
*ChainChain - a Compound Element that is a sequence of two or more separate weaknesses that can be closely linked together within software. One weakness, X, can directly create the conditions that are necessary to cause another weakness, Y, to enter a vulnerable condition. When this happens, CWE refers to X as "primary" to Y, and Y is "resultant" from X. Chains can involve more than two weaknesses, and in some cases, they might have a tree-like structure.Unchecked Return Value to NULL Pointer Dereference - (690)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 690 (Unchecked Return Value to NULL Pointer Dereference)
The product does not check for an error after calling a function that can return with a NULL pointer if the function fails, which leads to a resultant NULL pointer dereference.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Free of Pointer not at Start of Buffer - (761)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 761 (Free of Pointer not at Start of Buffer)
The product calls free() on a pointer to a memory resource that was allocated on the heap, but the pointer is not at the start of the buffer.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Mismatched Memory Management Routines - (762)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 762 (Mismatched Memory Management Routines)
The product attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but it calls a release function that is not compatible with the function that was originally used to allocate that resource.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference - (763)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 763 (Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference)
The product attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but it calls the wrong release function or calls the appropriate release function incorrectly.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer - (786)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 786 (Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer)
The product reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Out-of-bounds Write - (787)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 787 (Out-of-bounds Write)
The product writes data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.Memory Corruption
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer - (788)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 788 (Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer)
The product reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location after the end of the buffer.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Memory Allocation with Excessive Size Value - (789)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 789 (Memory Allocation with Excessive Size Value)
The product allocates memory based on an untrusted, large size value, but it does not ensure that the size is within expected limits, allowing arbitrary amounts of memory to be allocated.Stack Exhaustion
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value - (805)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 805 (Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value)
The product uses a sequential operation to read or write a buffer, but it uses an incorrect length value that causes it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Buffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer - (806)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 806 (Buffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer)
The product uses the size of a source buffer when reading from or writing to a destination buffer, which may cause it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Untrusted Pointer Dereference - (822)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 822 (Untrusted Pointer Dereference)
The product obtains a value from an untrusted source, converts this value to a pointer, and dereferences the resulting pointer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Out-of-range Pointer Offset - (823)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 823 (Use of Out-of-range Pointer Offset)
The product performs pointer arithmetic on a valid pointer, but it uses an offset that can point outside of the intended range of valid memory locations for the resulting pointer.Untrusted pointer offset
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Access of Uninitialized Pointer - (824)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 824 (Access of Uninitialized Pointer)
The product accesses or uses a pointer that has not been initialized.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Expired Pointer Dereference - (825)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1399 (Comprehensive Categorization: Memory Safety) > 825 (Expired Pointer Dereference)
The product dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.Dangling pointer
+CategoryCategory - a CWE entry that contains a set of other entries that share a common characteristic.Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices - (1412)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices)
Weaknesses in this category are related to poor coding practices.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Creating Debug Binary - (11)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 11 (ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Creating Debug Binary)
Debugging messages help attackers learn about the system and plan a form of attack.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Struts: Incomplete validate() Method Definition - (103)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 103 (Struts: Incomplete validate() Method Definition)
The product has a validator form that either does not define a validate() method, or defines a validate() method but does not call super.validate().
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Struts: Form Bean Does Not Extend Validation Class - (104)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 104 (Struts: Form Bean Does Not Extend Validation Class)
If a form bean does not extend an ActionForm subclass of the Validator framework, it can expose the application to other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Struts: Unused Validation Form - (107)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 107 (Struts: Unused Validation Form)
An unused validation form indicates that validation logic is not up-to-date.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Struts: Validator Without Form Field - (110)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 110 (Struts: Validator Without Form Field)
Validation fields that do not appear in forms they are associated with indicate that the validation logic is out of date.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Direct Use of Unsafe JNI - (111)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 111 (Direct Use of Unsafe JNI)
When a Java application uses the Java Native Interface (JNI) to call code written in another programming language, it can expose the application to weaknesses in that code, even if those weaknesses cannot occur in Java.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Inherently Dangerous Function - (242)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 242 (Use of Inherently Dangerous Function)
The product calls a function that can never be guaranteed to work safely.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Management of Connections - (245)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 245 (J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Management of Connections)
The J2EE application directly manages connections, instead of using the container's connection management facilities.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Sockets - (246)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 246 (J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Sockets)
The J2EE application directly uses sockets instead of using framework method calls.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Incorrect Check of Function Return Value - (253)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 253 (Incorrect Check of Function Return Value)
The product incorrectly checks a return value from a function, which prevents it from detecting errors or exceptional conditions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Improperly Implemented Security Check for Standard - (358)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 358 (Improperly Implemented Security Check for Standard)
The product does not implement or incorrectly implements one or more security-relevant checks as specified by the design of a standardized algorithm, protocol, or technique.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Threads - (383)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 383 (J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Threads)
Thread management in a Web application is forbidden in some circumstances and is always highly error prone.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Report of Error Condition - (392)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 392 (Missing Report of Error Condition)
The product encounters an error but does not provide a status code or return value to indicate that an error has occurred.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Return of Wrong Status Code - (393)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 393 (Return of Wrong Status Code)
A function or operation returns an incorrect return value or status code that does not indicate an error, but causes the product to modify its behavior based on the incorrect result.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Expected Behavior Violation - (440)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 440 (Expected Behavior Violation)
A feature, API, or function does not perform according to its specification.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.UI Discrepancy for Security Feature - (446)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 446 (UI Discrepancy for Security Feature)
The user interface does not correctly enable or configure a security feature, but the interface provides feedback that causes the user to believe that the feature is in a secure state.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Obsolete Feature in UI - (448)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 448 (Obsolete Feature in UI)
A UI function is obsolete and the product does not warn the user.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.The UI Performs the Wrong Action - (449)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 449 (The UI Performs the Wrong Action)
The UI performs the wrong action with respect to the user's request.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information - (451)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 451 (User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information)
The user interface (UI) does not properly represent critical information to the user, allowing the information - or its source - to be obscured or spoofed. This is often a component in phishing attacks.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Duplicate Key in Associative List (Alist) - (462)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 462 (Duplicate Key in Associative List (Alist))
Duplicate keys in associative lists can lead to non-unique keys being mistaken for an error.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Function with Inconsistent Implementations - (474)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 474 (Use of Function with Inconsistent Implementations)
The code uses a function that has inconsistent implementations across operating systems and versions.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Undefined Behavior for Input to API - (475)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 475 (Undefined Behavior for Input to API)
The behavior of this function is undefined unless its control parameter is set to a specific value.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.NULL Pointer Dereference - (476)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 476 (NULL Pointer Dereference)
A NULL pointer dereference occurs when the application dereferences a pointer that it expects to be valid, but is NULL, typically causing a crash or exit.NPDnull derefnil pointer dereference
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Obsolete Function - (477)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 477 (Use of Obsolete Function)
The code uses deprecated or obsolete functions, which suggests that the code has not been actively reviewed or maintained.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Omitted Break Statement in Switch - (484)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 484 (Omitted Break Statement in Switch)
The product omits a break statement within a switch or similar construct, causing code associated with multiple conditions to execute. This can cause problems when the programmer only intended to execute code associated with one condition.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Active Debug Code - (489)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 489 (Active Debug Code)
The product is deployed to unauthorized actors with debugging code still enabled or active, which can create unintended entry points or expose sensitive information.Leftover debug code
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Embedded Malicious Code - (506)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 506 (Embedded Malicious Code)
The product contains code that appears to be malicious in nature.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Trojan Horse - (507)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 507 (Trojan Horse)
The product appears to contain benign or useful functionality, but it also contains code that is hidden from normal operation that violates the intended security policy of the user or the system administrator.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Non-Replicating Malicious Code - (508)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 508 (Non-Replicating Malicious Code)
Non-replicating malicious code only resides on the target system or product that is attacked; it does not attempt to spread to other systems.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Replicating Malicious Code (Virus or Worm) - (509)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 509 (Replicating Malicious Code (Virus or Worm))
Replicating malicious code, including viruses and worms, will attempt to attack other systems once it has successfully compromised the target system or the product.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Trapdoor - (510)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 510 (Trapdoor)
A trapdoor is a hidden piece of code that responds to a special input, allowing its user access to resources without passing through the normal security enforcement mechanism.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Logic/Time Bomb - (511)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 511 (Logic/Time Bomb)
The product contains code that is designed to disrupt the legitimate operation of the product (or its environment) when a certain time passes, or when a certain logical condition is met.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Spyware - (512)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 512 (Spyware)
The product collects personally identifiable information about a human user or the user's activities, but the product accesses this information using other resources besides itself, and it does not require that user's explicit approval or direct input into the product.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Suspicious Comment - (546)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 546 (Suspicious Comment)
The code contains comments that suggest the presence of bugs, incomplete functionality, or weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Hard-coded, Security-relevant Constants - (547)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 547 (Use of Hard-coded, Security-relevant Constants)
The product uses hard-coded constants instead of symbolic names for security-critical values, which increases the likelihood of mistakes during code maintenance or security policy change.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of umask() with chmod-style Argument - (560)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 560 (Use of umask() with chmod-style Argument)
The product calls umask() with an incorrect argument that is specified as if it is an argument to chmod().
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Dead Code - (561)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 561 (Dead Code)
The product contains dead code, which can never be executed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Assignment to Variable without Use - (563)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 563 (Assignment to Variable without Use)
The variable's value is assigned but never used, making it a dead store.Unused Variable
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Expression is Always False - (570)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 570 (Expression is Always False)
The product contains an expression that will always evaluate to false.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Expression is Always True - (571)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 571 (Expression is Always True)
The product contains an expression that will always evaluate to true.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Improper Following of Specification by Caller - (573)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 573 (Improper Following of Specification by Caller)
The product does not follow or incorrectly follows the specifications as required by the implementation language, environment, framework, protocol, or platform.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.EJB Bad Practices: Use of AWT Swing - (575)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 575 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of AWT Swing)
The product violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using AWT/Swing.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.EJB Bad Practices: Use of Java I/O - (576)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 576 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Java I/O)
The product violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using the java.io package.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.EJB Bad Practices: Use of Sockets - (577)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 577 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Sockets)
The product violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using sockets.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.EJB Bad Practices: Use of Class Loader - (578)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 578 (EJB Bad Practices: Use of Class Loader)
The product violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using the class loader.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Bad Practices: Non-serializable Object Stored in Session - (579)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 579 (J2EE Bad Practices: Non-serializable Object Stored in Session)
The product stores a non-serializable object as an HttpSession attribute, which can hurt reliability.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Object Model Violation: Just One of Equals and Hashcode Defined - (581)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 581 (Object Model Violation: Just One of Equals and Hashcode Defined)
The product does not maintain equal hashcodes for equal objects.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Empty Synchronized Block - (585)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 585 (Empty Synchronized Block)
The product contains an empty synchronized block.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Explicit Call to Finalize() - (586)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 586 (Explicit Call to Finalize())
The product makes an explicit call to the finalize() method from outside the finalizer.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Call to Non-ubiquitous API - (589)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 589 (Call to Non-ubiquitous API)
The product uses an API function that does not exist on all versions of the target platform. This could cause portability problems or inconsistencies that allow denial of service or other consequences.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.J2EE Framework: Saving Unserializable Objects to Disk - (594)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 594 (J2EE Framework: Saving Unserializable Objects to Disk)
When the J2EE container attempts to write unserializable objects to disk there is no guarantee that the process will complete successfully.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Multiple Binds to the Same Port - (605)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 605 (Multiple Binds to the Same Port)
When multiple sockets are allowed to bind to the same port, other services on that port may be stolen or spoofed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments - (628)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 628 (Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments)
The product calls a function, procedure, or routine with arguments that are not correctly specified, leading to always-incorrect behavior and resultant weaknesses.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Multiple Operations on Resource in Single-Operation Context - (675)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 675 (Multiple Operations on Resource in Single-Operation Context)
The product performs the same operation on a resource two or more times, when the operation should only be applied once.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Potentially Dangerous Function - (676)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 676 (Use of Potentially Dangerous Function)
The product invokes a potentially dangerous function that could introduce a vulnerability if it is used incorrectly, but the function can also be used safely.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Function Call With Incorrect Order of Arguments - (683)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 683 (Function Call With Incorrect Order of Arguments)
The product calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies the arguments in an incorrect order, leading to resultant weaknesses.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality - (684)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 684 (Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality)
The code does not function according to its published specifications, potentially leading to incorrect usage.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Function Call With Incorrect Number of Arguments - (685)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 685 (Function Call With Incorrect Number of Arguments)
The product calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies too many arguments, or too few arguments, which may lead to undefined behavior and resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Function Call With Incorrect Argument Type - (686)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 686 (Function Call With Incorrect Argument Type)
The product calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies an argument that is the wrong data type, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Function Call With Incorrectly Specified Argument Value - (687)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 687 (Function Call With Incorrectly Specified Argument Value)
The product calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies an argument that contains the wrong value, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Function Call With Incorrect Variable or Reference as Argument - (688)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 688 (Function Call With Incorrect Variable or Reference as Argument)
The product calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies the wrong variable or reference as one of the arguments, which may lead to undefined behavior and resultant weaknesses.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Low-Level Functionality - (695)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 695 (Use of Low-Level Functionality)
The product uses low-level functionality that is explicitly prohibited by the framework or specification under which the product is supposed to operate.
*PillarPillar - a weakness that is the most abstract type of weakness and represents a theme for all class/base/variant weaknesses related to it. A Pillar is different from a Category as a Pillar is still technically a type of weakness that describes a mistake, while a Category represents a common characteristic used to group related things.Improper Adherence to Coding Standards - (710)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 710 (Improper Adherence to Coding Standards)
The product does not follow certain coding rules for development, which can lead to resultant weaknesses or increase the severity of the associated vulnerabilities.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Reliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior - (758)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 758 (Reliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior)
The product uses an API function, data structure, or other entity in a way that relies on properties that are not always guaranteed to hold for that entity.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Critical Data Element Declared Public - (766)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 766 (Critical Data Element Declared Public)
The product declares a critical variable, field, or member to be public when intended security policy requires it to be private.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer - (785)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 785 (Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer)
The product invokes a function for normalizing paths or file names, but it provides an output buffer that is smaller than the maximum possible size, such as PATH_MAX.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Hidden Functionality - (912)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 912 (Hidden Functionality)
The product contains functionality that is not documented, not part of the specification, and not accessible through an interface or command sequence that is obvious to the product's users or administrators.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Insufficient Visual Distinction of Homoglyphs Presented to User - (1007)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1007 (Insufficient Visual Distinction of Homoglyphs Presented to User)
The product displays information or identifiers to a user, but the display mechanism does not make it easy for the user to distinguish between visually similar or identical glyphs (homoglyphs), which may cause the user to misinterpret a glyph and perform an unintended, insecure action.Homograph Attack
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Use of Redundant Code - (1041)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1041 (Use of Redundant Code)
The product has multiple functions, methods, procedures, macros, etc. that contain the same code.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Data Element Aggregating an Excessively Large Number of Non-Primitive Elements - (1043)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1043 (Data Element Aggregating an Excessively Large Number of Non-Primitive Elements)
The product uses a data element that has an excessively large number of sub-elements with non-primitive data types such as structures or aggregated objects.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Architecture with Number of Horizontal Layers Outside of Expected Range - (1044)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1044 (Architecture with Number of Horizontal Layers Outside of Expected Range)
The product's architecture contains too many - or too few - horizontal layers.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Parent Class with a Virtual Destructor and a Child Class without a Virtual Destructor - (1045)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1045 (Parent Class with a Virtual Destructor and a Child Class without a Virtual Destructor)
A parent class has a virtual destructor method, but the parent has a child class that does not have a virtual destructor.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Modules with Circular Dependencies - (1047)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1047 (Modules with Circular Dependencies)
The product contains modules in which one module has references that cycle back to itself, i.e., there are circular dependencies.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element with Large Number of Outward Calls - (1048)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1048 (Invokable Control Element with Large Number of Outward Calls)
The code contains callable control elements that contain an excessively large number of references to other application objects external to the context of the callable, i.e. a Fan-Out value that is excessively large.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Documentation for Design - (1053)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1053 (Missing Documentation for Design)
The product does not have documentation that represents how it is designed.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invocation of a Control Element at an Unnecessarily Deep Horizontal Layer - (1054)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1054 (Invocation of a Control Element at an Unnecessarily Deep Horizontal Layer)
The code at one architectural layer invokes code that resides at a deeper layer than the adjacent layer, i.e., the invocation skips at least one layer, and the invoked code is not part of a vertical utility layer that can be referenced from any horizontal layer.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Multiple Inheritance from Concrete Classes - (1055)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1055 (Multiple Inheritance from Concrete Classes)
The product contains a class with inheritance from more than one concrete class.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element with Variadic Parameters - (1056)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1056 (Invokable Control Element with Variadic Parameters)
A named-callable or method control element has a signature that supports a variable (variadic) number of parameters or arguments.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Data Access Operations Outside of Expected Data Manager Component - (1057)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1057 (Data Access Operations Outside of Expected Data Manager Component)
The product uses a dedicated, central data manager component as required by design, but it contains code that performs data-access operations that do not use this data manager.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Insufficient Technical Documentation - (1059)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1059 (Insufficient Technical Documentation)
The product does not contain sufficient technical or engineering documentation (whether on paper or in electronic form) that contains descriptions of all the relevant software/hardware elements of the product, such as its usage, structure, architectural components, interfaces, design, implementation, configuration, operation, etc.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Excessive Number of Inefficient Server-Side Data Accesses - (1060)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1060 (Excessive Number of Inefficient Server-Side Data Accesses)
The product performs too many data queries without using efficient data processing functionality such as stored procedures.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Insufficient Encapsulation - (1061)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1061 (Insufficient Encapsulation)
The product does not sufficiently hide the internal representation and implementation details of data or methods, which might allow external components or modules to modify data unexpectedly, invoke unexpected functionality, or introduce dependencies that the programmer did not intend.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Parent Class with References to Child Class - (1062)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1062 (Parent Class with References to Child Class)
The code has a parent class that contains references to a child class, its methods, or its members.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element with Signature Containing an Excessive Number of Parameters - (1064)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1064 (Invokable Control Element with Signature Containing an Excessive Number of Parameters)
The product contains a function, subroutine, or method whose signature has an unnecessarily large number of parameters/arguments.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Runtime Resource Management Control Element in a Component Built to Run on Application Servers - (1065)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1065 (Runtime Resource Management Control Element in a Component Built to Run on Application Servers)
The product uses deployed components from application servers, but it also uses low-level functions/methods for management of resources, instead of the API provided by the application server.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Missing Serialization Control Element - (1066)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1066 (Missing Serialization Control Element)
The product contains a serializable data element that does not have an associated serialization method.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Inconsistency Between Implementation and Documented Design - (1068)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1068 (Inconsistency Between Implementation and Documented Design)
The implementation of the product is not consistent with the design as described within the relevant documentation.
*VariantVariant - a weakness that is linked to a certain type of product, typically involving a specific language or technology. More specific than a Base weakness. Variant level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 3 to 5 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Empty Exception Block - (1069)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1069 (Empty Exception Block)
An invokable code block contains an exception handling block that does not contain any code, i.e. is empty.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Serializable Data Element Containing non-Serializable Item Elements - (1070)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1070 (Serializable Data Element Containing non-Serializable Item Elements)
The product contains a serializable, storable data element such as a field or member, but the data element contains member elements that are not serializable.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Empty Code Block - (1071)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1071 (Empty Code Block)
The source code contains a block that does not contain any code, i.e., the block is empty.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Class with Excessively Deep Inheritance - (1074)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1074 (Class with Excessively Deep Inheritance)
A class has an inheritance level that is too high, i.e., it has a large number of parent classes.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Unconditional Control Flow Transfer outside of Switch Block - (1075)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1075 (Unconditional Control Flow Transfer outside of Switch Block)
The product performs unconditional control transfer (such as a "goto") in code outside of a branching structure such as a switch block.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Insufficient Adherence to Expected Conventions - (1076)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1076 (Insufficient Adherence to Expected Conventions)
The product's architecture, source code, design, documentation, or other artifact does not follow required conventions.
*ClassClass - a weakness that is described in a very abstract fashion, typically independent of any specific language or technology. More specific than a Pillar Weakness, but more general than a Base Weakness. Class level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 1 or 2 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, and resource.Inappropriate Source Code Style or Formatting - (1078)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1078 (Inappropriate Source Code Style or Formatting)
The source code does not follow desired style or formatting for indentation, white space, comments, etc.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Parent Class without Virtual Destructor Method - (1079)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1079 (Parent Class without Virtual Destructor Method)
A parent class contains one or more child classes, but the parent class does not have a virtual destructor method.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Source Code File with Excessive Number of Lines of Code - (1080)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1080 (Source Code File with Excessive Number of Lines of Code)
A source code file has too many lines of code.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Class Instance Self Destruction Control Element - (1082)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1082 (Class Instance Self Destruction Control Element)
The code contains a class instance that calls the method or function to delete or destroy itself.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Data Access from Outside Expected Data Manager Component - (1083)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1083 (Data Access from Outside Expected Data Manager Component)
The product is intended to manage data access through a particular data manager component such as a relational or non-SQL database, but it contains code that performs data access operations without using that component.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Invokable Control Element with Excessive Volume of Commented-out Code - (1085)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1085 (Invokable Control Element with Excessive Volume of Commented-out Code)
A function, method, procedure, etc. contains an excessive amount of code that has been commented out within its body.
*BaseBase - a weakness that is still mostly independent of a resource or technology, but with sufficient details to provide specific methods for detection and prevention. Base level weaknesses typically describe issues in terms of 2 or 3 of the following dimensions: behavior, property, technology, language, and resource.Class with Excessive Number of Child Classes - (1086)
1400 (Comprehensive Categorization for Software Assurance Trends) > 1412 (Comprehensive Categorization: Poor Coding Practices) > 1086 (Class with Excessive Number of Child Classes)
A class contains an unnecessarily large number of children.
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